Skip to main content

Full text of "Coleoptera: Lamellicornia"

See other formats


n^ ;:.-vvi:;- V , 


•'v 




^ "^f 




" -^ 


;'■; ' - ■i'-: ■ '«" • 


■ 1 







■*r' 



.!<■ 












.*^.: 



H:-v.-..>;i<^'-5.,i:t'>P.-v..r'. "^ . 



r?*::??^:.-.^- 



i::^^;'^> 


■ti''-'- 




:?^%- 


Ife 





f^.^K ■ 






Ql 



THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA, 



INCLUDING 



CEYLON AND BUEMA. 

Published under the authority of the Secretary of- 
State for India in Council. 

EDITED BY A. E. SHIPLEY, M.A., HON. D.Sc, F.R.S. 
ASSISTED BT GUY A. K. MARSHALL, P.Z.S., F.E.S. 



COLEOPTER A 

LAMELLICORNIA. 

(CETONIIN^ AND DYNASTIN.^) 

BY 

G. J. ARROAV. 



OCT 2 1 1987 



LONDON: 
TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREE'J\ 

CALCUTTA: | BOMBAY: 

THACKEE, SPINK & CO. | THACKER & CO., LIMITED. 

BERLIN : 
R. FRIEDLANDBR & SOHN, 11 CARLSTRA8SE 

Juhj, 1910. 



A.LERE ^FLAM-NUM 




FKINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, 
RED HON COl'HT, FLEET STRKET. 








CONTENTS. 



Page 

Editor's Preface ^ 

Author's Prefack "^'^^ 

Glossary *^ 

Systematic Index ^^ 

Introduction 

General 

Structure 

Larvfe 

Vocal Organs ' |; 

Sexual Dimorphism 1'-* 

Food and Habits ^^ 

21 
Classification 

Table of Families 

Scarabcfidce 

Table of Subfamilies ^^ 

24 
Cetonnnce 

Dynastince 

Table op Divisions 

(Jetomini 

Cetoniina 

1 QS 
Vremastodiihno ^"^ 

'>■)•) 
Valgim 

• • • '^49 

Trichiini ~ " 

T ^ 3Io 

Index 

Explanation of Plates. 



EDITOR'S rREFACE. 



The Cetoniin^ and the DynastinjE are two of the smaller 
Sub-families into which the large Family of Scarab^id^ is 
usually divided. 

The Cetoniin^e are in the main an Old-World Group, 
comparatively few species being found in the New World : 
this is especially true of South America. They are well 
known for the brilliancy of their coloration and for the 
beauty of their form. The Rose- Chafers of Great Britain 
are familiar examples of this Sub-family. 

There is, however, no representative of the Dynastin^ in 
Great Britain, and hardly a dozen species in Europe. They 
are, as this volume shows, distinguished by the possession 
of horns and projections on the head and prothorax, the 
use of which is still a matter of speculation rather than of 
observation. 

In this volume Mr. Arrow deals with perhaps less than one- 
sixth of the great " Series " of Lamellicornia — Beetles 
which are economically important, many of them doing 
great damage to all sorts of crops, both above and below 
ground. They further present many unsolved biological 
problems associated with the exceptional exuberance of their 
colour, pattern, armature, etc. It is greatly to be desired 
that the Author should be able to continue his most efficient 
work on other Families and Sub-families of this " Series." 



Vi EDITOR S PREFACE. 

In issuing this volume, I have again to express my grati- 
tude to Mr. Guy Marshall, who has helped in every possible 
way in the preparation of the manuscript for the press, and 
I am happy, with the approval of the Secretary of State for 
India in Council, to add his name to the title-page. 

I wish also to thank Mr. Arrow for the gi-eat care which 
he has taken in the preparation of his manuscript for the 
press, care which has materially lightened the labour of the 
Editors, 

A. E. SHIPLEY. 

June 1910. 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE. 



In issuing tins first volume upon the Lamellicorn beetles of 
India it is a pleasure to acknowledge my great indebtedness 
to the many iustitutions and individuals who have given 
generous assistance by allowing the use of types and other 
specimens, without which the work would have had little 
value. Type specimens have been lent to me by the 
Museums of Paris, Berlin (National Entomological Museum), 
Vienna, Copenhagen, Stockholm, Ziirich, Oxford, and 
Calcutta, and for these my thanks are due to M. Pierre 
Lesne, Herr Sigmund Schenkling, Dr. Ludwig Ganglbauer, 
Dr. Adam Boving, Prof. Yngve Sjostedt, Herr Hans 
Wagner, Prof. E. B. Poulton, and Dr. Nelson Annandale. 

I must also render grateful thanks to Mr, O. E. Janson 
for the loan of many types from his splendid collection and 
for affording me the advantage of his special knowledge of the 
Cetoniinae ; to M. Rene Oberthiir for putting at my disposal 
the resources of his museum ; to Herr Sternberg, who has 
generously presented to me for the British Museum the types 
of Indian Dynastinse in his collection ; and to Capt. Moser 
for kindly sending me for examination types in his possession. 
Mr. H. E. Andre wes has given invaluable assistance both 
from his own collection and by his unflagging efforts to 
stimulate field-work in India ; and Messrs. H. L. Andrewes, 
H. Maxwell Lefroy, E. E. Green, and Capt. A. H. Weld 
Downing have made important contributions of specimens 



VIU AUTHOR S PREFACE. 

and observations. I cannot refrain from acknowledging, 
in addition, my indebtedness to Mr. Guy A. K. Marshall, 
whose most careful revision has led to the detection of 
various errors and omissions which would otherwise have 
passed unnoticed, and whose constant helpfulness and careful 
attention to the final stages of the work have contributed 
considerably to the appearance and completeness of the 
volume. 

In conclusion it may perhaps be pointed out that in this 
and every other branch of Entomology the field open to 
work(Ts in any and every part of the Indian region is still 
enormous. An effort has been made to include in this 
volume all that is at present known upon the subject of the 
Indian insects with which it deals (it is hoped with approxi- 
mate success), and something will have been accomplished if 
it serves only to convey some idea how slender is the sum 
total of that knowledge and how greatly the value of future 
volumes of this series may be increased by the co-operation 
of those who, by residence in India, are iu a position to 
supply the raw materials. 



GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS. 



Names of parts of the body explained in the anatomical diagrams at the 
beginning of the volume are not included here. 

(5 indicates the male ; $ the female. 

Apex, apical, the distal or outer extremity of a part. 

Callus, a rounded prominence often occurring near the shoulder and apex of 

each elytron. 
Carina, a ridge or keel. 

Castaneous, having the red-brown colour of chestnut. 
Caudal, tail-like. 
Cephalic, belonging to the head. 
Compressed, flattened in the vertical plane. 
Coriaceous, having a finely roughened surface. 
Costa, a rib-like elevation. 
Depressed, flattened in the horizontal plane. 
Digitate, bearing several finger-like processes. 
Dorsal, belonging to the upper side. 
Excavate, hoUovped out. 
Fascia, a transverse bar of irregular outline. 

Granulate, bearing fine closely-set elevations. 
Imago, the final or mature stage of an insect. 
Lamella, a leaflet of the antenna. 
Lamina, laminate, in the form of a thin plate. 

Larva, the primary active stage of an insect. 

Onychium, the rudimentary joint at the end of the claw-joint of the foot. 

Opaque, dull, not reflecting light. 

Oval, elliptical and not evidently more pointed at one end than the other. 

Ovate, in the form of an ellipse more pointed at one end than the other. 

Oviposition, the deposition of the egg. 

Piceous, black with a red tinge. 

Pubescence, a clothing of soft liairs. 

Pmictate-striate, bearing lines of punctures in parallel grooves. 

Punctulate, bearing very minute pits or impressions. 

Puncture, a small pit or impression. 



X GLOSBABY. 

Pupa, tbe penultimate stage of an insect. 

Reflexed, bent back. 

lieticulate, bearing a network of interlaced lines. 

Eui/oste, having an irregularly wrinkled surface. 

Btigiilose, having a more finely wrinkled surface. 

Scape, the first or basal joint of the antenna. 

Seta, a minute short hair or bristle. 

Setif/eroua, bearing setae. 

Shi nut ed, describing a varying curve. 

Sinuation (eljtral, ot Cktoniin^), the lateral excision of the elytron. 

Spur, the movable spine (one or two in number; at the end of the tibia. 

Striate, bearing parallel scratches or grooves. 

Striate-punctate, bearing parallel lines of connected punctures. 

Striqose, bearing fine scratclies in different directions. 

Striolate, bearing short scratches or linear impressions. 

Sulcata, bearing parallel grooves. 

Suture, the meeting line of two adjacent edges (especially of the two elytra). 

Testaceous, having the yellow colour of tortoiseshell. 

Truncate, ending abruptly, as if a part had been cut off. 

Tuberculate, bearing small sharp elevations. 

Variolose, bearing shallow rounded pits. 

Ventral, belonging to the lower surface. 

Vitta, a short longitudinal mark. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page I 

Order LAMELLICORNIA.. 1 

Fain. 1. ScARABJEiD35 :24 I 

Subfam. 1. Cetoniince 24 j 

Div. 1. Cetoniini 32 

Sect. 1. Cetoniina 32 , 

Group 1. Goliatliides 33 

1. Uicranocephalus, Westw, . 33 
1. wallicbi, Hupe 34 

Group 2. Macronotides 35 j 

1, Mycteristes, Cast 36 ; 

1. khasiana (Prigenia) 

{Jordan) 36 

2. microphylluslCephalo- 

cosmus), Wood-Mason 37 

3. gestroi (Cephalocos- 

mus), Arroxo 38 

4. auritus (Ceplialocos- 

mus), Arrow 39 

2. Gnorimidia, Lansh 40 

1. toyfe, Lansb 40 

3. Macronota, Hoffmansegg . 41 

1 . diardi. G. Hf P 43 

2. penicillata (Hope) 44 

3. albonotata, Blanch. . . 45 

4. regia (-?'.) 46 

5. halyi, Sharp 47 

6. sex-maculata (Kraatz). 47 

7. ursus ( Westw.) 48 

8. westwoodi ( Thorns.) . . 49 

9. tiavomaculata, G. 8f P. 50 

10. sericea, Gesfro 50 

11. nigricollis {Janson) . . 51 

12. flavofasciata {Moser). . 51 

13. malabariensis, G. 8^ P. 52 

14. bufo, Arroio 54 

15. crucicoilis (Lansh.) . . 55 

1 6. oberthuri {Lansb.) 55 



17. waterhousei, Arrow . . 56 

18. sannio (Janson) 57 

19. quadrivittata, Schaum. 58 

20. ochraceipes, Waterh. . . 58 

21. indica (Ja7iso?i) 59 

22. idolica {Janson) 60 

23. quadriliiieata, Hope . . 01 

24. peiraudieri (Fairm.). . 61 

25. virgata (Janson) ... 62 
20. mouhoti, Wallace .... 62 

27. pulchella, Gesfro .... 63 

28. jansoni, Arrmv 64 

29. antennata, Wallace . . 65 

30. gracilis, Arrow 65 

4. Clerota, Barm 06 

1. vittigera (Hope) 66 

Group 3. Heterorrliinides . . 67 

1. Cyphonocephalus, Lacord. 68 

l". olivaceu^ ( Dup.) .... 69 

2. Narycius, Dup 70 

1. opalus, Dti2J 71 

3. Diceros, Lacord 71 

1. dives ( Westw.) 72 

2. roepstorffi, Wood- 

Mason 74 

3. cbildreni ( Weshv.) . . 74 

4. bimacula ( Wied.) .... 75 

5. cuvera (Neiom.) 75 

6. gracilis, Janson 76 

4. Platyiiocephalus, Westw. . 77 

1. haniiltoui, Westw 77 

5. Jumnos, Saund 78 

1. ruckeri, Saund 79 

2. i:oy\&\ (Hope) 79 

6. Ingrisnia, Fairinaire . . . , 80 

1. euryrrhina (G?es^ro) .. 80 

7. Toryuorrhina, Arroiv .... 81 

1. distincta (Hope) 82 

2. apicalis ( Westw.) 83 

3. hyacintliina (Hope) . . 83 

4. inci.sa, Arrow 83 

5. opalina (Hope) 84 



STSXEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

8. Khoniborrliinii, Hope .... 84 

1. heros (G.^- P.) 85 

•2. me\\\\ {G. ^- P.) 86 

.'1 frestroi, Moser 86 

4. iiiicrocepbala, Jfe/itw. . 87 

0. ^laberriiiia ( H'eufw.) . . 87 

6. iiicaiesi (Hope) 88 

7. siibtijiaca (Arrotv) . . 88 
.9. Euchlompus, Arrow .... 89 

1. hetiis (F.) 89 

10. Iletrinnbiiia, Jf7.s/«-. . . 90 

I. nuitaljilis (Hope) .... 91 

'2. dispar, Arrow 92 

3. elegans [F.) 93 

4. planata, Arroic 94 

0. inican.s {Guer.) 95 

(). gracilis, Arrmv 96 

7. .*inuatocollis, Schatim . . 96 

>;. obesa, Janson 97 

!). leonardi, Gestro 98 

10. tibialis Wvdw 98 

11. piinctatissiina, Westxo. 99 

12. nigritarsis [Ho})e) 99 

13. poiphyietica, Ifentw. . 100 

14. amoMia {Hope) 101 

15. banuanica, Gesfro .... 101 

11. Trigonopbonis, Hope .... 102 

1. uei)alensis, Hope .... 103 

2. saundersi, Westw 103 

3. gracilipe.s Westic 104 

4. bookeri, White 104 

5. scintillans, Arroiv .... 105 

6. fea3. Gesfro 106 

7. t'oveiceps, Gestro .... 107 

8. delesserti (GuhW .... 107 

Group 4. Cetoniidos 108 

1. Antbraciiphora, JJiirm. . . 109 

1. siameii>i.s, Kraatz .... 110 

2. crucilera (Oliv.) 110 

3. butb, Arrow 112 

4. dalmantii (Hope) ... 112 

2. Anatona, Burnt 113 

1. .^tillata (Newtn.) .... 114 

2. albn^riittata, /yw;v«. .. 115 

3. castanopti-ra (liiirin.). . 110 

3. Pogoiiopiis, Arrow 116 

1. ]iusillns, Armw 117 

'2. nViU'ntWvr (ll'esfw.) .. 117 

4. Gyiiiuoiibana, v4n-(;«'. . . . 118 

L oatesi {(,'(. sfro) 119 

GlycA-pbaiia, Hiinii 120 

l.'borsHeldi (Hope) 121 

2. aiirociiicta, Amor. . . . 122 

3. cateua, Amur 122 

4. biiKitata (G. ^V /'.) 123 



Page 

5. torquata (F.) 124 

6. nicobarica, Janson .... 124 

7. nepalensis. AVffft^z .. 125 

8. fe.<tiva (F.) 126 

9. swainsoni (G. ^- P.) . . 126 

10. aiidaiiiaiieiisis, ./«w*vy« . 127 

11. nialayensis (Guer.) . . 128 

6. Glvco^ia, Schoch 129 

l.Vicolor (Oliv.) 129 

2. biplagiata, Arrow .... 130 

0. luctifera (Fainn.) .... 131 

7. Cetonia, Fab 132 

1. bensoui ( Jl'estiv.) .... 132 

2. rutilans ( Jr^z/swi) .... 133 

3. heviventris, Arroic . . 134 

4. rbododeudri, Gestro . . 134 

8. yEtbies.~a, Burni 135 

1. bagdadeiisi.s, Burnt. . . 136 

9. Protajtia, Burm 136 

l.cuprea (F.) 139 

2. pretiosa (Ao;//)-.) .... 141 
.3. auripes (Hope) 141 

4. mnntana (Nonfr.) .... 142 

5. orieiitalis (G. ^'- P.) . . 143 

6. auricbaleea (F.) 143 

7. peregriiia (Herbst) . . 144 

8. impavida (Jnttson). . . . 145 

9. loiigiiiftiiuis, Arrow . . 146 

10. caiidata, Arrow 147 

11. pruiiiiia, Arrotc 147 

12. andamanaruni, Jaitson. 148 

13. wJiitebousei (tSc/mum). 148 

14. cinerea (Kraatz) .... 149 

15. cupript'.-* ( ]Vied.) .... 150 
10. iiianis ( Wallaee) .... 151 

17. regali,'*, Blanch 152 

18. bideutipes, Arrow. . . . 153 

19. rana. Arrow 153 

20. fiLsca (Herbst) 154 

21. aciuiiinata (/•'.) 155 

22. bingbami, Arrmv .... 156 

23. terrosa (G. ^- P.) 157 

24. ccenosa ( Westiv.) .... 158 

25. squauiipeiinis, Burnt. . 158 
2(). bieroglypbica(J/t'«c7/-.) 159 

27. iieglecta (Hope) 160 

28. cariana (Gestro) 161 

29. cnnfusa (G.S'P.) l6l 

30. alboguttata ( J'it/or.t) . . 162 

10. Oxycetonia, Arrow 163 

1. versicolor { F.) 164 

2. albopunctata (F.) .... 166 

3. andrcui'si (Janson) . . 167 

4. juciuida (Fabler inann). 168 

11. Stalauniosoina, Burin. . . 170 
1. albclla (Pallas) 170 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



12. Chiloloba, Burm. . 
1. acuta ( Wied.) . 

Group .5. Oxy thyreides . 



Epicometis, Burm. 

1. pqualida (i.) 

Oxythyrea, Muls 

]. cinctella {Schawn). . 
Clinteria, Biirm 

1 . imperialis {Pat/kull) 

2. tetraspilota (Hope) 

3. auronotata [Blanch.) 

4. truncata, Arrow 

5. belli, Janson . . . 

6. ducaliy, White . 

7. obertburi, Arrow 

8. malayensis, Wallace 

9. pantherina, Varry . 

10. chlorouota, Blanch. 

11. spuria, Burm. . . . 

1 2. spilota ( Hope) . . . 

13. boffmeisteri, White 

14. rufipennis, Janson . 
1.5. klugi {Hope) 

16. caliginosa, Janson . 

17. bearseiana, Wesiw. 

18. 14-maculata (F.) . 

19. coerulea (Herbst) . 

20. pumila (Stva7-tz) . 



Group 6. Lomapterides . 

1. Agestrata, Eschscholtz 
1. oricbalcea (L.) . . . 

2. Thaumastopeus, Kraatz 

1. pullus iBillberg) . . 

2. nicobaricus (Janson) 

3. ceylonicus, T^an de Poll 196 

4. pugnator, Heller . . 

Sect. 2. Cremastochilina 

1. Platysodes, Westw. . . 

1. jansoni, Arroiu .... 

2. Spilophorus, Lacord. . . 

1. cretosus (Hope). . . . 

2. niaculatus ( G.8f P.) 

3. Cyinopborus, Kirby . . 

1. pulcbellus, Arroiv . . 

4. Parapilinurgus, Arrow 

1. variegatus, Arroiv . . 

5. Goliatbopsis, Janson . . 

1. despectus ( Westiv.) 

6. Ccenochilus, Schatnn . . 

1. gracilipes, 3Ioser . . 

2. brunueus, Saunders 



Page 
171 


3. solidus, Arrow 


Page 
. 209 


172 


4. nitidus, Arroio 


. 210 




5. acutipes, Arroiv 


. 210 


173 


6. pygidialis, Janson . . . 


. 211 


173 


7. trabecula, Srhauni . . . 


. 212 


174 


8. campbelli, Saand. . . . 


. 212 


175 


9. taprobanicus, Westw. . 


. 213 


175 


10. curtipes, If^estir. . . . 


. 213 


176 


11. level lei (Nonfried) . 


. 214 


177 


7. Callinomes, Westw. . . . 


. 215 


178 


1 . bicolor (Nonfried) . . . 


. 215 


179 


2. pusillus, Arrow 


. 216 


179 


8. Macroma, G. Sf P. 


. 216 


180 


1. javanica, G. Sf P. . . . 


218 


180 


2. melanopus, Schaum . 


. 219 


181 


3. xauthorrliina (Huiye) . 


219 


182 


4. insignis, Gestro 


220 


182 


5. superba, Van de Poll. 


221 


183 






184 
184 
185 


Div. 2. Valgiui 


222 


1. Oreoderus, Burm 


223 


186 


1. argillaceus (Hope) 


224 


187 


2. mouieitensis, Arroio . 


224 


188 


3. bbutanus, Arrow . . . 


225 


188 


4. rufulus, Gestro 


225 


Ls9 


5. brevipennis, Gestro . 


226 


190 


6. waterbousei, Gestro . 


226 


191 


7. maculipennis, Gestro. 


227 




8. huuieralis, Gestro . . . 


228 


191 


9. gravis, Arroio 


228 


192 
192 
194 
li)5 
196 
196 
197 


2. Podovalgus, Arrow . . . 


229 


1. griseus, Arroiv 


230 


3. Idiovalgus, Arrow 


230 


1. planicollis (Gestro) . 


231 


4. Xenoreoderus, Arroio. . . 


232 


1. buniilis (Gestro) . . . 


232 


2. occidentalis. Arroiv . 


233 


5. Dasyvalgus, Is^olbe 


233 




1. dohrni, Kolbe 


2.35 


198 


2. luctuosus (Gestro) . . . 


236 




3. viduatus, Arrow . . . 


236 


199 


4. militaris, Arrow 


237 


200 


5. stietopygus (Gestro) . 


237 


201 


6. tri.stis (Gestro) 


238 


201 


7. carbouarius, Arrow . 


239 


202 


8. podicalis [Blanch.) . 


240 


203 


9. insularis, Arrow . . . 


240 


203 


10. trisinuatus (Gcftro) . 


241 


204 


11. hystrix, Arroiv 


241 


204 


12. fulvicauda, Arrow. . . 


242 


205 


1 3. ovicollis, Arrow . . . 


242 


206 


14. penicillatus [Blanch.) 


243 


206 


15. niiiiiiuus, Arrow .... 


244 


208 


16. addeudus ( IValker) . 


244 


208 


17. kanaieusis, Arrow . . . 


245 



XIV 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

Cbaritovalorus, Kolbe .... 246 

1. pictus (Hope) 246 

2. lonpulu.s (Gestro) .... 247 

3. andamanicus, Kolbe . . 248 



Div. 3. Trichiini 249 

]. Trichius, 2^a6 249 

1. jansoni, Gestro 250 

2. albogiittatus, Moser . . 251 

3. dif^color, Jordan .... 251 

4. feslivus, Arrow 252 

5. ornatus, Jordatt 253 

6. costi])ennis (Janson) . . 2r)4: 

7. domhrowskii, Novfried. 254 

Subfaiu. 2. Dynastime 256 

1. Xylotrupes, Hope 262 

l.gideon(i:.) 262 

2. Chalcosonia, Hope 265 

1. atlas (L.) 266 

3. lOupatoius, Burm 268 

1. hardwickei {Hope) . . 268 

2. frraciliconiis, Arrow . . 270 

3. binimnicus, Arrow. . . . 270 

4. Pachyoryctes, Arrow .... 272 

1. solidus, Arroic 272 

5. Oryctes, HUyer 273 

1. nasicornis (i.) 275 

2. de.'fertoruni, Arrow . . 276 

3. nudicauda, Arrow .... 277 

4. rhinoceros (Z.) 278 

6. Tiicliogoiiiplms, Burm, . . 281 

1. martabani (Guer.) .... 282 

2. monpol, Arrow 283 

3. acuticoUis, Arroic. . . . 284 

7. Dichodontus, Burm 284 

1. coronatus, Burin 285 

8. Hlabephorus, Fciirm 286 

1 . piiiguis, Fairm 286 



12. 



13. 

14. 

15. 
10. 
17. 



Eophileurus, Arroto . . 

1. planatus ( Wied.) . . 

2. platypterus ( Wied.) 

3. perforatus, Arrow . . 

4. cingalensis, Arroio 

5. decatenatus, Arroto 

6. nilgirensis, Arroiv . . 

7. chinensis [Fald.) . . 
Clyster, Arrotv 

1. retusus, Arrow . . . . 
Heteronychus, Burin. 

1 . lioderes, Redt 

2. annulatus, Bates . . 

3. sublsevis (Fairin.) . . 

4. robustus, Arrow . . 

5. saochari, Arroiv . . . . 
Alissonotum, Arrow . . 

1. piceum (F.) 

2. elongatiuu, Arrow . . 

3. rangunense, Arrow 

4. s^iuiile, Arroio 

5. impressicolle, Arroiv 

6. biiioduluni [Fairm.) 

7. crassum, Arrow .... 
Pentodon, Hope 

1. bispinifrons, Reitter 

2. beugaleuse, ^4 ;•;•(/«;. . 
Microryctes, Arrow . . 

1. moiiodon (Fairm.) 

2. kanareusis, Arrow. . 

3. apicalis, Arrow .... 
Phyllognatlius, Eschsch. 

1. *di(iny>iiis (F.) . . 
Podalgus, Burm. 

1. infantulus {Sem.) 
Dipelicus, Hope .... 

1. hircus (F.) ... . 

2. kicordairei (S/iarp) 

3. cantator, Aitow. . . 

4. bidens, Arrow . . 



Page 

287 

288 

289 

289 

290 

291 

291 

292 

293 

293 

294 

295 

295 

290 

296 

297 

298 

299 

299 

300 

300 

301 

301 

302 

302 

303 

304 

304 

305 

305 

306 

306 

307 

309 

309 

310 

311 

312 

313 

313 



INTRODUCTION. 



LAMELLICORNIA. 

The LamellicorQia form one of the best defined and most readily 
recognisable of the primary divisions of Coleoptera. No 
transitional forms linking them with any other group are known, 
so that, although their precise origin and relationships are obscure, 
their limits and chax'acteristies can be fixed with precision. 
They are found in every part of the world and about 15,000 species 
have been named and described, of which about 1300 belong 
to the Indian fauna. No systematic collecting has ever been 
undertaken in this enormous and diversified area, and the above 
number must in time be very largely increased. 

The beetles of this superfamily are of a primitively fossorial 
type, L e. their fundamental structure has been determined by 
burrowing habits which to a greater or less extent still persist in 
the majority. They are generally very compact, with great 
muscular power, but without much agility, or grace of form or 
movement. In some groups this deficiency is counterbalanced by 
very brilliant or striking coloration, while the muscular development 
of the head and thorax and their appendages, and the remarkable 
outgrowths which often occur upon these parts of the body, 
produce some of the most strange and bizarre forms to be found 
in the Animal Kingdom. 

Structure. 

The chief distinctive feature of the Lamellicornia, as that name 
implies, is found in the structure of the antenna, which is short 
and consists noi^mally of ten joints, of which the terminal joints, 
commonly three, but often more, in number, are flattened and 
elongated transversely so that a large part of their surfaces is 
contiguous. These lamellate joints are articulated together at 
one end and fitting closely in the resting position form au 
organ like a closed fan. The apposed faces of the fan-leaves 
are furnished with minute sensory pits and hairs which are freely 
exposed to the air by the slight separation of the leaves when the 
beetle is active, and protected when it is at rest by the closing of 
the organ. This structure gives a much larger proportionate 
sensory area than in simpler types of antennae, and probably a 
higher decree of sensitiveness has accompanied the withdrawal of 
these delicate surfaces from the risk of contact with anything 



2 INTKODUCTION. 

external . In the family ScABAByEiD-^ the leaves ox* lamellae are 
brought when at rest into close contact. In the Lucanid.e 
(e. g. Heterochtlies, tig. 1) and Passalid.e the adjustment is less 
perfect and the lamellae less mobile, but in the last family 
(see Aceralus and Pasmlus, fig. 1) they are brought close together 
by a partial rolling up of the antenna. AV' hen a fan-like form of 
aiitenna occurs in other groups of Coleoptera, the structure of the 




Fig. ]. — Antenna! of: — 1. Accniiusrecficlois; 2. Pco^sri/ustJi/erriip/Ks; 3. Heter- 
och/I/rs aii(hnitanciii>is; 4. PoJi/phi/lla J'lilh, male; 4 «. ditto, female; 
;■). I'jupoc/iruops opacicollis; 6. 2'ro.v iiidicus; 7. liolboceras calainia; 
8. Ileliocopris bucephalus ; 9. Callinomcs bicolor ; 10. Cetonia bcjisoni. 

joints is essentially different and there is no marked dififerentiation 
into footstalk and club. 

In a few highly modified Lamellicornia the three joints composing 
the club have undergone a more or less complete telescoping one 
within the other, or are otherwise modified in such a way as to be 
no longer strictly speaking lamellate at all, but these are quite 
evidently derivatives of the typical structure and are very 
exce])tional. One of the most highly modified of the?e derivatives 
is found in the genus Lethrus, belonging, strange to say, to the 
subfamily GEOinuPiN-E, which is the only Lamellicorn group 



LAMELLICORNIA. 6 

(excepting one remarkable genus Pleocoma) having eleven joints 
to the antenna ; though this is the normal number in most other 
Coleoptera. 

The basal joint oE the antenna is generally considerably larger 
than the rest, the second globular, and those intervening between 
that and the club small and one or two of them sometimes wanting. 
The antennae are always ])laced far apart, immediately in front of 
the eyes, and beneath a ridge or brow which divides the eye in 
front and is absent only in the genus Ochodceus. 

The form of these organs indicates that they are no longer 
tactile as in so many other insects. Various arguments have 
been used to show that the sense either of smell or of hearing is 
located in the antenna of beetles, and it seems likely that tliis 
highly developed organ of the Lamellicornia is the seat of botli 
these senses, if anything really similar to the auditory sense of 
higher animals occurs in insects. Of this faculty we know little, 
but vocal organs are common although not general. There is little 
doubt, however, that an olfactory sense is universal and highly 
developed. M. Fabre has found that Bolhoceras is able to locate 
truffles hidden below the ground, as pigs or dogs can do, but with 
still greater precision. He observed that the beetles would fly 
straight to a particular spot and, alighting, tunnel immediately 
downwards, and that beneath that spot a truffle, the natural food 
of the species, was invariably found. The antennae frequently 
differ in the degree of development in the two sexes and, when 
this is so, they are always more highly developed in the male than 
in the female. The highest pitch of perfection is found in males 
the females of which are rather inert and degenerate, but there can 
benodoubt that the individualsof a species areable to find each other 
by means of an almost inconceivably delicate olfactory sense and 
that this sense is located in the antennae. It is a familiar fact 
that the males of certain moths, the antennae of which are pectinate 
(comb-like), while the females are inactive, are attracted from 
considerable distances to the latter, even when they are enclosed 
in dark boxes. Certain Lamellicorn beetles (e. g. Pachypus, 
Clitopa) have wingless females, which live beneath the ground 
and similarly attract the males, which fly in swarms to their 
burrows ; and it is interesting to find that in these insects also 
the antennas of the males are of the most highly lamellate type, 
while those of the females, like those of the female moths, are 
much simpler. That the means of attraction is a scent is shown by 
an incident recorded by M. Perris in Petites Nouvelles Ento- 
mologiques, 1874, p. 383. M. Eeveliere happened to observe in 
Corsica numbers of male Pachypus cornutus flying in a certain 
direction, and tracing them to their destination found the wingless 
female about a yard below the surface of the ground. This when 
handled squirted out a milky fluid which fell upon the sleeve of 
his coat and also upon an insect specimen previously placed in a 
box. Both this specimen and the coat-sleeve continued for several 
days to attract flights of the male beetles. There are other beetles, 

b2 



IKTEODUCTIOX. 



nearly related to the Glow-worms, of which the females are 
grub-like and lethargic, with rudimentary antennae, Avhile the males 
have these organs of an extraordinarily highly-developed pattern. 
There is therefore good reason for the conclusion that the sense of 
smell is one of the principal properties, if not the ojdy one, of the 
Lamellicorn antenna, and that the more elaborate forms of organ 
probably indicate the exceptional development of this sense. 

The head is in almost all the Lamellicornia deeply sunk in the 
thorax in the position of repose, so that the eyes are partly 
witlulraw n into the prothoracic cavity. In a few, however, the 
prot borax is so formed tliat the head can be folded beneath it, 
titting against the projecting front coxa^ and so completely 
enclosing the mouth and antennae. There are yet others (Acan- 
THOCEiuNiE) in which the prothorax itself can be folded beneath 
the abdomen converting the body into a ball, within Mhich the 
tarsi, as well as the bead-appendages, are enclosed. 

The front part of the head above forms the clypeus, which is 
usually largely developed and sometimes assumes very peculiar 
forms. The brow ridge, or canthus, is sometimes very prominent 
and may be produced backwards, more or less completely 
surrounding the eye and dividing it into an upper and lower half, 
or forwards, forming a lateral continuation of the clypeus, to which 
in the ComiN^: it is united at the edge. 

The organs of the mouth vary enormously in different groups, 
according to the nature of the food affected. The mandibles of 
the CoPRiN.E and most of the Cetoniin.*: are soft and incapable 
of biting, but they are often large and very strong, and in the 
Stag-beetles (Ll'CA>'id.e) and some others attain an extravagant 
size in the male. In the Passalid.I:: they are very stout and 
bear a movable tooth, a remarkable feature not found in any 
other insect. The maxillae are generally sharp biting organs, but 
sometimes bear tufts of hair for absorbing and conveying to the 
mouth the juices which form the insects' food. The palpi of the 
maxilla) and labium are simple and short, the first consisting 
generally of four, and the second of three joints. The ligula is 
well-devtdoped and chitinised in the Lucanid.t: and Passalid^, 
small and Heshy in most of the Scarab.iim:, and in the groups 
placed first in the present work reduced to a mere rudiment upon 
the inner face of the mentum. The mentum is enlarged in various 
groups inhabiting ants' nests, forming a shield which may coincide 
with the clypeus and completely concealing the mouth {Criq>(o(h(s, 
Cosnochilus, &c.). 

Nearly all the Lamellicornia fly freely, although wingless forms 
occur, occasionally in both sexes but more frequently in the females. 
These apterous females are, as a rule, rarely seen and many of them 
are entirely unknown. 

The legs assume a great variety of forms. The tarsi are five- 
jointed, except in a very few exceptional genera in which only 
four, or even three, are visible. These are partially degenerate 
insects livinpr in ants' nests or in some other abnormal enviroinnent. 



LA.MELLICORNIA. O 

In the ball-rolling Coprin^, of which the well-known Sacred 
Scarabseus is the type, the front tarsi have completely disappeared. 
The front tibiae are the principal implements for the manipulation 
of the dung of which the food-ball is made, and the tarsi evidently 
became an encumbrance and gradually atrophied. In other related 
genera, such as Chelronitls, the tarsus is absent only in the male, and 




Fig. 2. — Agestrata orichaleea (Family Scarab.eid.e, Subfamily Cetoniin.k) and 
enlarged details : — h., head ; c, clypeus ; jiro., prothorax ; jjrn., pronotuni ; 
^osi*., prosternuni; /«ca\, mesothoras; /MA'?'.,me80sternum; //ic;j., mesotlioracic 
episternum ; iitp., mesotlioracic epimeron ; vicf., metathorax ; mtst., meta- 
sternuin ; mtep., metathoracic episterniuu ; mfp., metathoracic epimeron ; 
s., scutellutn ; r. cav., coxal cavity ; ah., abdominal segment ; pg., pygidium ; 
ppg., propygidium ; c, elytron; sut, elytral suture; f.L, fore leg; m.L, 
middle leg; h.L, hind leg; cox., coxa; tr., trochanter; fem., femur; 
e^/7>., tibia ; te/\, tarsus ; a«/., antenna; *>■., scape ; c/.,ehib; »i., mandible ; 
«i.r., maxilla ; vqj., maxillary palpus ; Ir., labrum ; I., labium ; mc, mentum ; 
Ijp., labial palpus. 

present, but very minute, in the female. In these and all the groups 
whose members are generally found upon the ground the claws are 
quite simple and symmetrical, but they assume a great variety of 
forms in the groups of arboreal habits. They may be cleft or toothed 
in multitudinous ^^•ays, they may be fixed or freely movable, and one 



6 



INTEODUCTIOX. 



of them may become reduced or entirel,y lost. The front claws in 
particular are liable to enlargement or other modification in the 
male. The tibia' almost invariably sliow more or less adaptation 
for digging, a function which is exercised by the females, if not by 
both sexes, of nearly all the species. The front tibiie bear a series 
of teeth along the outer edge, sometimes absent or modified in the 




Fig. 3. — ScarafifEUs i^acer (Family ScAnAn.Kir.v., Siibfaiuily Coi'rin.v.) and en- 
larged details :—/^, head ; <• . c'lypeus ; ?>/•(>., protliorax ; yjv/., pronotiun ; 
pst., prosterniiiii ; mcs., mesothorax ; visL, niesosternuni ; mef., nietatliorax; 
iiit»f.. nictasternuni ; mp., niesothoracic epimeron ; iittcp , nietatlioracic 
episternuin : c.rrti'.,coxal cavity ; ah., abdominal segment ; p(/., i)ygidium ; 
c, elytron ; /.I., fore leg ; m.L, middle leg ; //./.. bind leg ; co.v., coxa ; 
ir., trochanter; fern., femiu" : ///'., tibia; far., tarsus: aiif., antenna; 
sc., scape; f/.,cliib; »«., mandible ; wx., maxilla ; w/>., maxillary palpus : 
/)•., labrum ; /., labium ; me., mentum ; Ip., labial palpus. 

males. There is a single articulated spine at the end of the front 
tibia) and two at the end of each of the posterior tibia?, except in 
the Corinx.i', where all are single. The femora differ little in form, 
but are sometimes inodilied in the males. The coxa; are usually 
large, the front ones nearly always, and the hindmost generally, 



LAMELLICORNIA. 



meeting in the middle line of the hodj. The front coxal cavities 
are completely closed and the prosteruum sometimes forms an 
elevated process behind the coxae. The mesosternum in many of 
the Melolonthixa, Eutelin.i: and CETONiiNiE is produced 




ClJj.4. 



Fig. 4. — Aceraius rcctidcns (Family Passalid.e) and enlarged details : — //., head ; 
pro., prothorax; ^JrH., pronotum ; ^-'s^., prosternum ; rues., mesotborax ; 
mst., uiesostermuu ; mcp., uiesotlioracic episternuin ; mp., mesothoraeic 
epimeron ; iiuf., nietalborax ; mf.st., metasterninn ; .s., seutellum ; 
«&., abdominal segment; /./., fore leg; m.L, middle leg; k.I., bind leg; 
coa\, coxa; tr., trochanter; fern., femur; tih., tibia; tar., tarsus; 
ant., antenna; sc, scape; cL, club; m., mandible; mx., maxilla; 
?/«/)., maxillary palpus ; ^;-.,labrum; Z., labium ; ///e., mentum ; /2y.,ligula; 
Ip., labial palpus. 

for\\ard as a strong spine extending from the intermediate coxae to 
the front ones, and the metasternum sometimes contributes part 
of this spine, the line of division between it and the mesosternum 
beins: faint or obliterated altogether. 



8 INTRODUCTION. 

There are as a general rule six visible ventral segments, but the 
intermediate articulations permit of little movement and may be 
completely soldered and even obliterated. The spiracles number 
two on each side of the thorax and seven on each side of the 
abdomen, the latter being entirely situated in the connective 
membranes in the Laparostict divison of the Scarab.tid.i: and in 
part in the chitinous rings in the Pleurostict division. 

An important characteristic of the Lamellicornia both in the 
mature and larval states is found in the concentration in the 
anterior part of the body of the central nervous system. In a 
typical insect this consists of a brain and a median ventral 
chord bearing a series of ganglia corresponding more or less 
exactly with the segments, one being in the head, three in tlie 
thorax and usually eight in the abdomen. In the Scakae^id-E two 
or (sometimes) all of the thoracic and all the abdominal ganglia are 
found collected into a single mass between the first and second 
thoracic segments, the abdomen being supplied only by the lateral 
nerve branches given off in pairs from the posterior part of this 
mass. In the Lucanid larva the ganglia are distinct and form a 
chain, but in the adult beetles, although not massed together as in 
the ScAKAB.EiD.^, they are reduced in number and do not extend into 
the abdominal region.* In the remaining Lamellicorn family, 
Passalid.e, no part of the internal anatomy has hitherto been 
described and the condition of the central nervous system of larva 
and imago is shown in the accompanying diagram. In the larva the 
ganglia are all distinct and distant, the first three placed one in 
each thoracic segment, the fourth also accompanying the metathorax, 
while the first seven abdominal segments contain one each. In the 
imago a striking change takes place. The cephalic and first 
thoracic ganglia alone remain distinct, and all succeeding ones are 
massed together in a short rod-like body the hinder end of which 
reaches no farther than the point of origin of the second pair 
of legs. A pair of strong nerve fibres run from the extremity of 
this body into the abdomen and several other pairs arising before 
the extremity and running parallel with them indicate ganglia no 
longer separately distinguishable. Thus the Passalid larva, which 
externally has the most abnormal organisation among Lamellicornia, 
is entirely primitive in its nervous system, while the imago, which 
also is of a highly peculiar and isolated form, is in that respect 
almost identical with the Scarab.'EID.t:. 

The internal anatomy of the Lamellicornia, as represented by 
the common European Cockchafer, MdoJontha vulijar'm, was the 
subject of the elaborately illustrated Monograph of Straus- 
Durckheim, published in 1828, " Considerations genorales sur 
I'Anatomie Comparative des Animaux articules," and later 
investigations have been collated by Professor Kolbe in his 
" Einfiihrung in die Kenntniss der Insecten," 1893. The alimen- 
tary canal has been studied in many representative genera by 



* L6on Dufour, Ann. Sci.Nat. (2) xviii. 1842, p. 162. 



LAMELLICOTINIA. 



9 



1 


1 

\ 



Mingazzini in his " Ricberclie sul caiiale digerente dei Lamellicorni 
litofage." * Generally speaking, that of the larva is short and 
nearly straight, with its anterior part large and encircled by two 
or three distinct series of glandnlar sacs of varying form. Near 

the posterior end of the intestine there 
is usually a large dorsal caecum in which 
part or all of the unassiinilated 
contents of the stomach are, for a time, 
retained and which is often visible 
as a large dark mass through the semi- 
transparent skin of the last dorsal 
segment of the body. In many of the 
CoPBiN^ there is a remarkable dorsal 
hump apparently serving only for the 
accommodation of this csecum. The 
contents form the material with which 
the cells occupied by the latter insects 
are repaired when necessary and of 
which in other groups the cocoon is 
chiefly or entirely made when the time 
for pupation arrives. In the Lucanid,!, 
and probably in some Scakab.eid.e, this 
sac is little developed and in Passalid.e 
it is absent. 

In the adult beetle the digestive 
tube becomes very much elongated 
and convoluted. The changes which 
occur in Cetonia and Melolontha were 
described and figured by Eamdohr in 
1811 (Abhandlung iiber die Yerdauungswerkzeuge der Insecten). 
In the adult Passalid the intestine shortly before its termination is 
completely encased in longitudinal bands of very peculiar large 
spongy outgrowths which retain their form even in completely 
dried specimens. 

Larvce. 
Lamellicorn larvae are exceedingly similar and easily recognised. 
The body is long, more or less cylindrical and normally bent into 
the form of the letter C, the legs being well-developed and lying in- 
side the curve. Although well-formed the legs are only used for 
locomotion in exceptional cases, as in the Passalid^, the majority 
of the species l.ving always upon the side or back beneath the 
ground or in decaying wood, where they are surrounded by suit- 
able food and need only slight powers of movement. Such 
movement as is necessary is performed chiefly by contractions 
of the body rings assisted' by the erect bristles with which these 
are provided, and some larvas when placed upon a flat surface 
invariably turn upon their backs in order to propel themselves 
along in that ^^ay. The head is large, very hard and set at right 



Fig. 5. — Diagrammatic re- 
pi'esentation of the 
central nervous sj'stem 
of a, larva of Passalus 
(Passalidae); b, imago of 
the same; c, imago of 
GoUathus (ScarabiiMcla?). 



* Mitth. Zool. Stat. Neapel, ix. 1889-91. 



10 



INTRODUCTION. 



angles to the axis of the body, and the three thoracic segments are 
short, so that all the legs are brought close together near the head. 
The integument is stout but, except that of the head, not chitinous, 
and in the two posterior thoracic, and the first six- or seven 
abdominal rings, is thrown into deep folds, generally three to 












Fig. 6. — (17) larva, {h) pupa, (r) imago (male) of Oryctcs rhinoccroi', with lateral 
aspect of ((/) head and thorax, {r) end of bodj', of male, (./) eud of body of 
female. 

each segment, but these are absent in the Lucaxid.l", Passalid.*:, 
and a few of tl»e Scarab.eiu,!;. The three or four last abdominal 
segments are very large and have tlie integument stretched to its 
fullest extent, smooth, and often partly lrans[)arent. In many 
(."oi'RIN.t: a large hump appears upon the back as already 
mentioned. 

Eyes are rarely fouiul, but the antennae are well-developed. 
They are generally slender and consist of four joints, but in the 
Passalid-D they are very short and consist of only two joints. 



LAMELLICOBXIA. 11 

The front part of the head forms a small transverse clypeus, to 
which is articulated the flap-like labrum which lies upon the 
bases of the mandibles. These are strong and exposed. The 
maxillae are fleshy, but generally bear strong horny teeth, and are 
of two types, terminating in a single lobe in the Lucanid.t-; and 
Pleurostict Scarab^idte and in two lobes in PassalidyI; and the 
remainintr ScAEAii.MD.E. The labium is small and soft and carries 
a pair of small two-jointed palpi. Of the three thoracic segments the 
first alone has a pair of spiracles, and the first eight abdominal 
segments have each a pair. The back is studded with minute 
spines which produce a rough sensatiun to the touch and assist in 
progression, and probably also render the grub a less agreeable 
article of food. There is sometimes in addition a thin clothing of 
stiif hairs. 

The leg consists of four joints, viz., a long basal joint, the coxa,, 
a short trochanter, whicli is inmovably attached to the third, the 
femur, and finally the tibio-tarsus, at the extremity of which is a 
single claw. 

The larvae of many typical genera of Lameliicornia were very 
carefully described and ficfured by Schiildte in Xaturhistorisk 
Tidsskrift (3) ix. 1S74, and other descriptions, togetlier with a 
useful tabular statement, were published in 1875 by Perris (Ann. 
Soc. Linn, de Ijyon, vol. xxii.). 

I'ocal Organs. 

Lamellicorn beetles are remarkable for the variety of stridulat- 
ing organs to be found amongst them and still more lor the 
occurrence of these structures in the larvae — a phenomenon which, 
so far as is known, is unique. They appear to be much more 
general in the larvae than in the perfect insects, although fairly 
frequent in the latter, and when present in both stages it is always 
in entirely different parts of the body. 

Although aft'ecting a great variety of positions the organs are 
always of the same general type. A modification is prochiced of 
two parts of the body between which friction occurs in the 
ordinary movements of the insect and one of the modified surfaces 
bears minute and closely-ranged ridges or prominences of very 
hard chitiii, capable of vibrating and so producing a shrill, more or 
less musical, note. They have been described in some detail in 
the Transactions of the Entomological JSocielv of London, 1904 
(p. 709). 

In larvae of CETOxiixji, Dynastin.t: and Rutelinj: , an oval area 
is found upon the lower face of each mandible which when 
magnified is seen to consist of a number of regular sharp ridges 
placed close togetlier and crossing the area transversely. Upon 
the upper surface of each maxilla, near the base, in a position 
corresponding to tlie ridged plate upon the mandible, is a row of 
sharp horny hooks, and these, by movements of the ja\^s, pluck the 
mandibular chords or ridges and so produce ; faint high-pitched 
note. In some other groups of Scabab.eid-i: (Melolonthin.'e and 



12 INTRODUCTION. 

C0PEIN.5) the mandibular ridges are represented by irregular 
tubercles and the apparatus seems comparatively imperfect. It 
has not yet been ascertained what sound, if any, is produced by thest- . 
In the larva? of the Stag-beetles (Lucanid.?;) a highly chitinised 
area appears at the base of each intermediate leg, and, when 
examined, this is seen to be closely studded with short pointed 
tubercles. If a living larva is held in the lingers it will be found 
to draw the hind leg sharply across this part of the preceding 
one and at the part of the former where the contact occurs may be 
seen another very hard chitinous surface. The trochanter is 
drawn out into a long straight file and its inner edge is provided 
with a series of microscopic sharp-edged ridges placed transversely. 
If the insect be held near the ear the vibrations set up by the 
friction of the studded plate against these ridges can be distinctly 
heard. In the genus G'eotn/pcs (ScARAB.EiD.i;) sound is produced 
by similar means, but here the hind leg is considerably shortened 
and the joints appear solidified, while from base to tip runs a row 
of sharp horny teeth. Corresponding with these, the horny area 
at the base of the second pair of legs is furnished with tine close 
ridges, so that the functions of the two parts are rever.-ed. The 
shrunken hind leg has quite lost its original function, for its 
direction is changed and it is inclined forwards, resting upon the 
preceding limb and always ready to make music. The last stage 
in this remarkable transformation of an organ of locomotion into 
one of vocalisation is found in the Passalid.e. The larvae of this 
family are quite active, less unwieldy in form, and provided with 
better-proportioned legs tlian other Lamellicorn larva>. Tlie latter, 
however, seem to be only four in niunl)er. 'J he last pair are so 
much reduced as to be scarcely visible without a lens, w hich reveals 
them in a form resembling tiny scales. These leg-vestiges are 
])rovided with several hooked claws at the margin or lower surface 
and lie close to the body upon a microscopically ridged plate like 
that of Geoii-u2>cs (fig. 7). 




Fig. 7. — Larva of l\ii^a/i($, and enlarged detail of part of middle leg and 
reduced hind leg. 

In the adult Passalid.t the legs are all perfectly normal, and 
stridulation is accomplished by the friction between the wings and 
the upper surface of the abdomen. A small area upon eacli wing 
is studded beneath with peculiar hard short spines and against 



LAMELLICORNIA, 13 

these works a similarly specialised vibratory elevated area or boss 
upon each side of the ante-penultimate dorsal tergite. In the 
isolated and peculiar genus Ochodcvus a similar but still more 
highly specialised structure is found at the same part of the back, 
in the form of a small, curiously sculptured club-like projection. 

The LuCAKiD.i: seem in the adult stage to be practically voiceless, 
a single South American species, Cldasognatlius grauti^ being the 
only one known to stridulate — in this case by drawing the hind 
femur across a " milled " band at the outer edge of the elytron. 

The only groups of JScaeabtEid.e characterised by a single 
recurring type of vocal organ are the Geotrupin.e and Orphnin^, 
in a large pi'oportion of which the hind coxa bears a finely ridged 
area scraped by the sharp edge of the coxal cavitj^ and the 
Dtnastin.^, of which many genera have fine transverse ridges 
upon the propygidium, which by movements of the abdomen is 
drawn across the hinder edges of the elytra. The latter type is 
highly developed in the Indian Dliiclicus (fig. 8), the propygidium 





Fig. 8. — Diagrammatic representatiou of the terniinal segments of Bipelicuf: 
bidens (left) and I), cantator (right), showing the stridulatory ridges. 

of which is considerably produced at the expense of the last 
segment. In Hcteronychus and related genera a pair of stridula- 
tory files occurs in the same situation. Other situations in which 
the' vibratory ridges occur in diiferent Indian genera of Scaeab^id.e 
are — at the inner edge of the elytron in the two large genera Tro.c 
and Copris, the vibrations being set up in both cases by the 
movement of the abdomen ; within the hind coxal cavity iu the 
great beetles forming the genus Heliocopris, the apparatus being 
scraped by sharp projections upon the coxa ; and upon the inside 
of the prosternum in Serica, in which the edge of the mesoaternum 
forms the other part of the instrument. In the curious little 
beetles of the genus Ocliodceas mentioned above another quite 
diflferent apparatus is found. Beneath the elytra on each side of 
the antepenultimate segment of the abdomen is a minute process, 
assuming various peculiar shapes in diiferent species, but always 
studded with teeth or tubercles capable of playing upon a micro- 
scopically sculptured area upon the corresponding lower surface of 
the elytron. In some large groups of Lamellicoknia peculiar 
types of stridulating organs have been found in representatives 
inhabiting otlier parts of the world, but none as yet iu any Indian 
representatives. Thus in several South American genera of 
EuteltN/E a striated plate occurs at the end of the hind femur (and 
the middle femur also in a few species), the ridges being made to 



14 INTEODUCTIOX. 

vibrate by rubbing the legs against sharp obUque ridges at the sides 
of the abdomen or tbe edges of the elytra, and in Iscliiopsopha, a 
Papuan and Australian genus of Cbtomix.e, at the sides of two or 
three of the abdominal segments, which are scraped by riilges on 
the inner face of the hind femora. 

The sound produced by these organs is generally a very high- 
pitcbed and by no means loud musical note, sometimes only 
audible by the human ear wlieu the insect is held within a few 
inches. It is in no way comparable with that emitted by the vocal 
■organs of Crickets, Grasshoppers, or Cicadas; there is no contrivance 
in the Coleoptera for increasing the volume of sound, nor is the 
faculty, except in a very few highly exceptional instances, peculiar 
to the males as in the former insects. The use of the faculty is 
verv doubtful. Darwin expressed himself unable to conceive of any 
purpose it could serve except communication between individuals of 
the two sexes or emulation between those of the same sex. The 
facts mentioned above, and indeed most of the results of recent 
investigation, seem to me opposed to this explanation, especially as 
no organ even probably auditory in function lias been found in any 
beetle and no completely satisfactory evidence has been obtained 
that an auditory sense exists. Unless this can be shown we must 
look for the significance of the stridulaling organs in their effect 
upon some other animals than those possessing them. Mr. Guy 
Marshall has suggested (Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1902, p. 403) that in 
many instances, and especially when the habits are nocturnal, the 
sounds may serve to protect the insects from enemies by indicating 
nauseous qualities or in some cases by suggesting the buzzing of 
sting-bearing species. Although it is very probable that the 
origans may have in many cases acquired such uses, a survey of all 
those groups in which stridulation is known respectively to occur 
and not to occur seems to me to preclude the idea that the faculty 
is to any large extent a concomitant of unpalatability. For 
reasons which I propose to discuss elsewhere it seems to uie 
possible to account for all the known phenomena and to explain 
the evolution of the structures concerned upon the hypothesis that 
stridulation is in itself an unpleasant property and a forui of 
protection against insectivorous animals. If this view is correct 
the sound is not the essential feature but only a bye-product of 
the vibration, which in hard-shelled insects nuist be com- 
municated to a large part of the surface, and I think may not 
unreasonably be supposed to produce disagreeable sensations in the 
mouth of a captor, as is recognised to be the effect of a panoply of 
spines or bristles. This theory obviously involves the rejection of 
t he term • vocal ' organs for the structures here described, at least as 
a general designation. 

Several Lamellicorn beetles in which no striilulating surfaces 
seem to exist have been described as producing hissing or piping 
sounds. It has been suggested that this may be coiniected with 
the spiracles, as in various JDiptera, but no precise observations are 
yet forthcoming. 



LAMELLICORNIA. 



Sexual Dhnorjjhism. 



15 



A special characteristic of the Lamellicornia is the tendency of 
the sexes to differ markedly iu their external features. There is 
no particular in which the differences may not manifest themselves. 
Colour, vestiture, size and structure are alike liahle to them, and 
in many cases there is so little resemblance between male and 
female that they have been regarded as distinct species and even 
ffenera. In the Passahdj;; alone are marked external differences 

O 

entirely absent. 

In tiie ScARAByEiDyE there is a tendency to tlie occurrence of 
horns upon the head and thorax in the male. Such appendages 
may be possessed by both sexes, but they are very rarely equally 
developed in both and are generally represented by mere rudiments 
in the female. Occasionally thearmature is of nearly equal develop- 
ment but of different form in the two sexes, and only in two known 
species {Onitis)is it more developed in the female than in the male. 
Such structures ai'e found in their fullest development in the 
males of the large beetles belonging to the Subfamily Dynastin.!;. 
These flourish chiefly in Tropical America, but the well-known 
Xylotrupes gideon, which is abundant throughout Tropical Asia, 
and Chalcosoma atlas, shown at Plate II, fig. 12, are excellent 
examples. Although generally of smaller size, some of the species 
of the Subfamily Coprin^.t: exhibit still more extraordinary forms 
of armature upon the head and thorax of the male. 

To the same category belong the enormously enlarged mandibles 
sometimes characterising the males. These are ahnost universal 
in the Soag-beetles (LrCANiM:) and occur more rarely iu various 
groups of ScAEAB^BiD^, Dicaulocepluilus falcifer being a striking 
Indian example. Tlie two forms of armature are never found 
together. Although the mandibles are normally highly-developed 
in the Dynastin^, in the males of which horns are so common a 
feature, no sexual development there takes place in the mandibles 
except in a few hornless forms (e. g. Aiicognatha), and such 
hypertrophy of the mandibles, wherever it is found, in the 
LucAiNiD^, in Geotrupin.e, HYBOSORiNiE, Melolonthin^, or 
KuTELiKvi;, is never accompanied by cephalic or thoracic outgrowths. 

These structures are in some cases used as weapons of offence 
in contests between males of the same species, and in some others 
of the less extravagant forms serve as tools in the task of nest- 
construction, as M. Pabre has described in Coprh hispanus and 
Geotnipes Ujpliams. But, although they are commonly assumed to 
be all explainable in a similar manner, there are many reasons for 
believing that these uses are secondary and afford no explanation 
of the origin of the armament. The horns are never sharp or 
capable of inflicting injury upon such well-protected bodies as all 
these beetles possess, and they are sometimes extremely slender 
and brittle and directed backwards so that no practical use of any 
kind can be imagined for them. Thus the male of the African 



16 INTRODUCTION. 

Onthopliagns rangifer bears u[)on the head a pair oE long chitinous 
filaments streaming backwards almost horizontally and knobbed at 
the ends, while in the South American Golofa porteri the head 
and thorax each bear a very slender and brittle rod standing 
up vertically. It has been pointed out that such extravagant 
outgrowths are often found in fossil animals of races which have 
no present day representatives, a possible reason for their total 
disappearance being that the hypertrophy has reached a stage of 
such serious inconvenience as to result in the ultimate extinction 
of the race in competition with others not so handicapped. Perhaps 
they are best regarded as analogous to some characteristics 
of the aristocracy in certain races of mankind, such as the con- 
tracted feet and long nails of the Chinese, that is, as practical 
inconveniences endured with satisfaction as the proofs of an idle 
existence. In the female beetles, which have always the duty of 
j)roviding for the succeeding generation, frequently involving very 
laborious and complicated operations, and in such males as co- 
operate, as many do, in these labours, the operation of Natural 
Selection ensures the development of every part of the body upon 
strictly utilitarian lines and the perpetuation of any impeding out- 
growths is impossible ; but when tliese functions ars confined to 
one sex this factor operates upon that alone, and the forces which 
produce variation, whatever they may be, taking the path of least 
resistance, seem to concentrate upon the features thus left free 
to them. 

A frequent sexual difference in the form of the front tibiae will 
illustrate this idea. In the females these are nearly always broad 
and strong and provided with sharp teeth at the outer edge, an 
effective digging implement resulting. In Passalid^, where 
there is an equal division of labour between the sexes, and in 
many other Laraellicornia, no difference is found in this respect, 
but in a very large number these limbs are more slender in the 
males, and the teeth are either absent or so spaced as to be evidently 
less serviceable. Every stage of disparity can be found in different 
species from one scarcely perceptible until a grotesque degree of 
elongation is reached in the male. The process has attained its 
limit in the strange genus Euchlrus, of which there are two 
Indian species. 

An interesting phenomenon in connection w ith these character- 
istics of the male sex is the relation between the degree of their 
development and the size of the insect, both individualh' and 
specifically. The maximum development is only found in the 
largest specimens of their kind and a regular diminution accom- 
panies diminished size of the individuals, until in very dwarfed 
specimens these features may be absent altogether. A similar, 
but less exact, correspondence can be traced in the relative sizes 
of the species of a group. The smaller forms are almost always 
without well-marked secondary sexual features, which become 
most accentuated in the giant forms. This is well illustrated in 
the Cetoxiix.'e and Dyxastix.?:. 



LA.MELLICORNIA. 17 

Differences of coloux' or of the sculpturing of the upper surface 
distinguish the sexes in various groups, and these probably result 
in most cases in making the females less conspicuous than the 
males, by a closer assimilation to their usual environment, or 
perhaps afford them special protection at the time of egg-laying, 
when they and their progeny are exposed to the greatest danger. 
The colour of the male is frequently brighter, as in many species 
of Macronota and Anoniala, and in the large Chalcosoma atlas already 
mentioned, the male of which is metallic green and very smooth 
and brilliant, while the female is dull and slightly hairy. In 
many of the Valgini and Hopliini the males are decorated with 
bright-coloured scales, which do not appear or are much reduced 
in the other sex. 

There are many other differences which have, or may be assumed 
to have, a more direct relation to the functions of the respective 
sexes than those which have been mentioned. The caudal style 
of the female Charitovalgus is evidently of use in oviposition, 
although the difference of habit which must exist between it and 
other closely allied genera has not yet been ascertained. The 
frequent difference between the sexes in the antennae has already 
been referred to. In Melolonthinj^ and Rutelin.e a larger club 
is almost universal in the male, the component joints being longer 
and in some of the former more numerous, the footstalk in the 
latter case being of course proportionately reduced. Similar 
differences are found in other groups, but less frequently. 

I have already mentioned the enlargement of the claws of many 
male Rutelinve and others. This usually occurs only in the inner 
claw of the fore-foot, the claw-joint being generally correspond- 
ingly enlarged and the whole tarsus thickened and shortened. In 
certain Dtnastin^ the enlarged claw is cleft or toothed, but in 
the RuTELiN.E the reverse condition is not uncommon, this claw 
being cleft in the female but entire in the male. Occasionally, as 
in some species of Parastasia, the disparity occurs in the claws of 
the middle foot. In some Melolonthin^ and EuxELiNiE the 
front tarsal joints of the male bear broad hairy pads beneath. 

The abdomen of the male is often arched or hollowed beneath 
or otherwise different from that of the female, and in certain 
instances where a stridulating apparatus is borne upon the dorsal 
part it is found to present differences in the two sexes, perhaps as 
a consequence of the different form of the abdomen or its greater 
muscularity in the male. 

A multitude of other differences, affecting almost every part of 
the body, might be enumerated, but enough have been mentioned 
to show that in the Lamellicornia these sexual disparities are of 
more than usual importance and interest. 

Food and Hahits. 

Most Lamellicorn beetles feed during the larval stage upon 
dead vegetable or animal matter, and in the adult period upon the 
same substances or the juices of plants. The eggs, so far as they 
have been observed, are spherical or shortly elliptical in shape, 

c 



18 INTRODUCTION. 

with a smooth, yellowish and rather leathery exterior. In 
Melolonthin^ and Dynastin.e they have been observed to 
increase considerably in size before hatching. They are sometimes 
coated with a glutinous matter so that they gather earthy particles 
apparently serving for concealment. The larvse generally Uve 
underground, in rotten tree-trunks or heaps of debris, some doing 
considerable injury by destroying the roots of grass or cultivated 
crops, while certain kinds greatly offend in the perfect state by their 
devastations among flowers or foliage. These agricultural pests 
belong for the most part to the MELOLONTniN.E, some destruc- 
tive genera of which, e. g. Laclmosterna, Serica and Ajior/onia, are 
found in great numbers throughout the East. Orifctes rhinoceros 
does great damage to Cocoauut palms by tunnelling through the 
growing top, but is also found in very great numbers in tan-yards, 
manure-heaps, etc. The majority of species of the great groups 
CoPRiN^ and APHODiiN.i:, many of which are very familiar, feed 
upon the excrement of vertebrate animals, but a few are carrion- 
feeders. Various species of Onthophagus devote themselves to 
removing tlie remains of other insects, etc. Mr. H. M. Lefroy 
records tliat 0. gravis speedily discovers and removes the dead 
locusts which at certain times cumber the ground in great numbers 
in the Plains. As all these transport the food-material below 
ground for the benefit of their progeny, they must be regarded as 
beneficial from the human standpoint. 

Although frequently found in very large numbers Laraellicorn 
beetles are by no means prolific, many species laying only half a 
dozen ^gg^^, or even less. Two or three years may be passed in 
development, and the life of the adult may extend to more than 
one season, so that the duration of life is comparatively long. 

The female beetle generally tunnels below the surface of tho 
ground to deposit her eggs, and elaborate provision is sometimes 
made for the offspring. Both parents may share in these labours 
and even in tending the young. Probably monogamy is very 
exceptional amongst insects, but in widely separated groups of 
Lamellicorns we hnd the male and female associated for a con- 
siderable time and accomplishing, by a regular division of labour, 
tasks of surprising magnitude and complexity. Most of our know- 
ledge on this very interesting subject is due to M. Fabre, who 
has published (Souvenirs Entomologiques) a remarkable series 
of observations upon the habits of insects inhabiting the South of 
France, where are found representatives of many of the genera 
of the Indian fauna. 

From exceedingly early times the peculiar ball-rolling habits of 
the Sacred Scaralnvus and its allies in Southern Europe, Asia, and 
Africa have attracted attention. It has been supposed that the 
ball of dung contained at its centre the eggs of the beetle and 
that the rolling ])rocess in some way conduced to the well-being 
of the progeny ; but M. Fabre has shown that the real object is 
the transporting to a suitable retreat of the food of the beetle 
itself, and that the ball which actually contains the egg is con- 
structed underjrrouud in a burrow to which the materials have 



LAMELLICOENIA. 19 

been first carried. In this case the female seems to perform the 
whole of the parental duties, but in Geotrupes, another genus 
common to Europe (including Britain) and India, the two parents 
share equally the labour of constructing and provisioning the 
subterranean nest, each species excavating a burrow of different 
design and sometimes of great extent. In Copris, species of 
which are found in nearly every part of the world, including 
Britain and India, a large subterranean chamber is dug out by the 
two beetles and provisioned. The eggs, from 2 to 7 in number, 
in the European species which have been studied, are enclosed 
each in a separate pear-shaped cell of complex structure, and the- 
young, although invisible, are guarded throughout their develop- 
ment by the mother, who repairs cracks in the cells, removes 
mildew and probably keeps ofi' enemies. Erom the small size of the 
families in these insects and the usual abundance of the species, it 
must be inferred that the percentage of larval mortality is very 
low. The cells made by some of the Indian species of Heliocopris 
and Catharsius are very large and cased with a very thick outer 
layer of clay, but there is always a point at which the outer 
crust thins out, allowing sutficient air to penetrate to the interior 
for the purpose of the inmate. 

Colonel 8ykes described in 1835 * the discovery of five of these 
balls, which wei'e at first taken to be ancient stone cannon-balls 
but proved on examination to contain beetle pupae. Two of them 
were retained and the mature beetles emerged from them 1 3 and 
16 months later respectively. These balls were two inches in 
diameter and belonged to Heliocopris miclas, but this is not a very 
large species and the balls of Heliocopris dominus may be twice 
as bulky. The beetles are no doubt able to remain imprisoned 
for considerable periods awaiting the rains which soften the hard 
crust of their cells and allow them to escape. Mr. Lefroy records 
that one of the balls has been found eight feet below the surface 
of the ground. 

In a European Greotrupid, Lethrus apterus, the male has been 
often observed guarding the burrow within which the female is at 
work, and fiercely attacking other beetles of its species which may 
attempt to appropriate the fruit of its labours. The burrow of 
this species gives access to a series of oval chambers, in each of 
which an egg is laid and a store of food provided, consisting of 
tender shoots of the vine bitten off and carried home. 

The highest degree of social organisation of which we are yet 
aware in these insects is reached in the PassaliDjE, the habits of 
which have in recent years been investigated by Dr. Ohaus. 
Although the species studied are South American, those inhabiting 
India and most other warm regions are so very closely related 
that the life-histories of all are probably very similar. They feed 
upon rotten wood, and are found within or beneath old tree- 
trunks. Within each burrow Dr. Ohaus found larvae of different 
ages together with the two parents. This, together with the results 

* Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. vol. i. p. 130. 

C2 



20 rMEODUCTlOX. 

of such dissections as I have made, seems to point to thehkeUhood 
of these insects being viviparous, which, if confirmed, will be yet 
another most abnormal characteristic of this peculiar family. The 
larvae are much more active than those of other Lamellicornia, but 
seem to be incapable of feeding themselves and quickly die if 
separated from their parents. The wood is pulverised for them by 
the jaws of the latter and, Dr. Ohaus believes, mixed with a 
digestive secretion before it is supplied to them. Both larvte and 
adults possess well-developed vocal organs, as already described, 
and Dr. Ohaus records * that upon one occasion, having broken up 
a stump and so dislodged a family of Passalid-E, he put them all 
upon the ground and continued his search for other insects. 
When about to leave the spot his attention was attracted by a 
fqueaking noise and, being guided by the sound to a log a short 
distance away, he found beneath it the two parent beetles and 
several of their young ones, all stridulating vigorously, while, as 
if directed by their cries, the remaining larvae, also squeaking, 
were hastening towards them as fast as intervening obstacles 
would allow. 

The life-history of most of the forms which feed in partly de- 
composed wood, like the Lucanid.e and many liuTELix.E, or in 
vegetable debris or among the roots of plants, like most Cetoxiin'^, 
Dyxastinm;, and Meloloxtiiix.!:, is much simpler and, although 
the larval development may occupy two or three years, the life of 
the adult is frequently very short. Thus many Melolonthin"^ 
appear at a fixed period of the year, are found in enormous 
numbers for a few days, and then disappear completely. The 
females merely deposit their eggs in loose soil a little below the 
surface and the larva) feed at large until fully grown. A cocoon 
is then formed on the spot, the outermost layer generally con- 
sisting of fragments of earth, wood, root-fibres, or whatever 
material forms the food of the species, while the inner substance 
and agglutinative material is furnished, not by glands opening 
into the mouth, but by the intestine. The interior is oval in shape, 
and its walls generally quite smooth and polished. 

Lamellicorn larvae appear to form the only food of the young of 
the very large Solitary AVasps of the genus iScoHa. The female 
wasp seeks her victim underground and paralyses it by means of 
her sting, an operation which is facilitated by the concentration 
of the ventral nerve ganglia in the thorax as already described. A 
single egg is then laid upon the immobile body and the wasp larva, 
upon its emergence a few days later, finds a ready and sufficidnt 
supply of food, fresh and living but incapable of resistance. The 
prey is speedily reduced to a hollow skin, the vital organs being 
avoided until the last, and the parasite then forms its cocoon 
upon the scene of the tragedy.t 

A peculiar manner of life found in several different groups is 
that of the " myrmecophilous " and " termitophilous " species, that 
is, those which have attached themselves to Ants and Termites 

* Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1900. p. 170. 

t J. Fabre, Souvenirs Emoniulogiques, vol. iii. 



LAMELLICOUNIA. 21 

respectivel)^ living and feeding in the nests of those insects. Such 
a habit is generally accompanied by very marked peculiarities of 
structure, often so great as to completely obscure the real relation- 
ships of the species. The Ceemastochilini, of which a number 
are described in the present volume, are good examples of these 
interesting insects. It seems probable that these feed upon the 
substance of the nest in defiance of its proper inhabitants. They 
generally pi*esent a curiously compact and invulnerable exterior, 
^vhich evidently serves to secure them against attack. Whether 
their larvce possess any corresponding adaptation is unknown. 
Another group appear to act as scavengers of the nests in which 
they live, or are otherwise serviceable to the proprietors and are 
not molested by them. The curious OntJiopJiagns myrmecopMlus, 
which inhabits the nests of Pheidologiton in tree-trunks, may be 
inferred, from the habits of the genus to which it belongs, to have 
a scavenging function there. 

Most remarkable of all are those forms which have a special 
apparatus for the secretion of a fluid, for the sake of which they 
are prized and tended by their hosts. Two Indian genera at 
least, Coryilioderus and Ciicetopistlies, belonging to the Subfamily 
CoPRiiSr.^, are of this class. In these certain deep cavities exist in 
the prothorax or elyti'a into which secretory glands open and from 
which spring tufts of bright yellow hairs. The fluid probably 
flows over these hairs and is licked off by the Termites with which 
tlie various species of these two genera live ; or possibly the hairs 
are connected with a nervous apparatus and their stimulation by 
the Tei-mites promotes the secretion. The organs of the mouth 
are degenerate in the beetles, an indication that they ai'e fed by 
their hosts ; and from exactly similar phenomena in quite other 
groups of beetles, it can safely be assumed that the secretion is 
regarded as a luxury by the hosts and for its sake the beetles and 
their young are cherished and all their wants supplied. 

Classification. 

It will be found that in the course of this work methods of 
classification more or less at variance with those at present adopted 
have been introduced, and names of genera and species now in 
frequent use are rejected with a freedom that may not find 
general approval. The classification here adopted does not pretend 
to finality in its details, but only to convenience, for the time 
when knowledge of the constituent forms of any group of Lamelli- 
cornia will even approach completeness is yet far off, and, as new 
forms reveal themselves, apparent breaks of continuity must dis- 
appear and revision of the limits of the groups which sysremati- 
sation renders necessary be continually repeated. Genera and 
larger divisions are therefore arbitrary and their most convenient 
limits must remain a matter of opinion. The system which has 
been adopted of expressing in tabular form the most salient differ- 
ential characters of every species, genus and larger division has 
provided a crucial test of existing groupings and entailed a con- 
sistency which is not to be expected from the short memoirs by 



22 INTEODUCTION. 

many authors (few of them laying claim to any comprehensiveness 
or continuity), which form a large part of the literature of this 
subject. 

Por the purpose of accurate identification it is obviously 
desirable that every group should be distinguished by features of 
both sexes, but unfortunately in the Lamellicornia, in which, more 
than in any other beetles, the most salient features are seen in 
the male alone, this principle has been Aery frequently infringed. 
Species and genera have been constantly based upon examples of 
one sex only and often without ascertaining or recording the sex. 
Sexual characters may be the chief criteria in the discrimination of 
species, and it may even be necessary to separate forms of which 
one sex appears to us to be without differential characters, but I 
consider such features, unconfirmed by any other, quite inadequate 
for forming genei'a or superior divisions. They may be \aluable 
as supplementing more fundamental, but less obvious differences, 
but as a rule they are very inconstant, and species whose relation- 
ship is undeniably very close often display wide differences in this 
respect. Genera which have been sunk on this ground will often 
be found to contain very few, or only one, species. 

Wherever any marked external difference between the two sexes 
is found it has been pointed out, and care has been taken to exclude 
from the general descriptions all features distinctive of one sex. 
As it sometimes happens that a species is known only from a 
single specimen, or examples of one sex, it is not always possible to 
distinguish such features. 

In order to ensure accurate nomenclature, no effort has been 
spared to obtain actual types or co-types for examination whenever 
possible. Unfortunately some have not been traced, but mention 
of the present location of the type has been made m lien it has 
been ascertained, and those studied in the course of this work are 
indicated with an asterisk. 

It should perhaps be mentioned that all descriptions are drawn 
from Museum specimens and, as regards colours at least, will 
perhaps be found not always to apply accurately to living speci- 
mens, owing to inevitable changes which take place after death. 
Such knowledge as the author has of the insects in their natural 
state is derived from European forms alone, a disadvantage which 
is to be regretted, although it must be remembered that in so vast 
a region as India only a fraction of the species of any large group 
are likely to come under the observation of any single individual 
even with the maximum of opportunity, whilst it is in Europe 
alone that that fauna can be studied with even approximate com- 
pleteness and in relation to the faunas of adjacent regions and of 
the world in general. 

The Lamellicornia are divided into three Families which may 
be briefly distinguished as follows : — 
Antenna? not elbowed nor capable of being 

rolled up, the joints of the club very thin 

and doselv co-adapted SCARAB.flEIDiE. 



LAMELLICOBNIA. 23 

A.ntennse not elbowed, the joints of the club 

not very thin, brought together by 

rolling up PASSALIDJE. 

Antennae elbowed, not capable of rolling up, 

the joints of the club not very thin nor 

closely co-adapted LTJCANID^. 

Prof. Ivolbe regards the last group as a Subfamily of the first 
and adds another family, Synteliid^, consisting of the isolated 
genus Syntelia, but the grounds of this are debatable and I prefer 
to retain the older classification. 

In the ScAEAB^ici, which comprise an enormous majority of 
the Lamellicornia, the number of joints in the club of the antenna 
is invariably three, except in some of the Melolonthinse and two 
extremely primitive genera Pacliypus and Pleocoma, the first in- 
habiting Europe and the second North America. The family is 
generally divided into two great groups, according to the position 
of the abdominal spiracles, but certain primitive forms are really 
intermediate between the two, and a South American genus, 
Aclopus, is stated to be Pleurostict in the female and Laparostict 
in the male, that is, the abdominal spiracles are placed in the 
chitinous riugs in the first and in the connecting membrane in the 
second. Xo intermediate forms are found in the Indian fauna, 
which comprises the following Subfamilies : — 

Posterior spiracles situated in the dorsal part of 

the chitinous ventral segments PLEUROSTICTI. 

Labrnm membranous, not exserted. 

Mandibles not visible externally ; front coxa9 

vertical Cetoniinae, p. 32. 

Mandibles partly visible externally; front 

coxae transverse Dynastinae, 

Labrum chitinous and visible externally. [p. 256. 

Posterior spiracles placed in strongly diverging 

lines : claws movable, unequal Rutelinae. 

Posterior spiracles placed in scarcely diverging 

lines : claws generally fixed and equal .... Melolonthinae. 
Posterior spiracles situated in the membrane 

between dorsal and ventral segments LAPAROSTICTI. 

Labrum and mandibles very prominent, hori- 
zontal. 

Eyes entire Ochodaeinae. 

Eyes divided in front. 

'Antennae ll-jointed Geotrupinae, 

Antennae 10-jointed. 

Antennal club simple . Orphninae. 

Antennal club telescopic Hybosorinae. 

Antennae 9-jointed Chironinae. 

Labrum and mandibles large but not horizontal . Troginae. 
Labrum and mandibles reduced and concealed. 
Hind tibia with two spurs, middle coxae not 

widely separated Aphodiinae. 

Hind tibia with one spur, middle coxae widely 
separated Coprinae. 



2-i INTRODUCTION. 

Family SCARAB^ID^. 

Subfamily CETONIINiE. 

These are among the most familiar of beetles in the warmer 
regions of the earth, being typically diurnal, brightly coloured and 
of moderately large size. Some of the most brilliant and striking 
of all animal forms are found in the Subfamily and, as the species 
are often very abundant and make little or no attempt at con- 
cealment, they attract more attention than most other insects, both 
in the liviiig state and in collections. They may perhaps be 
regarded as a group of comparatively late evolution and still en- 
joying the maximum of vigour and prosperity. In consequence 
they form a very homogeneous assemblage without considerable 
gaps and without any important structural variation. As a result, 
classification is very ditficult, the component sections merging 
almost imperceptibly into one another. An effect of the attrac- 
tiveness of the group is that it has received a special amount 
of attention from a very large number of sj'^stematists of every 
kind, but, although the literature relating to it is exceptionally 
large, it has received very little serious scientific study. Of the 
metamorphoses and habits of the species we know lamentably little, 
and for any comprehensive classification it is necessary to go back 
to a period ^hen the number of known forms had reached only a 
fraction of its present size. The Monograph of the group by 
Grory and Percheron published in 1833, although illustrated with 
copious coloured figures, is a most unsatisfactory work which 
probably introduced more confusion than it cleared up. The 
admirable volume devoted to the subject by Burmeister (Hand- 
buch der Entomologie, vol. iii, 1842) is unfortunately without 
illustrations, and a further misfortune for the Indian fauna was 
occasioned by the practically simultaneous publication with it 
of Westwood's work on " The Goliat hideous Cetouiida? of Asia" 
(Arcana Entomologica, vol. i.) and of Blanchard's " List of 
Cetoniidse" in the Paris Museum. In these works different 
names were in various cases given independently to the same 
form. Thus "Westwood's genus Heterorrhina is Burmeister's 
Coryphocera and Ileterorrh'ma dives of Westwood was actually 
described by Burmeister from the same miique specimen as 
Alystroceros dlardi. In such cases I have allowed the priority to 
Westwood, whose work was published in two parts, the second 
appearing on the 1st September 1842, while Burmeister's Preface 
being dated September 1842, may safely be assumed to have been 
unpublished on the first of that month. 

The number of Cetoniin,^ now recorded for the whole world is 
about 2500, and of these nearly 2o0 are here enumerated as 
Indian. 



CETOXiiisriE. 25 



Structure. 



The exterior is very bard and chitinous, fi-eqiienth' covered witlv 
a peculiar bloom, like that of a ripe plum, and decorated with 
spots or patches of white or yellow consisting of a powdery sub- 
stance which appeal's to be of a similar nature to hairs or scales 
and usually occupies slight depressions in the integument. In 
rare cases this substance has a silvery, golden or opalescent lustre, 
but it is generally quite dull. In the small species forming the 
section Valgini this type of decoration is not found, but the body 
is more or less covered with scales of different colours, by which 
patterns are produced. 

As in the Dynastinj^, Euteli>^e and INIeloloxthix.e, the 
abdomen is composed of six segments ventrally, the last dorsal one 
is large and exposed, and the posterior spiracles are situated in 
the chitinous dorsal part of the ventral segments and not in the 
flexible membrane connecting the ventral and dorsal parts of the 
abdomen. A peculiarity in the structure of the spiracles is found 
in the Valgixi and a few members of other sections, the last pair 
of spiracles, and sometimes in a less degree the one or two pairs 
immediately preceding, being placed at the end of prominent 
horny tubercles. 

The front of the head, or clypeus, is always well developed, 
forming as a rule a broad shovel- like instrument and apt, 
occasionally in both sexes, but more often in the male alone, to 
give rise to horns of various forms and sometimes considerable size. 
In a few cases the prothorax of the male bears a similar 
armature. 

The prothorax is typically fitted very closely to the hinder part 
of the body, generally having eitlier an excision in front of the 
scutellum or a prolongation by which the latter is partly or entirely 
concealed. All the species are active fliers and, except in the 
small section of the Teichiini, flight is accomphshed in a very 
characteristic manner, with which is connected the most distinctive 
features of their external anatomy. The elytra are not lifted high 
and carried back to back in flight, according to the common manner 
of beetles, but are only slightly raised and the wings are slipped 
out beneath their lateral edges. The elytra accordingly only 
wrap over the body near the shoulders and are more or less reduced 
at the sides, sometimes becoming quite narrow and distinctly 
exposing the lateral parts of the back. Together ^vith this com- 
parative immobility of the elytron, has been produced a general 
consolidation of the body and close co-adaptation of its parts. 
The epimera of the mesosteruum are so developed as to fill the 
angles" between the prothorax and the shoulders of the elytra and 
the prothorax slides over the elytron and the mesothorax, so that 
even when drawn forward it has not free play in all directions 
but remains closely applied to the hind body. There is thus no 
arresting ridge at the front of the elvtra and scutellum as in the 



26 INTKODUCTION. 

most nearly related groups., and the apparent size of the scutellum 
changes with the position of the prothorax. This feature, how- 
ever, is absent in the Trichiixi and Valgixi and in a few of the 
remarkable horned Cetoxiixi. Another peculiarity of the Sub- 
family is the pigmentation of the wings, the terminal part and 
often the whole being coloured a deep red-brown or blue-black. 
This is very unusual in beetles, although often found in insects in 
Mhich the wings ai'e always exposed. 

The front coxa^ do not spread out in a transverse direction, as in 
the Dynastix.t:, &c., but are inserted vertically, very prominent 
and in close contact, and the presternum is not elevated behind 
them. The middle coxse are transverse and level with the meta- 
sternum, the front of which projects between them and often in 
front of them, sometimes forming a long pointed or truncated 
process. The end of tlie process consists of an elevated part of 
the mesosternum united to the metasternum, but the line of 
junction is not always traceable. The hind coxie are large, meeting, 
except in the small species forming the Valgini, and generally 
prominent at the sides of the body and visible from above. The 
femora are simple and differ little, although those of the hind legs 
are thickened or arched in the males of a few forms. The front 
tibiae are generally toothed externally, at least in the female, and 
the teeth are never more than three in number except in the 
Valgini, most of which ha^•e five. The posterior tibiaj have often 
an internal fringe of hairs and an external .spine near the middle. 
The tarsi consist of five simple joints, except in certain 
Ckemastochilini, which, living in the nests of Ants or Termites, 
have become entirely abnormal in many points of their structure, 
like many other insects leading the same peculiar life. The claws 
are always simple and immovable, with rare exceptions in the front 
claws of the males of certain African forms. 

The mouth is adapted for dealing ouly with soft or liquid food, 
except in the Cbemastociiilini, which have the mandibles strong 
and sharp although small. The labrum is reduced to little more 
than a vestige, forming two membranous lobes entirely concealed 
in the roof of the mouth. The maudibles, except those of the 
Cremastociiilini, are thin and incapable of biting, consisting of 
a blunt flexible rod with a membranous internal fringe at the base. 
The maxillaj are well-developed, strong and generally toothed. 
In typical Cetoniin.e they are covered with long hairs, which form 
terminal tufts, often visible externally and apparently the chief 
means of collecting the sweet juices upon which the insects feed. 
The mentum is very chitinous, without a distinct ligula, and 
generally bears long stiif hairs. JJoth maxillary and labial palpi 
are 3-jointed and slender. In the Cremastochilixi the mentum 
is dilated and forms a kind of operculum, coinciding with the 
clypeus and shutting in completely all the other organs of the 
mouth. 

The eyes are large, prominent and very finely facetted, and the 
antennai consist of ten joints, the last three forming the club, and 
varying very little. The basal joint is larger than the rest, and in 



CETONIIN.i;. 



27 



some Cremastochilini and Valgini is very broad and serves to 
enclose and protect the sensitive parr of the organ when the head 
is folded beneath the thorax. 

Sexual Dimorphism. 

In several genera the male bears a pair of horns or antlers upon 
the head, and there are a few (although at present no Indian 
representative is known) in which a single horn is borne upon 
the prothorax. In Trigonoplwrus both sexes bear a process at 
the front of the clypeus and another process upon the forehead 
the latter differing' in male and female; while in Heterori-hina an 
appendage is always found upou the forehead in the female, but 
not always in the male. Much more frequent sexual differences 
are found in the structure of the legs. I have already remarked 
that these are almost always used in the female for digging. The 
front tibia is of chief importance for this purpose, and is accord- 
ingly strong and armed externally with teeth, generally three m 
number. In many males this function does not exist, and the 
tibia is less stout and strong and the teeth reduced or quite absent. 
In some, such as Jumnos rucheri (PI. I, fig. 6), the whole leg is 
greatly elongated and the tibia is fantastically toothed on the lower 
surface. The tarsi are very often more slender in the male than m 
the other sex. On the other hand the hind legs are sometimes 
stronger in the male than in the female, as in Eucliloropus lintus. 
A shght but peculiar feature is often found in the two spines at the 
end of the hind tibia, which are commonly short and sharp in the 
male, and longer and blunter in the female. Elongation of the club 
of the antenna, very general in the males of other subfamilies, 
is rare in the Ceioniin^. The form of the abdomen very 
frequently differs, the males having the lower surface arched or 
even deeply hollowed out along the middle. In females of Vahjus 
and Charitovalfjus the end of the abdomen gives rise to a long 
slender style suggestive of the ovipositor of Hymenoptera and 
other insects. 

Differences of colour and pattern also occur, althoughthey are 
less common than structural differences. Generally their nature 
has been overlooked and the two sexes have been described as 
distinct species, as in various members of the genera Macronota 
and Glyaipliana. In such cases the male is usually brightly 
coloured and the female dull and undistinguished. Thus in 
Macronota crucicollis and oherthuri, two South Indian species, the 
males are red or black, decorated with an elaborate pattern of 
white lines, while the females are coloured auuiform clayey-brown. 
In the North-Indian Heterorrliina mutahilis and ff. dispar, the males 
are resplendent in exquisite shades of green, blue or purple, and 
the females an unpleasing dull brown or black. In some of the 
Valgini, in which the markings are due to the arrangement of 
different coloured scales, the colours are also different in the two 
sexes, and here again the males have brighter and more varied 
colours. 



28 IXTRODLX'TIOX. 

Colour and Pattern. 

Few, if any, groups of beetles offer richer materials for a study 
of the problems of colour and pattern than the Cetoniinm. 
Black or dull-coloured species are exceptional and found only in 
the Ckemasxociulixi and a few genera peculiar in their very 
retiring or jiocturnal habits. Some, however, are of a highly 
polished and lustrous black, relieved with patches of bright orange, 
red or green, as in the genus Diceros, a sharp contrast which must 
make them very conspicuous in almost any environment. In the 
highly characteristic Indian group of the Heteeokeiiinides vivid 
greens predominate and the surface is always very shining, 
frequently glassy. This colouring is very variable, and different 
individuals of a species may be grass green, olive green, indigo, 
purple, blue, black, fiery red, or golden green. Such shades may 
always be regarded as interchangeable and of no significance for the 
purpose of classification. All the species, however, are not equally 
variable, for while some shade of green is nearly always the normal 
one, in some species other colours are almost ot equal frequency, as 
for instance in Tortjnorrhina dlstincta and Httcrorrhiaa nigritarsis^ 
and in others they are of rare occurrence, as in Heterorrhina 
punctatissima and most species of Triffonophorus. Defect of pig- 
ment in all these green species seems to result in the production 
of fiery reds, and it is probable that the red condition is passed 
through in the process of attaining the full colouring of maturity. 
Experiment shows that it is produced in dead specimens by the 
chemical decomposition which takes place in the green pigment 
upon prolonged exposure to sunlight. 

In the Heteeokrhinides colour patterns do not occur, or only 
in a few cases in tlie sha])e of large masses of yellow or black. In 
the most typical Cetoxiix-E, represented by the genera Ceionia, 
Protatia, C'J inter ia, etc., ])atterus are the rule and are due to a very 
fine powdery substance genei-ally lying in and filling depressions 
in the surface and therefore less easily worn off than is often the 
case with similar powdery or scaly adornments. These decorations 
are always white or some shade of yellow, occasionally approaching 
red, and can almost always be traced to a primitive arrangement 
of spots which recurs over and over again throughout the group. 
The primary spots are a ])air placed transversely behind the 
middle of the pronotum and four behind the middle of the elytra 
in a transverse, but not a straight line. Secondary, and generally 
smaller, spots constantly found are a pair before the middle of the 
pronotum, a pair at the hind margin of each elytron, two or three 
at the outer margin, and one or more near the scutellum on each 
side. The spots have a marked tendency to lengthen and coalesce, 
those of the thorax longitudinally and those of the elytra trans- 
versely, forming irregular bands, of which one crossing the elytra 
beyond the middle is always a prominent feature. The further 
development of the bands produces a complex irregular network, 
and finally, as in Protatia fusca, a fine cobweb of interlacing pale 



CETONIIN.^E. 29 

lines. The inavkiug is almost tihvays accompanied on the lower 
surface by more massive light patches upon the side pieces of the 
thorax and the sides of the first four abdominal segments. 

The two types of pattern sometimes occur together, the super- 
ficial powdery markings overlying an arrangement of two colours 
in the inner layers of the integument and so producing a triple 
colour-scheme, Tliis is frequent in the genus Macronota, in which 
the evolution of pattern reaches its furthest limit in Lamellicorn 
beetles. In several species of the genus complex patterns of 
black and red underlie still more complex traceries of white or 
yellow. In Macronota m'sus and M. westwoodi the pattern is pro- 
duced by a long dense covering of black and orange hairs, which, 
together with the shape of the body, bring about an extraordinarily 
close resemblance to two species of Humble Bees inhabiting the 
same district as the beetles. Few more striking, or more obviously 
useful, instances of mimicry than these could be found. In some 
of the other species of the genus, entirely different in appearance 
but closely similar in structure, a peculiar iridescent sheen upon 
the long narrow elytra, the partly uncovered yellow- or white- 
banded abdomen, and the general form of the body suggest a 
mimetic resemblance to wasps or bees which observation of the 
insects in nature may or may not confirm. Various species of 
CBTONiiN.i: are known to be unpalatable to birds and other insecti- 
vorous animals, and it can hardly be doubted that the boldly 
contrasted colours of many species, such as CUnieria imperialis 
and Glycosla tricolor, are warning colours for advertising this 
inedible quality. 

In the ValgijSti another type of decoration appears, the whole 
or greater part of the body being covered with scales or set£e of 
large size relatively to that of the body and of more or less 
diversified colours, ranging from white, through all shades of 
yellow and brown, to black. These scales or setae are very liable 
to abrasion, leaving the underlying uniformly black or brown 
surface exposed. 

Hahits and Metamorplwses. 

With the remarkable exception of a Tropical American genus, 
Inca, the larvae of which were recently found by Dr. Ohaus to have 
the power of climbing trees, the larvae of Cetonitn^ do not differ in 
any important particular from those of DrNASTiN^E or Rutelin.e, 
so far as they are at present known. Like those of nearly all 
Lamellicornia,they are inactive and live concealed, generally under- 
ground, where they feed upon roots, decaying wood or vegetable 
debris. The habits of the more peculiar genera of the Indian 
fauna are still unknown, and the only information vv-hich I have 
been able to obtain on this subject concerns those genera which, 
besides India, inhabit Europe or other parts of the world. 
M. Fabre* has described the life-histoi'ies of Cetonia, Proto-tia and 

* Souvenirs Entomologiques, vol. viil. 



30 lyXRODUCTION. 

Oxythyrea, three genera common to India and Europe, whose 
manner of life seems almost the same. All of these feed within 
accumulations of decaying leaves and vegetable refuse, the female 
burrowing into the mass and depositing her eggs there. It is a 
remarkable fact, observed by M. Fabre, that this does not take 
place, at least in Europe, until long after maturity has been 
reached. The first summer and autumn of adult life are entirely 
devoted to the consumption of nectar, exuding sap or the juices 
of ripe fruit, and no eggs are laid nntil the following year. 

Protcetia cuprea, P., an abundant species which ranges from 
Southern Europe to Northern India, prefers to de])osit its eggs in 
ants' nests, and apparently only selects other situations when 
suitable nests are not to be found. The larvaj are often found in 
numbers feeding upon the woody material composing the nests 
of Formica rufa and F. pratensis, and seemingly not interfered 
with by the ovi^ners of the nest. 

Although provided with well-developed legs the larva moves 
solely by contractions of the body and generally upon its back. 
The legs seem to serve chiefly for the construction of the cocoon, 
which, after two or three years of larval life, is formed in situ from 
fragments of the food-material cemented together into a cell about 
the size of a pigeon's egg and plastered and smoothed inside with 
matter furnished by the intestine. One to three months are 
passed in the pupal stage and then the perfect insect breaks open 
the cocoon and makes its way above ground, soon beginning to 
feed voraciously. 

In Protatia ciiprea and other species known to breed in ants' 
nests there is no special adaptation of structui-e to this habit, but 
in others, in which perhaps this mode of life is of more ancient 
date and more firmly established, the female shows certain 
adaptations, apparently enabling her better to resist the ants while 
depositing her eggs in the nest ; while the whole of the Cremasto- 
CHiLiNi have acquired in both sexes peculiar characteristics which 
must indicate the adoption of the habit at a very remote period. 
In this group the greater part of the life both before and after 
maturity seems to be spent in the dark recesses of ants' or termites' 
nests, and adults as well as larvae seem to feed upon the nest- 
substance. The bright colouring of the generally light-loving 
Cetoniin.'E has given place to uniform black or brown, the body 
has acquired an extremely hard and compact exterior, and the 
mouth IS adapted for dealing with solid food instead of liquids. 
The mandibles are strong and sharp and the mentum completely 
shuts in all the mouth appendages, so that the whole body presents 
no vulnerable part. In many the basal joint of the antenna forms 
a stopper by which the succeeding joints can be shut up between 
the head and the front legs, and in the genus Callinomes the tarsi 
are reduced to only three visible joints, which are so closely fitted 
together as to be capable of very little movement. 

In one genus of Ckemastochilixi {Macvoma) bright colours 
prevail and the form is less aberrant than in the rest, and, as 
would be expected, the species are diurnal and frequent flowers, 



CETONIIN^. 



31 



although also found in ants' nests. Either there has been a 
reversion to ancestral habits or they have never been entirely lost. 
One other genus {Sinhplwrus) is exceptional in having conspicuous 
white markings (conspicuous when closely examined, that is, but 
probably the reverse in its usual environment) upon a shining 
black background, and there is reason for supposing that this also 
is less completely subterranean in habit than other Ceemasto- 
CHiLiNi. Spilopliorns cretosus has been found in the nest of an ant, 
but congeners inhabiting Africa and having a similar coloration 
are found in birds' nests, upon which their larvse feed, as Mr. Guy 
Marshall has observed. The coloration suggests a cryptic 
adaptation to such an environment and it will probably be found 
that the two Indian species have, at least partially, the same 
habit. 

Several species of Cetonii?^^ in the adult condition attack the 
nests or hives of bees, opening the cells and devouring the stored 
honey. Protcetia opaca around the Mediterranean, P. fusca (an 
Indian species) in Australia, and probably other species, cause 
considerable injury in this way. Others are injurious on account of 
their habit of destroying the stamens of flowers and so preventing 
the formation of fruit. AVhether any of them are capable of 
injuring ripe fruits when in perfectly sound condition, or whether 
they only take advantage of abrasions already existing, is 
uncertain. 



32 CETOXIIX-E. 

The Cetoniin.e consist of three well-defined Divisions, them- 
selves sometimes regarded as forming Subfamilies. They are all 
represented within our region and may be tabulated as follows : — 

Mesostenial epimera dilated above and usually 
reaching the dorsal surface : base of the 

pronotum not meeting ridges upon scutellum [p. 32. 

and elytra (except in Dicranocephalus) .... l)iv. I. Cetoniini, 

Mesosternal epimera not dilated nor reaching the 
dorsal surface : base of the pronotum meet- 
ing ridges upon scutellum and elytra. [p. 222. 

Ilind coxfe widely separated Div. II. Valgini, 

Hind coxpe contiguous Div. III. Trichiini, 

[p. 249. 

The first Division consists of two Sections distinguished as 
follows : — 

Mandibles thin and not sharp-pointed nor adapted 
for biting, furnished with a free membranous 
inner lobe Cetoniina, p. 32. 

Mandibles strong and sharp, without a free mem- 
branous inner lobe Chemastochilixa, 

[p. 198. 



Division 1. CETONIINI. 

Section 1. CETONIINA. 

This section comprises the great majority of the known species 
of Cetoniix.^, including all the largest and most handsome forms 
and those in A\hicli are found united all the characteristic features 
of the Subfamily, viz. the feebly chitinised mandibles, brush-like 
maxilla), ascending mesosternal epimera, and pronotum (except in 
DicranGceplicdus) sliding closely over the base of the hind body 
without meeting any arresting ridge upon the scutellum or elytra. 
In each of the three remaining Sections one or more of these 
features is absent. 

The Cetoxiina are exceedingly homogeneous in all essential 
points of structure, forming a series so nearly unbroken that a 
satisfactory subdivision has never been attained. The frequently 
great differences between the two sexes and the absence of marked 
structural features in the females make it almost impossible to 
define minor groups so as to include both sexes. I have divided 
the genera belonging to the Indian fauna into the following groups, 
but it should be understood that the characters used iu the tables 
which follow are not to be regarded as fundamental or applicable 
to forms from other regions. They are selected only as those most 
easily available for the discrimination of the insects dealt with iu 
the present work. 



DICRANOCEPHALUS. 33 



Key to the Groups of Cetoniixa 

1 (2) Iliud coxje and abdomen completely covered 

by the elytra Goliathidcs, p. 33. 

■2 (1) Hind coxao and abdomen partially visible 

from above. 

3 (8) Sides of the scutellum straight, convex or 

sinuous. _ [p. 35. 

4 (5) Base of the pronotum lobed in the middle . . Macronotides, 

o (4) Base of the pronotum not lobed in the middle [p. 67. 

(7) Base of the pronotum in a transverse line . . Heterorrhinides, 

7 (6) Base of the pronotum not in a transverse line Cetoniides, p. 108, 

8 (3) Sides of the scutellum concave, apex extremely 

sharp. 
(10) Clypeus not forming two sharp angles in [p. 173. 

front ... O.vythyreides, 

10 (9) Clypeus forming two sharp angles in front . . Lomapterides, 
^ [p. 191. 



Group 1, Gouathides^ 

This group contains the well known African giants of the genus 
GoliatJius and the peculiar Oriental genus Dicranocephalus, con- 
sisting of four or five species, of which only one is Indian. 



Genus DICRANOCEPHALUS. 

Dicranocephalus, Westw., Arcana Eiit. i, 1841, p. 5. 
Dicranocephalus, Hope, Gray's Zool. Misc. 1831, p. 24 (midescribed). 

Type, D. ivallicM, Hope. 

Range. N. India, Indo-China and China. 

Form rather short and broad, with a subglobose prothorax, 
widest at the middle and contracted in front and behind, the hind 
singles rounded and the base gently convex. Mesosternal epimera 
distinctly visible from above but not reaching the dorsal surface. 
Scutellum forming an equilateral triangle, with the sides straight 
and the apex rather sharp. Elytra entirely covering the abdomen, 
with their sides straight and the apical angles blunt. Middle coxae 
separated by a narrow process, which is not produced forwards but 
projects vertically downwards and is short and acutely pointed. 
Labrum small, narrow and feebly bilobed. Mandibles very slight, 
with the chitinous outer portion thin, scarcely projecting beyond 
the broad membranous inner lobe. Maxillae very long and slender, 
Avithout inner lobe, acute and bearing a very long hairy fringe at 
the end. Mentum broad and bilobed. 

S . Sides of the clypeus produced into a pair of long branched 
antlers projecting forward and curving backward at the tips. The 
antennae (especially the basal joint) longer than in the $ , and the 
front tibiae and all the tarsi very long, the former slender, slightly 
incurved at the extremity and armed externally with three feeble 

D 



34 



CETONIIN^. 



teeth situated far apart. Tront coxse separated by a wide flat 
interval. 

2 . Clypeus broad, slightly hollowed above, with the front 
angles sharp, Front tibia? broad, strongly tridentate. Tarsi about 
half as long as in the d • 

1. Dicranocephalus wallichi. 

DicrauocepLalus wallichi, 7/o;>(?,* Gray's Zool. Misc. 1831, p. 24; 

Westw., Arcana Ent. i, 1841, p. 5, pi. 1. fig. 4. 
Goliathus wellech, G. ^- P., Monogr. Get. 1833, p. 154. 

Black or piceous, with the horns, legs and abdomen of the male 
reddish and clothed upon the sides of the head, the pronotuin, 
elytra and sides of the sternum, and also, in the male, upon the 
scutellum and pygidium, with an ochreous velvety bloom, leaving 
bare two slightly curved longitudinal carina; upon the prothorax 
and an incomplete lateral carina upon each elytron. 




Fig. 9. — Bkranocephaliisi tralUchi, male (natural size), 
with lateral view (above) and anterior part of fenialo (below). 

The head of the S is coriaceous and hollowed above, with the 
chfpeus minutely notched in the middle, and the sides are produced 
forwards into a pair of long and flattened slender horns, curving 
upwards and having a broad external branch behind the middle 
and a tooth near the apex. The prothorax is very convex and 
strongly narrowed in front and there is a very slight lobe at the 
middle of the posterior margin. All the tarsi and the claws are 
verj' greatly developed. 

* An asterisk (*) indicates that a type or cotvpe has been examined in con- 
nection with the present work. 



DICRA-TfOCEPnALUS. 35 

]n the 2 the head is coarsely punctured above, and the clypeus 
is only sharply angular on each side. The prothorax is shorter 
and less convex, the scutellum and pygidium are naked, and the 
yellow clothing of the remaining surface is liable to disappear 
partially or entirely. The legs are black and quite shoi't. 

Length \ 20-28 mm. ; breadth 11-16 mm. 

Nepal ; Sikkim : Darjiling ; Assam : Khasi Hills, Shillong. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Colonel Bingham, who observed this very striking insect in 
various parts of Sikkim, told me that it is very sluggish and is 
generally found clinging to the trunks of trees, in which situation 
it is very inconspicuous. After heavy rains they become active 
and may be cauglit in large numbers. The males do not appear to 
fight nor to make any use of their large antlers, which seem, on 
the contrary, to be rather inconvenient to them. 



Group 2. Macronotideh. 

This Group consists of insects rather gracefully, not compactly, 
built, and generally much flattened above or even depressed along 
the middle hue of the back. The pronotum is always more or 
less produced over the scutellum but leaves a considerable part of 
it exposed ; and the scutellum itself is moderately long and sharp, 
but not extremely acute as in the Oxtthteetdes and Loma- 

PTERIDBS. 

The sexes are sometimes quite similar but often differ very 
strikingly and the differences may appear in almost any part of 
the external anatomy. 

Table of the Genera. 

1 (6) Body more or less clothed with hair, 

setae or opaque bloom : mesonotum 
not produced into a long process. 

2 (3) Olypeus of the male produced into a 

horn or horns : that of the female 

bidentate Mycteristes, Cast., p. 36. 

a. Clypeus of the male bearing two 

horns subg. Prigenia, Mohn. 

b. Clypeus of the male bearing a 

single horn subg. Cepiialocosmus, Kr. 

3 (2) Clypeus similar in the two sexes, 

rounded or gently hilobed. 

4 (5) Elytra not excised at the outer 

margins Gnorimidia, Lansb., p. 40. 

5 (4) Elytra excised at the outer margins Macronota, Hoff., p. 41. 

6 (1) Body entirely smooth and shining : 

mesosternum produced into a long 

process Clerota, Burm., p. 66. 



t All length measurements are taken from the front of the clypeus, exclusive 
of horns or processes ; the breadth is always the maximum breadth unless 
otherwise stated. 

D 2 



36 CET01CIIN.5:. 



Geims MYCTERISTES. 

Mycteristes, Cast., Hist. Nat. ii, 1840, p. 162. 
Prigouia, Mohnike, Arcli.f. Xatur. xxvii, 1871, p. 228. 
Cephalocosmua, Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. 1895, p. 100. 

Type, GoUathiis rhinoplinllus, Wied. (Java). 

Range. jS". India, Burma, Malayan Eegion. 

Form slender, with rather long legs and the front tibia) sharply 
three-toothed in both sexes. Prothorax much narrower at the 
shoulders than the elytra, wider in the middle than at tlie base, 
and having a very short basal lobe. Scutellar region slightly 
depressed. Scutellum rather sharp at the apex, with the sides 
bisiuuate. Elytra scarcely sinuated behind the shoulders. Meso- 
sternum very slightly prominent between the coxa?. Labrum 
minute, moderately chitinised, bilobed. Mandibles minute, with 
the chitinous lateral lobe feeble, blunt, and not reaching much 
beyond the broad basal membrane. Maxillae strong, armed with 
tliree very sharp and slender teeth set at right angles, and 
terminating in a long and thick tuft of hairs ; palpi rather slender, 
with the terminal joint as long as the others together. Mentum 
elongate, bilobed but not dilated in front ; palpi moderately 
slender. 

The 6 has the head excavated above and the clypeal margin 
produced into two lateral, or a single median, horn. The front 
tibiae and all the tarsi are longer than in the $ and the abdomen 
is longitudinally channelled beneath. 

The 5 has the head flat and the clypeus bidentate, and the legs 
are of normal length. 

In some of the species, although not in those represented in our 
urea, the male bears a horn upon the thorax. 

Keif to the Species. 

1 (2) Head of S firmed with two straight 

bonis khasiana, Jord., p. 36. 

2 (1) Head of S armed with one dilated 

horn. 

y (6) Front angles of the clypeus produced 

in S • [P- 3". 

4 (o) Pronotam evenly and finely strigose inicrophyllas, Wood-Mason, 

f) (4) Pronotum rugos(>ly punctured .... t/esfroi, sp. u., p. 38. 

(3) Front angles of tli'.' clypeus not pro- 
duced in d aun'tus, sp. n., p. 39. 



2. Mycteristes khasiana. 

Prigenia khasiana, Jordan,* Nov. Zoo!, i, 1894, p. 091. 

Obscurely coppery, opaque above and shining beneath ; thinly 
clothed with decumbent grey setae above and more closely with 
short whitish hairs beneath. 



MTCTERISTES. 37 

Elongate in form and flattened above, with the head and pro- 
thorax rugosely punctured. The 2Jrothorax is niucli narrower than 
the elytra at the shoulders, broadest in the middle, beptagonal, 
with tlie sides strongly angulated and the base broadly lobed. The 
scutellum is rather broad and striolated at the base and apex. The 
eh/tra are finely rugose, scarcely at all excised behind the shoulders 
and completely covering the abdomen ; they are narrowed behind, 
and each has a costa along the middle, angulated and dilated 
behind the scutellum. The pygiclium is finely transversely strio- 
lated, and the lower surface of the body rugose. The middle tibice 
have a strong spine beyond the middle of the outer edge, and the 
Jiind tibia' are slender, without a corresponding spine. 

6 . The clypeus is deeply hollowed and produced in front into 
two short parallel horns, bent upwards at the tips and slightly 
toothed externally. The vertex is produced horizontally into two 
tubercles, between which there is a deep emargination. The 
antennal club, the front tibia; and all the tarsi are longer than in 
the 5 and the abdomen is channelled down the middle. 

2 . The head is flat, with the front margin bidentate. The 
prothorax is more rugose than in the c? and considerably more 
dilated in the middle. 

Length 16-5-19 mm. ; breadth 8-9 mm. 

Assam : Khasi Hills. 

Type in Capt. Mosers collection : cotypes in Mr. 0. E. Jauson's 
collection. 



3. Mycteristes microphyllus. 

Mycteristes microphyllus, Wood-Mason,^ Ann. Nat. Hist. (5) vii, 

1881, p. 411, pi. xvii, tigs. A-C. 
Cephalocosmus moewisii, Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. 1895, 

p. 106 ; Janson, Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud. 1903, p. 307. 

Deep bronze-red, not shining, thinly clothed above and below 
with decumbent yellowish seta). 

The body is elongate and rather depressed. The 7iead is rugosely 
punctured," and the pronotmn finely and densely strigose, slightly 
impressed in the middle in front and behind, with the sides roundly 
angulated before the middle and convergent behind, the posterior 
angles obtuse and the base feebly lobed. The scutellum is rather 
long and striolated at the base and apex. The elytra cover the 
abdomen and are very finely rugose, with a costa down the middle 
of each, bent and dilated behind the scutellum. The pygidium is 
finely transversely striolated, and the lower surface ot the body 
rugose at the sides and punctured in the middle. The ioxxx posterior 
tibia} have each a strong spine beyond the middle of the outer 

"^S • The head is excavated above and bears a short horizontal 
posterior process, slightly bitid in front, the angles of the clypeus 
are acuminate and the front margin is also produced in the middle 



38 



CETONIINiE. 



into a small horn which is curved upwards and expanded and 
truncate at the extremity. The antenna! club is rather long, the 
front tibiie and all the tarsi are elongate and the abdomen is 
channelled beneath. 

2 . The clypeus is simple but the anterior angles form short 
sharp processes. The legs are of normal length. This sex is 
extremely like the female of the preceding species, but may be 
distinguished by tlie sharp spine beyond the middle of the hind 
tibia, u hich is absent in that form. 

Length 18 mm. ; breadth 8 mm. 

Assam : Naga Hills ; Sikkim : Darjiling ; Bhutax : Maria 
Basti. 

Type in the Indian Museum ; that of moeivisii in the German 
Entomological National Museum. 



4. Mycteristes (Cephalocosmus) gestroi, sp. n. 

Mycteristes microphyllus, Gesiro* (nee Wood-Mason), Ann. Mus. 
Genova (2) x, 1891, p. 837. 

Bronze-red or green, feebly shining and thinly clothed above 
and beneath with minute whitish setae. It is depressed and 
moderately elongate, with the head and proaotum rugosely punc- 
tured and the latter slightly impressed in front and behind, with 
the sides slightlv convergent behind, the posterior angles obtuse 
and the base feebly lobed. The scntdhnn is long and pointed, 




Fig. 10. — Mf/cterii'ff's ffcsfroi, male, and outline of female. 

rugose at the base and apex, and the elytra cover the abdomen and 
are rather iinely rugose, with a smooth cossta about the middle of 
each, bent and dilated behind the scutellum. The pyyidium is 
finely transversely striolated and tlie lower surface of the body is 
rugose at the sides and i)unctured in the middle. Each of the 
iouv posterior tibia' is armed with a strong spine beyond the middle 
of the outer edge. 



MYCTEEISTES. 39 

(5 . The head is excavated above and bears a short horizontal 
himina behind, which is slightly notched in front. The angles of 
the clypeus are acuminate and the front margin is produced in the 
middle into a small horn curving upwards and dilated in front. 
The club of the antenna is rather long, the front tibiae and all the 
tarsi are longer than those of the female, and the abdomen is longi- 
tudinally channelled beneath. 

$ . The clypeus is simple but the anterior angles are produced 
into short, blunt processes. 

This species is extremely like M. microplvjllus, but it is a little 
shorter and the prothorax is less finely and evenly sculptured, 
distinctly punctured near the middle and broader at the base. 

Length 17-18 mm.; breadth 8 mm. 

Burma : Karen-ni (2700-3300 ft.). 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 



o. Mycteristes (Cephalocosmus) aiiritus, sp. n. 

Coppery, with the head, prothorax, legs and lower surface tinged 
with red and the elytra with green, the whole body very sparsely 
clothed with minute yellowish setae, which are longer vapon the 
head, sternum and sides of the abdomen. It is opaque above, 
depressed, broad at the shoulders and not very long. 

(S . The head is coarsely rugose, concave, with the clypeal 
margin rounded and produced in the middle into a short horn 
strongly recurved and bifid at the end. The lateral margins of 
the head just above tlie antennal sockets are produced upwards 
and forwards forming a pair of hooked laminae in front of the eyes. 
The pronotum is rugosely punctured, almost flat, and forms a 
nearly regular heptagon. The scutellum and elytra have a silky 
lustre, and the former is acute, not very long, and bears a few 
setigerous punctures. The elytra are gently sinuated behind the 
shoulders and taper from there to the end, and each has a strong 
median costa which is bent towards the shoulder. They are 
moderately punctured in the anterior part, the punctures changing 
gradually to longitudinal striolae. The apical angles are a little 
produced. The pygidium is finely transversely rugose and the 
metasternimi and abdomen coarsely rugose, but nearly smooth along 
the middle. The sternal process reaches a very little beyond the 
middle coxae. The legs are slender and the front tibice slightly 
cui'ved, furnished with three very inconspicuous teeth at the outer 
edge and a dense brush of yellow hairs at the inner edge. The 
tarsi are a little longer than the tibiae. 

The 2 is unknown. 

Length 17 mm. ; breadth 9 mm. 

Madras : Nilgiri Hills {H. L. Andrewei). 

Type in the British Museum. 



40 



CETONIINjE. 



Genus GNORIMIDIA. 

Gnorimidia, Lansb., Notes Leijd. Mns. 1887, ix. p. 169. 
Cirrhospila, Kraatz, Deutsche Eat. Zeitschr. 1890, p. 1!70. 

Type, G. toj/cc, Lansb. 

Range. S. India. 

Form broad and robust, flattened above but scarcely at all 
depressed in the seutellar region. Head moderately broad, tbe 
clypeus deflexed, short and rounded in front. Prothorax strongly 
rounded at the sides, with the basal lobe feeble and truncate. 
Scutellum not long, rather broad at the base, with the sides nearly 
straight. Elytra broad and enfolding the sides oi the abdomen, 
not attenuated behind and very feebly sinnated near the middle 
of the outer margins. Mesosternum forming a minute tubercle 
between the middle coxse. Front tibiae sharply tridentate. Middle 
tibia? armed with a strong spine beyond the middh? of the outer 
edge. Hind tibiae unarmed. Tarsi slender and antennal club 
rather long in both sexes. 

The sexes differ little, but the abdomen of the male is longi- 
tudinally channelled. 

Only a single species is known. 



6. Gnorimidia toyae. 

Gnorimidia toyse, Lansb.,* I. c. 

Cirrhospila flavomaculata, Kraatz,^ Deutsche Eiit. Zeitschr. 1890, 
p. 279, pi. 2, fig. 14. 

Black and shining, with a broad brick-red stripe upon each 
elytron extending from the shoulder to the 
suture just before the apex, and with the 
following opaque pale yellow markings :- 
two longitudinal lines upon the head ; the 
sides of the prothorax. a V-shaped mark 
upon its disc extending to the front angles. 
and two adjacent spots at the hind mar 
gin ; the circ-uaiference of the scutellum, 
two large spots near the outer margin of 
each elytron, an intermediate one near the 
inner margin, a minute common one 
behind the last, and the po.sterior part of 
the suture and the apical margin ; three 
elongate patches iipon the pygidium and 
a double line of spots on each side of tbe 
abdomen beneath. 
The entire upper surface is coarsely rugose and sparsely dotted 
with minute seta^. The prothorax is transverse, rather convex, 
with the median part behind very slightly depressed, the sides 




Fig. 11. — Gnorimidia 

tul/CB. 



MACIIONOTA. 41 

rounded in front and strongly contracted behind, and the basal 
lobe very short, broad and truncated. The loiverswf ace is similarly 
rugose, except the middle of the abdomen, whicli is coarsely punc- 
tured and sparingly clothed with short yellow hairs. 

c?. The abdomen is very slightly channelled at the base and the 
antennal club is a trifle longer than in the $ . 

Length 19 mm. ; hreadth 8*5 mm. 

Madras : Trichinopoli, Kodaikanal. 

Tfpe in M. Oberthiir's collection ; that of flavomacidata in the 
German Entomological National Museum. 



Genns MACRONOTA. 

Macronota, Hoffmanser/[/, Wiedem. Zool. Mag. I. i. 1817, p. 15 ; G. 

8f P., Mono(jr. 18.'52, p. 44 ; Burm., Handb. Ent. iii. 1842, p. 320; 

Lucord. Gen. Col. iii, 1856, p. 506. 
Tfeniodera, Burm., op. cit. p. 325. — Type, Macr. monacha, G. & P. 

(Java, &c.). 
Coilodera, Hope, Grays Zool. Misc. 1831, p. 25 (undescribed). 
Mecinonota, Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. 1892, j). 375. — Type, 

Cet. reyia, F. 
Ixorida, TJiotns. Le Ncdurcdiste, 1880, p. 277. — Type, Macronota 

nioiihoti, Wall. 
Carolina, id. I. c. — Type, Macr. annce, AVall. (2 of M. malahariensis) . 
Atfenia, Schoch, Gen. S^- Spec. Cet. 1895, p. 40. — Type, Macr. 

biplagiata, G. & 1*. (Java). 
Pleuronota, Kraatz, I). E. Z,. 1892, p. 312. — Type, P. octomaculata, 

Kr. (Java). 
Meliuospila, id., D. E. Z. 1890, p. 277. — Type, Macr. flavomaciilataj 

G. &P. (Java). 
Bombodes, Westiv., Cabinet of Orient. Entom. 1848, p. 36. — Type, 

Macr. ursns, Westw. 

Type, 31. diardi, G. & P. 

Mange. The Oriental Region. 

Form elongate, with the sides and end of the abdomen distinctly 
visible from above. Clypens long and generally slightly bilobed in 
front. Prolhorax narrower than the elytra at the shoulders, with 
a short posterior lobe not covering the scutellum. Scutellum 
rather long. Elytron cut away behind the shoulders and distinctly 
narrowed towards the apices. Pygidium generally prominent. 
Mesosternnm only slightly prominent between the middle coxpe. 
Legs slender bnt not long, the front tibiae armed with three 
(occasionally only one or two) sharp but short teeth. The upper 
surface is generally covered with a fine bloom which produces a 
silky or velvety appearance. 

The sexes of Macronota frequently difler from each other to a 
very remarkable degree, but there is no single extez'ual feature by 
which they may be distinguished. In several species, e. g., 
M. A-vittata, crucicoUis and oherfhuri, the colour, pattern and shape 
are all difi'erent. The form of the prothorax is frequently diflPerent. 
In most the 6 is distinguished by a close fringe of hairs along the 



42 CETONIIN-i:. 

inner edge of the hind tibia or forming a thick brush near its 
extremity, the hind tarsi are frequently longer, and in some there 
is a considerable difference in the length of the antennal club. 

This is one of the most characteristic and peculiar of Oriental 
genera. It has been subdivided into numerous so-called genera 
according to the phases of its very variable outline, but these pass 
into one another by indefinable degrees. 

Macronota elonyata, G. & P., although attributed by the 
authors to Calcutta, is probably not an Indian species. The 
only examples of authentic origin known to nie are from the 
Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. 

Macronota stictica, Hope, said to inhabit ^Mysore, is a Philippine 
species. I have found the type to be ide)itical with the later- 
described M. (/uttidata. Wall. 

Ke>/ to the Species. 

1 (8) Prothorax dilated from apex to base. 

2 (7) Abdomen not carinate at the sides. 

•3 (6) Proiiotuni do.corated with 3 pale longi- 
tudinal bands. 

4 (5) Long-itudinalbandsi)fpronotum narrow diardi, G. & P., p. 4.3. 

5 (4) Longitudinal bands of pronotinn broad penicillata, Hope, p. 44. 
<3 (3) I'ronotum decorated with 1 pale longi- [p. 4o. 

tudinal baud dlhonotntn, Blanch., 

7 (2) Abdomen carinate at the t-ides I'vijia, Fab., p. 46. 

8 (1) Prothorax not dilated from apex to 

base. 

9 {'rl) Middle tibia bearing a strong spine near 

the middle of the outer edge. 

10 (13) Clypeiis not notclied in front. 

11 (12) ]?ody not thickly hairy Jt(dyi, Sharp, p. 47. 

12 (11) Body thickly hairy se.viuaculata, Kraatz, 

13(10) Clypeus notched in front. [p- 'i'"' 

14 (17) ]}ody densely clothed with long hairs. 

lo (10) Middle tibia armed with one lateral [p. 49. 

spine tcesticoodi, Thorns., 

10 (1.")) Middle tibia armed with two lateral 

spines Krsus, AVestw., p. 48. 

17 (14) I'ody not clothed with long hairs. 

18 (23) Upper surfoce metallic. 

10 (22) Pronotum coarsely, not densely, punc- 
tured, [p. 50. 

20 (21) Body rather short Jlavomaculata, G. vt P., 

21 (20) Bt)dy rather long sericea, Gestro, p. 50. 

22 (19) Pronotum densely punctured 7ii;/ricullis, Jaus., p. 51. 

23 (18) Upper surface not metallic. 

24 (45) I'ronotum sharply angulated at tlie 

sides. [p. 51. 

25 (26) Hind tibia spatulate at the tip flavofasciata, Moser, 

26 (25) Hind tibia not spatulate at the tip. 

27 (32) Mesosternuni minutely toothed on its 

vertical face. 

28 (29) Sides of elytra strongly sinuated : [p. 52. 

elytra red iu front, black behind. , . . mahdiariensig, G. iV: P., 



MACEONOTA. 



43 



29 (28) Sides of elytra feebly sinuated : colours 

of elytra not divided transversely. 

30 (31) Hind angles of thorax sharp bufo, 8p. n., p. 54. 

31 (30) Hind angles of thorax obtuse crucicollis, Lan.sb.,p. oo, 

32 (27) Mesosteruum not toothed on its vertical 

face. 

33 (34) Sides of elytra feebly sinuated oherthuri, Lansb., p. bo. 

34 (33) Sides of elytra strongly sinuated. 

35 (42) Scutellum (at least in the middle) dark. 

36 (39) Two median pale lines of the pronotuni 

converging to a point. 

37 (38) Each elytron Avith one minute external 

spot .... waterhousei, sp. n.,p. 56. 

38 (37) Each elytron with two minute external 

spots sannio, Jans., p. 57. 

39 (36) Two median pale lines of the pronotuni 

not converging to a point. [p- S"* 

40 (41) Clypeus dark quadrivittata, Schaum, 

41 (40) Clypeus pale ochraceipes, Waterh., 

42(35) Middle of the scutellum pale. [p. 58. 

43 (44) Elytra! suture intermittently pale : 

clypeus bilobed indica, Jans., p. 59. 

44 (43) Elytral suture entirely pale : clypeus 

feebly notched idolica, Jans., p. 00. 

45 (24) Prouotumnot sharply angulated at the 

sides. 

46 (51) Pronotum with four longitudinal pale 

bands. 

47 (50) Elytra feebly serrated at the apex : 

antennal club of the S long. [P- ^^• 

48 (49) Middle of the scutellum white quadrilineata, Hope, 

49 (48) Middle of the scutellum dark perraudt'en, Fairm., 

50 (47) Elytra strongly serrated at the apex : [p. 61. 

antennal club of the c? ^hort virgata, Jans., p. 62. 

61 (46) Pronotum with one longitudinal pale 

hand mouhoti, Wall., p. 62. 

52 (9) Middle tibia without a spine at the 

middle of the outer edge. 

53 (54) Tibia? and end of clypeus red pulchella, Gestro, p. 63. 

54 (53) Tibife and end of clypeus black. 

55 (56) Without a whitish longitudinal sutural 

line jansoni, sp. n., p. 64. 

66 (55) W^ith a whitish longitudinal sutural 

line. 

67 (58) Pronotum not very coarsely granulated antennata, Wall., p. 65. 
58 (57) Pronotum very coarsely granulated *. . gracilis, Arrow, p. 65. 

7. Macronota diardi. 

Macronota diardi, G. 8) P., Monogr. 1833, p. 313, pi. 61, fig. 5 ; Burm. 
Handb. iii, p. 320. 

Coppery red or green, with the lower surface generally dark and 
the elytra deep red and shining but scarcely metallic, the surface 

* This may perhaps not apply to the male of M. gracilis, which is not yet 
known. 



44 CETOxiiN.i:. 

decorated with yellow or orange pubescent patches as follows : — 
two longitudinal lines on the head ; a deeply impressed line at the 
middle of the pronotum, not extending to the front or hind margin, 
and a similar one on each side reacliing the front, but not the hind, 
margin ; a minute stripe on each side of tlie apex of the scutellum ; 
a spot at the inner edge of each elytron near the middle of the 
suture, a similar one behind it, and three short transverse bars at 
the outer edge alternating with the spots. There are also a large 
patch upon the pygidium and transverse bars at the sides of the 
sternum and abdomen, those of the abdomen being visible upon 
both the upper and lower surfaces. 

The body is boat-shaped, narrowing greatly both in front and 
behind, deeply channelled along the middle line of the back and 
very smooth above and beneath. The pj/f/idium is almost horizontal, 
finely rugose, and thickly clothed witli long hairs, and there are 
short erect setse upon the pale lines and spots. The Jiead is 
strongly punctured, except upon a posterior longitudinal keel, and 
the ch/jyeus is bilobed. The pronotum is very smooth and shining, 
except in the neighbourhood of the pale lines, where it is closely 
punctured, the sides are neai'ly straight and very divergent towards 
the base, which is strongly lobed in the middle, and the hind 
angles are a little produced. The scutelbnn is smooth and very 
sharp-pointed. The elytra have a few striae upon the posterior 
half, adjoining the suture, they are conrsely striolated transversely 
at the sides, where they are largely cutaway behind the shoulders, 
strongly serrated ])Osteriorly and acutely produced at the apical 
angles. The metasternum and abdomen are slightly punctured at 
the sides and very smooth in the middle, and the sternal process 
is rounded and prominent. The front tihice are armed with three 
acute oblique teeth, but the uppermost one is sometimes hardly 
traceable in the male. The four posterior tarsi are rather thick. 

The two sexes are almost alike, but the front tibite of the 
male are a little more feebly toothed, the hind tibia; bear a 
conspicuous fringe of yellow hairs at the inner edge and the hind 
tarsi are rather longer. 

Lenrjth 2^-2S mm. ; breadth 11-12 mm. 

Tenasserim ; Malay Peninsula ; Bokneo; Java; Sumatba. 

I have seen two specimens, said to have been taken in Ceylon, 
of a variety of this species iu which the elytra are black and the 
prothorax purple-black. 

8. Macronota peuicillata. 

Coilodera peuicillata, Hope, Cl ray's Zool. Misc. ISol. p. 24. 
Macronota peuicillata. Burm., Jlandh. iii, 1842, p. 321. 
MaciMiiota dives, (r. cV P., Monoyr. 183."5, p. 314, pi. 01, lijj. (5. 
I'ar. Macronota uiearesi, Westw.* Arcana Ent. i, 1842, p. 104, pi. 28, 
fig. 3. 

Smooth shining black, with the head and prothorax deep 
purple, and decorated above and beneath with decumbent silky 



MACRONOTA. 45 

hairs of a golden orange colour. These are denuded from the 
clypeus, the frontal carina, the lateral margins, posterior lobe and 
dorsal cariiife of the prothorax and a smooth elevated lateral rid"-e 
on each side of the scutellum in its anterior part. Each elytron 
is ornamented with a large median yellow patch adjoining the 
suture, a similar one behind it meeting a smaller apical patch, and 
three small spots in a hne at tlie outer margin. The mesosternal 
epimera, the pygidium and the sides of the sternum are thickly 
clothed, and there is a row of patches on each side of the abdomen. 
The hairs upon the pygidium are long and erect and form a pro- 
jecting tuft at the apex. 

The body is long, broad at the shoulders and tapering to both 
extremities, and the whole median part of the back is deeply 
impressed. The head is bilobed in fi'ont and has a narrow longi- 
tudinal median carina behind. The sides of the proOiorax are 
slightly angulated in the middle and strongly converge in front, 
the hind angles are slightly produced and the basal lobe is strong. 
There are two straight oblique carinas which meet in the middle of 
the front margin and enclose a triangular space which is strongly 
depressed. The scutellum is very long and acutely pointed, and 
the elytra are very broad at the shoulders and strongly cut away 
behind them, with the outer margins transversely rugose and the 
posterior sutural part finely striated. All the uncovered parts of 
the body above and below are extremely smooth and shining. The 
sternal process is short and broad. The legs are slender, the j^ront 
tibice having three spinose teeth. 

The c5" has the abdomen narrowly channelled beneath. 

Length 23 mm. ; hreadtli 11 mm. 

SiKKiM: Darjiling; Assam: Khasi Hills, Manipur; Burma: 
Karen Hills, 3000 to 4300 ft. 

Type lost. 

Var. mearesi, Westiv. 

This differs from the typical M. penidllata in having the lio-ht 
markings of a lemon-yellow instead of deep orange, although the 
shade is not constant. The patches of pubescence are usually 
rather smaller in this form, especially the median patch of the pro- 
thorax, in w'hich patch the hind margin is commonly prominent, 
instead of notched, in the middle. The scutellum, on the contrary, 
is generally more completelj- covered than in the other form. 

Type in the Oxford Museum. 

9. Macronota albonotata. 

Macronota albonotata, Blanch., Liste Cet. Mus. Paris, 1842, p. 19. 
Macronota alboguttata, Parry,* Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. v, 1849, p 18'' 
pi. 18, fig. 3. 

Black, with white markings consisting of two longitudinal lines 
on the head, a narrow median line upon the prothorax, slightly 
tapering to the front, a longitudinal line upon the scutellum, two 



46 CETONIIX.I. 

small lateral spots on each elytron, one before and one behind the 
middle, a sutural pair of spots about the middle of the elytron, a 
similar pair placed behind the last, and a transverse line near the 
apex of each elytron. A spot at the middle of the pygidium, the 
edges of the mesosternal epimera, and spots at the sides of the 
sternal plates, the hind coxa? and the first, second and fourth 
abdominal segments, are also white. 

The species is broad at the shoulders and tapers considerably to 
the extremity. The head is strongly punctured, with a smooth 
carina behind and the clypeus deeply notched in front. The 
prothorax is densely punctured, strongly depressed behind and very 
feebly lobed. The sides are divergent from front to back and 
scarcely at all angulated. The eh/tra are shining, strongly sinnated 
behind the shoulders, narrowed to the apices and rather strongly 
carinated along the middle, the part external to the carinie being 
coarsely rugose. There are large, not closely set, punctures at 
the sides of the metasternum and all over the abdomen. 

S . The hind tibia has a thick fringe of long white hairs at its 
inner edge, and the hind tarsus is a little longer than that of 
the ?. 

Lenrith 19 mm. ; breadth 8 mm. 

Madras : Nilgiri Hills. 

Type in Paris JNIuseum ; that of alhoguttata in coll. O. E. Janson, 
cotype in the British Museum. 

10. llacronota regia. 

Cetouia regia, Fab.* Si/sf. Elent. ii, 1^01, p. 169. 

Macronota regia, G. '^- P., Monoi/r. 1833, p. 316, pi. 02, fig. 3; 

Wallace, Trans. Ent. Soc. Loml. 1868, p. 552. 
Macronota depressa, G. tSf P., Monoyr. 1833, p. 315, pi. 02, fig. 2. 

Black, \\ ith the clypeus, antennae, legs, and sometimes the pro- 
thorax and elytra, partiallv or entirely red, and with yellow 
markings as follows: — two longitudinal lines upon the head ; an 
entire median line and an almost entire lateral one upon each side 
of the pronotum ; the median line of the scutellum, and upon each 
elytron a line adjoining the suture, beginning behind the scutellum 
and continued round the apex, a curved discoidal line from the 
shoulder to near the middle, a lateral line from behind the shoulder 
to about the middle and a lateral spot behind the last. The 
middle of the pygidium, parts of the sterna, the mesosternal 
epimera, and broad lateral lines on the second, third and fifth 
abdominal segments beneath are also yellow. 

It is broad at the shoulders and rapidly narrows towards the 
extremity. The clypeus is rather broad in front and distinctly 
excised at the middle. The prothora.v is broadest behind, the sides 
scarcely angulated before the middle, the posterior angles being 
almost acute. The disc is strongly depressed along the middle 
and the posterior lobe strong. The whole upper surface is shining 
but the depressed parts of the prothorax are rather strongly 



MAC'ROXOTA. 47 

punctured and there are a few punctures upon the elytra. The 
pale lines are striated in depressions of the surface. The margins 
of the elytra are strongly sinuated behind the shoulders. The 
abdomen is sharply keeled along the sides and the white bars 
interrupted. 

The two sexes are almost alike, but the hind tarsi of the male 
are a little longer than those of the female. 

Length 15-17 mm. ; breadth 8 mm. 

Andaman Is. ; Burma : Mergui ; Malay Peninsula ; Bobneo ; 
Sumatra. 

Type in the Copenhagen University Museum. 

11. Macronota halyi. 

Macronota halyi, S/iar^),* Ent. Month. Mag. xxii, 1886, p. 197. 

c? . Black, witli the clypeus, antennae, legs and the greater part 
of tlie elytra brick-red, and decorated with orange markings 
disposed as follows: — two longitudinal vittse on the head; the 
surface of the pronotum (with the exception of a bare elevated 
ridge on each side beginning near the middle of the front margin 
and terminating at the hind margin just before the angle, a spot 
at the middle of the hind mai'gin and one before the middle of 
each lateral margin); the base and apex of the scutellum ; the 
margins of the mesosternal epimera ; a common V-shaped mark 
at the middle of the elytral suture, produced along the latter to 
near the apex, a transverse apical band and two lateral marks upon 
each elytron ; the front angles of the pygidium and a large median 
patch, most of the sternum and the posterior part of the abdo- 
minal segments at the sides. 

The form is robust and not much attenuated behind. The leys 
are rather long and stout, the front tibia} bidentate and the claws 
large. The clypeus is broad, with its front margin strongly 
reflexed and almost straight. The prothorax forms an almost 
regular heptagon, the sides being strongly angulated in the 
middle and neai'ly parallel behind, and the posterior lobe rather 
strong. The elytra are gently sinuated behind the shoulders. 

This insect rather strongly resembles the female of M. quadri- 
vittata, Schaum, but the form of the clypeus renders it a very 
easily distinguished species. 

2 . Unknown. 

Length 17 mm. ; breadth 8 mm. 

Ceylon : Balangoda Ridge {G. Leivis). 

Typ)e in coll. Gr. Lewis ; cotype in coll. Oberthiir. 

12. Macronota sexmaculata. 

Pleuronota sexmaculata, Kraatz,^ Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. 1894, 
p. 141. 

Black, with the front of the head and the antennse reddish, and 
with a clothing of short fulvous hairs, absent only from the middle 



48 CETONIIN-i:. 

of the metasternum and abdomen. The elytra are decorated with 
inconspicuous pale 3'ello\v spots, viz., a very slight transverse one 
at the lateral margin before the middle, a larger one behind the 
middle, and a minute intermediate sutural one. A large round 
yellow patch occupies the greater ])art of the surface of the 
pygidium. 

The shape is long and narrow. The djipens is long, with the 
anterior margin recurved and straight. The vertex is strongly 
keeled and the pubescence of the head and thorax is longer than 
that of the elytra. The sides of the prothorax are considerably 
narrowed from the middle forwards and parallel behind. The 
posterior part is depressed and the basal lobe is rather pointed but 
not long. The ehjtra are depressed along the suture and the 
costse are strong and smooth at their summits. The lateral 
margins are strongly sinuated behind the shoulders. 

J . The club ot the antenna) is very long and the abdomen is 
slightly excavated beneath. I have not seen the other sex. 

Length 18-20 mm. ; breadth 9 mm. 

BiiUTAJf ; Burma : Taung-ngu. 

I'lipe in coll. li. Oberthiir. 

IW. Macronota ursus. 

liombodcs ursus, Wefitic* Cab. of Orient. Eut. 1848, p. 36, pi. 17, 
tig. 4. 

Black, with the legs red and the whole body, except the middle 
of the abdomen, thickly clothed with long erect hairs of a deep 
brown colour, except those on the legs, and a broad transverse 
band crossing the elytra near the middle, which are tawny. The 
hairs upon the pygidium and at the sides of the abdominal 
.segments are sometimes also tawny. 

The form is robust and the whole aspect is extremely like that 
of a Humble Bee. The ehipeus is not densely hairy and is slightly 
notched at the end. The prothora.v is rather globose, not obviously 
depressed behind and only feebly lobed. The dijtra are thickly 
hairy, but with the longitudinal heel upon each smooth. The 
lateral margins are strongly sinuated behind the shoulders. The 
front and middle tlliuv are short and broad and both are very 
strongly tridentate at their outer margins. 

(S . Tlie club of the antenna is very long, the spurs of the hind 
tibi* are blunt, and the outer one is dilated and bent before the 
<;xtremity. 

In the $ the outer spur is spatulate and tlie inner one is broadly 
bifid at the tip. 

Lciujth 18-21 mm. ; breadth 9-10 mm. 

Buii.MA : liuby Mines. 

T'lpc in the Oxford Museum. 

In its form, colouring and thick hairy clothing this curious 
species departs widely from its generic type, but the divergence 
is superficial and obviously mimetic. It has the closest possible 
resemblance to a Huinble Bee {Bombus eximins, Lep.) which is 



MACEONOTA. 49 

very common in the districts in which the beetle has been found. 
In the bee the body fur is black, except at the tail, aud that of the 
legs briglit orange. This is exactly imitated by the beetle, but the 
latter has also a few long light coloured hairs upon the back, which 
produce the effect of the reflected light from the folded wings of 
the bee. AVlien basking in flowers after the manner of its kind 
there can be no doubt that it could only be distinguished from its 
model by a very close scrutiny. 

A genus was formed by Westwood for this species, but the 
discovery of other hairy forms has bridged the apparently wide 
gap by which it was separated from its allies. Divergences 
mimetically produced are always misleading in classification, and 
the actual structural differences between these hairy Macronotce 
are quite as great as any by which they are separated from the 
more normal forms. 

14. Macronota westwoodi. 

Bombodes westwoodi, Thorns.,* Arch. Ent. i, 1857, p. 284, pi. 14, fig. 2. 

Black, with the extremities of the elytra, the pygidium, the hind 
tibite and the middle and hind tarsi very dark chestnut-red — the 
whole body and legs, except tlie middle of the metasternum and 
abdomen, clothed with long ei'ect hairs, those on the anterior half 
of the body and a postmedian transverse band upon the elytra 
being black, those upon the sides of the metasternum aud abdomen, 
the iiind legs and a median transverse band upon the elytra yellow, 
and those at the extremities of the elytra and the pygidium tawny 
red. There are long and thick tufts of black hair at the shoulders 
and towards the extremity of each elytron, a whitish spot 
(generally more or less triangular) beyond the middle of each 
outer margin, and a short inconspicuous transverse line before the 
middle of the suture. 

It is much more elongate than M. ursus, Westw., and the hairy 
clothing is less uniformly long. The legs are less densely clothed. 
The whole upper surface is finely rugose, but there is a well-marked 
smooth longitudinal carina upon each elytron. The clypeus is long 
aud feebly bilobed, the prothorax much broader than it is long, 
with the sides strongly angulated a little before the middle, the 
base broadly lobed and distinctly depressed at the middle, and the 
■eli/tra strongly sinuated behind the shoulders. The front tihia is 
broad aud very strongly tridentate, and the middle tibia has a single 
strong spine at tlie middle of the outer edge. 

I have seen only two female examples. 

Length 16-17 mm. ; breadth 8 5 mm. 

Sjkkim : Darjiling, Mungphu. 

Type in coll. ii. Oberthiir. 

This, like the preceding species, is a very striking mimetic form. 
It is an exact imitation of the Bee, Bombus assamensis, Bingh., 
which the late Col. Bingham informed me he found extremely 
common in the localities recorded above for the beetle. 

B 



50 CExoxiiK.'i;. 



15. Macronota flavomaculata. 

MaCTouota flavomaculata, G. Sf P., Monor/r. C'et. 1833, p. 314, pi. G2, 
fig. 1 ; Burm., Handb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 322. 

Shining bronze-green, with the femora, tibiaj and elytra red (the 
latter with an indefinite dark mark common to both), with pale 
yellow opaque markings consisting of a siuuated oblique line on 
each side of the prothorax (interrupted in the $ ) and a minute 
spot in each lateral angulation and the posterior lobe, the sides and 
apex of the scutellum, two minute lateral spots on each elytron, 
one befoi*e and the other behind the middle, and two other pairs 
rather more approximated behind, three spots on the pygidium, 
the sides of the sternum, and three rows on each side of the 
abdomen, one above and two beneath. 

The form is short and stout. The ch/peus is rather long and 
strongly notched in the middle. The protJiorax is distinctly 
broader than long, coarsely punctured all over and moderately 
depressed behind. The sides are strongly angulated about the 
middle, the hind angles right angles and the posterior lobe not 
very long. The elytra are finely punctured or rugulose and 
strongly sinuated at the sides. The ler/s are very stout and the 
front tibia' very strongly 3-toothed. 

The (5 has two narrow yellow lines upon the head and the club 
of the antenna is long. 

The 2 ^'^s a much shorter antennal club, the yellow markings 
are less defined and the puncturation is coarser. 

Lou/tJi 15'5-19 mm.; breadth 7"o-10 mm. 

S. India : Madras, Nilgiri Hills (JN'aduvatam, 7000 ft.), 
Pondichery ; Ceylon {MeVy). 

16. Macronota sericea. 

Macronota sericea, Gestro,* Ann. Mus. Geneva, (2) vi, 1888, p. 116, 
oj). cit. (2) X, 1891, p. 845. 

Bronze,with red and green reflections, the elytra reddish with, more 
or less of the central part obscure ; decorated with slight Avhitish 
markings, consisting of two short lines upon the head, a marginal 
line on each side ot the prothorax and a median V-shaped mark 
united to the marginal lines at the front angles (but sometimes 
absent), a fine line bordering the scutellum, two minute lateral 
spots (one before and the other beyond tiie middle), and an apical 
patch on each elytron and a common cluster about the middle of 
the suture, the sides of the sternum, the hind coxie, and four 
transverse bands on each side of the abdomen. 

This is a rather long and narrow insect. The head is strongly 
punctured except upon the frontal carina. The clypetts is 
moderately long and strongly bilobed in front. The 2->rothoraa' is 
coarsely punctured, thinly setose at the sides, slightly depressed 



MACRONOXA. 01 

and rather strone;ly lobed behind, and the sides are strongly 
angulated near the middle and nearly parallel behind. The 
scutellum and elytra have a silky bloom, and the latter are strongly 
sinuated at the sides and taper considerably towards the extremities. 
The costse are not strong. The pygidium is rugose and setose and 
the mesosternum is rather produced but not acuminate. 

In the S the hind tibiae have a thick fringe of yellow hairs 
along the inner edge, the abdomen is longitudinally grooved and 
upon the fourth segment a tuft of long hairs occurs in the groove. 
The depressed part of the prothorax is opaque in this sex. 

The $ has the prothorax uniformly shining and its sides slightly 
converging towards the base. 

Length 18-20 mm. ; hreadth 9-9'5 mm. 

Burma : Kachin Hills, Karen Hills. 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 

17. Macronota nigricoUis. 

Atsenia nigricollis, Janson, Cist. Ent. \\, 1881, p. 604. 

Deep bronze, with the elytra bi'ight yellow, lightly suffused with 
metallic green, the apical part and a few slight vittse black, and 
with the apex of the scutellum, the adjoiuing margins of the 
elytra, the anterior part of the suture and three adjacent spots at 
its middle, the margins of the mesosternal epimera aud four narrow 
transverse lines on each side of the abdomen white. 

The form is rather short and stout ; the head thickly punctured 
and deeply notched in front, with a strong carina behind. The 
prothorax is rather broader than long, thickly punctured, de- 
pressed behind, and with a well-developed posterior lobe. The 
sides are straight and slightly converging behind and abruptly but 
obtusely angulated before the middle. The elytra are strongly 
sinuated at the sides behind the shoulders and narrowed towards 
the apices and the costae are not very prominent. The antennal 
club is very short in both sexes. 

The prothorax of the male is velvety, the hind tibiae have a long 
fringe of golden hairs towards their extremities, and the hind tarsi 
are considerably longer than those of the female. The abdomen 
has a narrow longitudinal channel. 

In the female the prothorax is rather shining, more transverse, 
and more deeply impressed behind. 

Length 15-16'5 mm. ; hreadth 7-8 mm. 

Assam : Naga Hills, Patkai Hills, Jaintia Hills ; Buema : Euby 
Mines; Tonkin. 

Type in coll. O. E. Janson. 

18. Macronota flavofasciata. 

Carolina flavofasciata, Moser, Berl. E7it. Zeitschr. 1901, p. 527. 

Velvety black, with a transverse band across the elytra, the 

e2 



r.Q 



CETONIINjE. 



niesosternal epimera, the sides of tlie steruum, the hind coxae, a 
large patch on each side of the abdomen beneath and a spot on 
each side of the 2nd segment above lemon-yellow. 

It is a large, broad species, scarcely depressed down the middle 
of the back. The vlypeus is deeply notched and the frontal carina 
is not strong. The prothorax is about as long as broad, the sides 




Jb'ig. 12. — Macronota flavofasciata , male, and detail 
of extremity oF hind tibia. 

strongly angulated before the middle and parallel behind. The 
base is broadly lobed. The eh/tra are strongly sinuated at the 
sides and feebly costate on the disc. The extremity of the hind 
tibia is produced outwards into a leaf-like process and the upper 
spur is elongated, sinuous and blunt at the end. The club of the 
antenna is short in both sexes. 

In the male the extremity of the hind tibia is broader and directed 
more outwards. The abdomen is not channelled. 

The hind tibia of the female bears a strong spine at the middle of 
its outer edge. 

Length 18-21 mm.; breadth 9-10*5 mm. 

Bhutan; Assam: Naga Hills ; Tonkin. 

Ti/pe in coll. Moser. 

The only female specimen (from Mr. O. E. Janson's collection) 
wliich I have seen has a small additional yellow spot at the apical 
margin of each elytron. 

19. Macronota malabariensis. 

Macronota malabariensis, G. (§• P., Monorjr. Cet. 1833, p. 320, pi. 63, 

Carolina malabariensis, Thorns., Le Naturahste, 1880, p. 277. 

( 5 ) Macronota auujp, Wall.,* Trans. Ent. Soc. Load. (3) iv, 1868, 

p. .-^oS, pi. 12, fig. G(n. syn.). 
Carolina annie. Thorns., I. c. 

Black, with the elytra mainly or entirely brick-red to beyond 
the middle and decorated with white or yellow markings above and 
beneath. 

It is compact in form, rather broad at the shoulders and tapering 



MACRONOTA. 



53 



behind. The clypeus is weW notched and the vertex of the head 
not cariuate. The elytra are strongly sinuated at the sides and 
sharply narrowed behind and the stria? upon the inner posterior 
part are well marked. 

(S . Black, \^ith the anterior half of the elytra brick-red, except 
a common black patch (generally nearly circular) behind the 
scutellum, and with the following white markings : — patches at the 
base aud apex of the scutellum and the adjoining margins of the 




Fig. 13. — ISIacronota malabariensis, male fleft). 
and female (right). 

elytra, a slightly augulated line common to both elytra about the 
middle at the hinder limit of the anterior black patch, and a short 
transverse lateral postmedian line upon each at the anterior limit 
of the posterior black patch, a broad longitudinal line at the middle 
of the pygidium, and the margins of the mesostei'ual epimera, 
sternal plates and four abdominal segments, the marginal lines of 
the last usually coalescing on each side. 

The prothorcLv is about as long as it is broad, velvety, not very 
distinctly punctured and scarcely depressed behind, the sides 
strongly angulated before the middle and nearly parallel behind, 
the base not strongly lobed and the posterior angles rather 
sharp. 

$ . Black, with the anterior two-thirds of the elytra brick-red ; 
the pronotum covered with greyish yellow matter, except a 
circular patch on each side and a wedge-shaped patch between 
them ; the scutellum similai-ly covered, except a central spot. The 
margins of the elytra adjoining the scutellum, a common V-shaped 
mark at the middle, the posterior half of the suture, a transverse 
apical line upon each and a lateral line on each side at the limit of 
the red area are of the same colour. The middle line of the 
pygidium, the margins of the mesosternal epimera, the sternal 
plates aud the first four ventral segments are pale, the marginal 
lines of the last generally coalescing on each side. 

It is relatively a little shorter than the male. The pronotum is 
rugose, especially in the hinder part, \\here, however, there is a 
smooth elevated carina in the middle. It is slightly transverse, 
the sides strongly angulated before the middle and slightly 



54 CETONIIN^. 

approximating behind, the posterior angles rather obtuse, and the 
base broadly lobed. The scuteUuni is rugose except in the middle. 

Length 15-20 mm.; breadth 7"5-9 mm. 

Tenasserim : Thagata {L. Feci) ; Malay Peninsula. 

Tiqje not traced ; type of annce in coll. li.. Oberthiir and a co- 
type in the British Museum. 

This is another species in which the sexes are strikingly 
different and have not hitherto been associated, although they have 
been found together in several different localities. The pronotum 
of the male is generally entirely black, but there is sometimes a 
fine marginal white line upon the anterior half. The male 
specimens from Thagata (in the Genoa Museum) are without the 
white band upon the pygidium. 

The name of the species is evidently due to a mistake in its 
habitat. The type is said to have inhabited Ceylon, but that 
locality cannot be accepted. 

20. Macronota bufo, sp. n. 

Brownish, with the head, legs, and lower surface dull metallic 
crimson ; the shoulder, a median longitudinal stripe and another 
bordering the scutellum and extending to about the middle of the 
length of each elytron red, decorated with the following yellowish 
markings : — two longitudinal lines on the head, a lateral border on 
each side of the pronotum and two discoidal lines converging 
towards the base, the base and apex of the scutellum, and numerous 
small indefinite patches upon the elytra. The pygidium (except 
an indefinite dark spot on each side) and the entire sides of the 
body beneath, except two rows of sn)all bare spots upon each side 
of the abdomen, are of the same colour. The body is sparingly 
clothed with fine inconspicuous greyish setae except upon the disc 
of the elytra. 

The form is depressed, short and rather broad at the shoulders. 
The ch/peus is strongly punctured and notched in front and the 
forehead is longitudinally carinate. The prothorax is small, about 
as long as it is broad, uniformly and very coarsely punctured 
above, with the sides abruptly angulated before the middle and 
concave behind, the hind angles sharp and the base strongly lobed. 
The elijtra are irregularly striated on the inner part and rugosely 
punctured at the sides and apices, they are very feebly sinuated at 
the lateral margins but taper sti-ongly behind. The pi/f/idium is 
closely strigose, the inctca-teDiam and ahdomen coarsely punctured 
in the middle. The mesostenmm is not produced but rounded in 
front and bears a small sharp tooth upon its anterior face. The 
ler/s are rather slender, the front tibia bears three sharp teeth and 
the middle tibia bears a sharp spine at its outer edge. 

I have not seen the male. 

Lenijth lo'o mm.; breadth 7"5 mm. 

Madras: Travancore {G. S. Imray), Xilgiri Hills, 2,500 ft. 
(//. L. Andrewes). 



MACRONOTA. 55 

Tupe in the British Museiiin, cotype iu coll. H. E Andrewes. 

It is probable that the un known male diifers considerably from 
the female above described. The light markings are no doubt 
brighter in colour and more sharply defined and some difference in 
shape may also be expected. 

21. Macronota crucicoUis. 

Taeniodera crucicollis, Lansb., Notes Leijd. Mas. ix, 1887, p. 165. 
Macronota flavosparsa, Watcrh.* vars. 1 & 2, Ann, Nat. Hist. (G) 
i, 1888, p. 262 (n. syn.). 

The male is silky black ornamented with scattered grey markings 
and witli the elytra occasionally partly red ; the female is very 
opaque, with the elytra brick-red and the whole upper surface 
covered with a buff-coloured earthy clothing, except the head, upon 
which there are two longitudinal white lines. 

This is a rather small species of moderately elongate shape. 
The eyes are very prominent and the clypeus much dilated 
anteriorly and feebly emarginate. The protlwrnx is about as broad 
as it is long, with the sides parallel behind, the hind angles very 
obtuse and the posterior lobe feeble. 

(S . The antenual club is a little longer in the male than in the 
female, but the abdomen is not grooved beneath. The grey 
markings consist of two longitudinal lines upon the head ; a 
lateral line at each side of the prothorax extending from near the 
hind angle to beyond the middle, a pair of spots near tlie middle 
of the base and a V-shaped mark, sometimes open behind, ex- 
tending from the front margin to beyond the middle of the disc ; 
the anterior half of the scntellum and the mesosternal epimera ; 
an iri-egular sutural patch at the middle of the elytra, a common 
CC-shaped mark at their apices, and rather indefinite lateral 
markings ; the base and middle of the pygidium, and two lines of 
large spots on each side of the abdomen beneath. 

The female is almost uniformly buff-coloured, but may exhibit 
a pair of indistinct dark spots at the elytral suture, and the earthy 
covering of the pygidium is sometimes divided into three masses. 

The original descriptions of the above references apply to the 
male alone. 

Length 14 5-17 mm. ; breadth 7'8 mm. 

jMadras : Anairaalai Hills, Manaar, Trichinopoli. 

Type in coll. R. Oberthiir : type of Jtavosparsa in the British 
Museum. 

Mr. H. E. Andrewes has received considerable numbers of both 
sexes taken simultaneously. 

22. Macronota oberthuri. 

Toeniodera oberthm-i, Lansb.* Notes Leyd. Mus. ix, 1887, p. 167. 
(?) Tieniodera humilig, Lansb.*, I. c. p. 166 (n. syn.). 

The form and colouring of this species are almost as in 



56 



CETO:VIIJf.^. 



M. crucicoUis, Lansb., except that I have seen uo specimens with 
red markings. It is rather larger and broader, and the upper 
surface is more glossy. The clypetis is rather more deeply notched 
and less widened anteriorly, and the eyes are less prominent. The 




Fig. 14. — Macronota obcrihuvi, male (left\ and female (right). 

bind angles of the protltorax are a little more prominent and the 
posterior lobe rather more pronounced. The posterior margins of 
the ventral segments of the male are decorated laterally with 
narrow white bands, the inner ends of which expand and become 
confluent. 

The sexes differ little except in coloration, in which there is no 
similarity. The male is silky indigo-black with white markings, 
consisting of two narrow longitudinal lines upon the head ; two 
sinuous longitudinal lines, continuous from the anterior to the 
posterior margin, at the middle of the prothorax, and a marginal 
line on each side not reaching the hind border ; the anterior part 
of the scutellum ; three or four spots near the lateral edge of each 
elytron, a large sutural patch, an M-shaped mark behind the last, 
and a small apical band upon each. The pygidium has a narrow 
median white line. 

The female has two narrow yellow lines upon the head, and the 
rest of the upper surface is covered with a tawny earthy matter 
which is more or less denuded at the shoulders and on the costac of 
the elytra, and usually leaves also two bare black spots on the 
pygidium. 

Lemjih lG-5-20 mm.; hrcadth 8-9 mm. 

Madras: Kodaikanal. Shembaganur. 

Types of both oherthnri and humilis in coll. 1\. Obertliiir. 



23. Macronota waterhousei, sp. n. 

!Macronota flavosparsa, vars. o & 4, Waterh.,* Ann. Naf. Ilisf. 
(6) i, 1888, p. 262. 

Blade, with red elytra, more or less decorated ^ith black vitta-, 
usually consisting of a sutural one enlarged at the middle and a 
wedge-shaped external one extending from the shoulder to beyond 



MACKONOTA. 57 

the middle, and with pale markings which are bright yellow in the 
male and greyish and rather indistinct in the female. 

The body is moderately elongate, and strongly channelled 
down the middle of the back. The eyes are prominent, the clupeus 
considerably dilated anteriorly and distinctly emarginate. The 
protliontx is about as broad as it is long, the sides nearly parallel 
behind and the posterior lobe feeble. The sides of the elytra are 
rather strongly excised behind the shoulders. 

c? . The ochreous markings form two longitudinal lines upon 
the head ; a V-shaped median mark upon the pronotum extending 
from the front margin to beyond the middle, a curved lateral line, 
generally interrupted, extending from the median angulation of 
the side margin to the middle of the base, and occasionally uniting 
with the V-shaped mark; the whole periphery of the scutellum ; 
a small spot below the shoulder of each elytron, a larger one at 
the middle of the suture and a transverse apical line. The middle 
of the pygidium and the margins of tlie abdominal segments at 
the sides are also broadly ochreous. The club of the antenna is a 
very little longer in the male tlian in the female. 

The legs are frequently, but not invariably, red in the male and 
black in the female. The latter is similar to the male but the 
pale markings consist of a greyish pubescence much more indefinite 
than the yellow pattern of the other sex. 

Length 14'5-20 mm. ; breadth 7-9-5 mm. 

Madras : Xilgiri Hills, Anaimalai Hills. 

Tyjye in the British Museum. 



24. Macronota sannio. 

Tseiiiodera sannio, Janson, Cistula Ent. iii, 1883, p. 64. 

Black and opaque, with the front of tiie clypeus, the antennse 
and legs testaceous red, the femora partly black ; the elytra 
more or less red and the upper siu"face decorated with the 
following yellow markings : — two longitudinal lines upon the 
head ; a lateral line upon each side of the prothorax extending 
from the basal lobe to the lateral angulation and sending a branch 
to the hind angle, a V-shaped central mark and an intermediate 
spot on each side — sometimes produced to connect the lateral 
and discoidal lines ; the base and apex of the scutellum ; and 
upon the elytra a juxta-scntellar spot on each side, a common 
median spot slightly produced forward on each side, an apical 
mark produced at the suture and two lateral spots. There is a 
large spot upon the pygidium and the abdominal segments are 
narrowly edged with yellow at the sides. 

The form is rather short and broad and gently grooved along 
the middle line of the back. The chjpeus is gently excised in 
front ; the profhora.v is as long as broad, the sides parallel beliind 
and the posterior lobe not strongly marked. The elijtra are 
moderately excised at the sides behind the shoulders. The 



58 CEioisuyjE. 

cmtennce are short in both sexes, which are alike in their form 
and coloration. 

Length 17-18 mm. ; breadth S"5-9-5. 

Madhas : Travancore. 

T7/pe in coll. O. E. Janson. 

25. Macronota quadrivittata. (Plate I, figs. 4 & 5.) 

Macrouota quadrivittata, Scharun, Drats. Ent. Soc. Land. v. 1848, 

p. 68, pi. 2, tig. 4. 
( 5 ) Macronota sculpticoUis,' T^o?;;*.,* Typi Ceto7iidarnm, 1878, p. 15. 

(5 . Black, with the antennae and legs reddish, the femora 
partly black ; the elytra more or less red, and the whole surface 
decorated with yellow markings, consisting of two longitudinal 
lines on the head, four longitudinal lines on the prothorax, the 
base and apex of the scutellum, the adjoining margins of the 
elytra, a common spot at the middle of the suture and a small 
elongate one on each side immediately before the last, the apical 
margin of each elytron and a short prolongation along the 
suture, and two short transverse lines at the outer margin of 
each. The middle of the pygidium and the outer part of the 
margins of the ventral segments are similarly decorated, the 
stripes of the latter being confluent internally. 

The upper side is strongly depressed along the middle line. 
The eyes are prominent, the chjpeus strongly dilated anteriorly 
and distinctly notched at the margin. The prothorax is rather 
narrow, the sides strongly angulated before the middle and 
rather contracted to the base and the basal lobe is slight but 
rather pointed. The elytra are well sinuated at the lateral 
margins. The legs are red, with the femora generally black. 
The club of the antenna is rather short. 

2 . Rather less elongate than the c^ ■, with the elytra paler 
and the dorsal markings buff-coloured. The prothorax is entirely 
buif, with a black median line (interrupted in the middle), two 
short obli(iue vitta> at the anterior edge and two parallel ones 
extending from withm the posterior angles to about the middle. 
The two latt('r are strongly elevated and shining. The elytral 
markings are like those of the male but larger and less brightly 
coloured. 

Length 16-19 mm. ; breadth 7*o-8'5 mm. 

Ceylox. 

Type in coll. O. E. Janson ; that of sculpticoUis in coll. 
E. Obertluir. 

20. Macronota ochraceipes. 

MacroiKita ochracoipe?, Watcrh.* Aim. Nat. Hist. ((>) i, 1888, p. 202. 
(5) Tajiiiodera niadurensis, Moser* Aim. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1906, 
p. 277 (n. syu.). 

Black, with the front of the clypeus, antennae and legs reddish- 
testaceous and the elytra red, with the inner margins and the 



MACEOXOTA. 59 

central part black — the surface ornamented with pale markings 
which are bright yellow in the male and dull yellow^ in the female. 

It is a large species, of rather narrow elongate shape, and 
strougly sulcate along the middle line above. The chjpeus is 
distinctly notched in front, the proUiorax relatively small and 
rather transverse, and the elytra are striated near the suture, 
rugose at the sides and apices, with the lateral margins strongly 
cut away behind the shonlders. The i^ygidium is rugose and, 
like the sides of the body beneath, thinly clothed with tawny 
hair. The club of tlie antenna is very short. 

S ' The upper surface is opaque, with bright orange or yellow 
markings arranged as follows : — two longitudinal lines upon the 
head, four upon the prothorax, of which the two internal ones 
are complete and rather farther apart at the front than at the 
hind margin, the two outer ones short and directed inwards 
from the lateral angulation, a common spot at the middle of the 
elytral suture and a lateral one on each side behind the shoulder 
There are also one or three spots upon the pygidium and 
narrow bars at the sides of the ventral segments. The prothorax 
is punctured and finely setose, with its sides parallel behind 
and the basal lobe moderately strong. 

$ . The markings are like those of the male, but less bright, 
and in addition to the common elytral spot the greater part of 
the surface of the elytra (except the longitudinal costoe) is 
irregularly sprinkled with yellow. It is shining, elongate, moder- 
ately broad at the shoulders, and rather depressed above, with a 
well-raised smooth costa upon each elytron. The prothorax is 
very rugose except at the basal margin, deeply impressed behind 
and moderately lobed, with the sides strong!}^ angulated before 
the middle and parallel behind. 

Length 18-22 mm. ; breadth 8-10'5 mm. 

Madras: Madura, Shembaganur, Mauaar, Anaimalai Hills. 

Type in the British Museum ; that of madurensis in coll. 
Moser, 



27. Macronota indica. 

Tajniodera iudica, Janson* The Entomologist, vol. xlii, 1909, p. 226. 

Black, velvety above, thinly clothed with minute golden yellow 
setae and decorated with the following yellow or whitish 
markings : — two lines extending the whole length of tlie head ; 
a median Y-shaped line extending from the front to the hind 
margin of the pronotum, a little dilated angularly near the base, 
and a short latei'al line on each side running obliquely inwards 
from a little before the middle ; the entire mesosternal epimera 
and a broad line along the scutellum ; the part of the elytra 
adjoining the apex of the latter, a common sutural patch behind 
it, a subhumeral and two lateral spots upon each and a common 
X-shaped mark at the apex. A broad median line upon th 



GO CEToynyjE. 

pygidium, the sides of the sternum and four transverse stripes 
on each side of the ahdomen are of tlie same colour. 

The body is rather long and narrow and a little depressed 
along tlie scutellar region. The chjpeus is strongly punctured 
and bilobed and the forehead longitudinally carinate. The 
jjrothora.v is heptagonal, a little broader than long, with the sides 
strongly augulated before the middle and approximating behind 
and the posterior lobe very broad and sliort. The eli/tra are 
strongly sinuated at the sides and narrowed towards 'the apices, 
and each bears a slight longitudinal costa. The pygidium is 
finely rugose. 

6 . The xipper surface is velvety and opaque, the hind tibia 
bears a thick tuft of golden hairs on its inner face, and the 
abdomen is a little channelled beneath. 

$ . The upper surface is less opaque, the pronotum a little 
broader and more rugose, and the hind tarsi shorter. In the 
type female (the only one I have seen) the pale lines upon the 
head are scarcely visible and the median Y-shaped thoracic mark 
is interrupted in front. 

Length 15-17 mm. ; hreadth 6"5-7 mm. 

Assam : Jvhasi Hills. Manipur. 

Type in coll. O. E. Janson. 

28. Macronota idolica. 

Taiuiodera idolica, Janson* The Entomologist , vol. xlii, 1909, p. '2'16. 

Black, with a thin clothing of minute golden-yellow setoe, and 
decorated with the following yellow or whitish markings : — two 
lines extending the length of the head ; a median Y-shaped 
mark extending from the front to the hind mai'gin of the 
pronotum and a little dilated at the base, and a marginal line 
on each side extending from before the middle to the hind angle ; 
the middle line of the scutellnm, the entire sutunil margins 
of the elytra from base to apex, dilated at the middle and apex, 
and two spots at the outer margin of each. A broad median 
patch upon the pygidium, the mesosternal epimera, sides of the 
sternum, and four or five transverse stripes on each side of the 
abdomen are of the same colour. 

The body is long and narrow. The head is granulose, with 
the front margin slightly reflexed and very feebly notched in 
the middle, and the forehead not carinate. The prothora.v is 
heptagonal, with the sides angulated before the middle and 
converging behind, and the basal lobe feeble. The elytra are 
moderately sinuated at the sides and a little narrowed behind, 
each having a slight longitudinal costa. The pygidium is rugose. 

cJ . The upper surface is velvety and opaque, the prothorax 
is about as long as it is wide, the hind tibia is rather slender and 
beai's a brush of golden hairs at its extremity, and the abdomen 
is not hollowed beneath. 

2 . The upper surface is scarcely o]iaque, the prothorax 



MACRONOTA. 61 

broader and more rugose. In the only known female specimen 
(in the British Museum) the pale lines ai'e scarcely visible upon 
the head and the anterior part of the median thoracic mark is 
wanting. 

Lengtli 14-16 mm. ; breadth 6-7 mm. 

Upper Burma: Maymyo {Col. Biivjliam'), Momeit ( W. Dohertij). 

Type in coll. O. E. Janson. 

This species is superficially extremely like M. indica, but 
differs in many particulars. The clypeus is not distinctly bilobed, 
there is no carina upon the forehead, the lateral line of the 
pronotum follows the margin and the suture is entirely pale. 
The curious brush of hairs at the extremity of the hind tibia of 
the male is also distinctive. 

29. Macronota quadrilineata. 

Macronota quadrilineata, Hope,* Gray's Zool. Miscellany, 1831, 
p. 24 ; Janson, Notes Leyden Mus. 1892, p. 67. 

Black, with the elytra more or less red, and with the following 
yellow markings : — two longitudinal lines on the head ; four 
slightly wavy lines extending from the front to the hind margin 
of the pronotum, the outer ones sometimes a little abbreviated 
in front ; a median longitudinal line upon the scutellum, the 
anterior part of the elytral suture, two pairs of spots adjoining 
the suture and a transverse apical mark on each elytron. The 
middle of the pygidium, the greater part of the sternum and 
broad bands on each side of the abdominal segments are also of 
the same colour. 

The form is elongate ; the clypeus is long and distinctly notched 
at the middle, the 2ii'othorax rather narrow and scarcely depressed 
behind, and the elytra gently sinuated at the sides and narrowed 
to the extremities, with a slight lateral costa upon each. 

c? . The autennal club is very long. 

5 . The antennal club is half the length of that of the male, 
the prothorax is more angulated at the sides and the yellow 
markings are paler. The outer pale lines of the prothorax ai'e 
generally abbreviated anteriorly and the lateral lines of the 
abdomen are reduced. 

Length 15-19 mm. ; breadth 7-8'5 mm. 

Nepal; Sikkim : Darjiling; Assam: Naga Hills, Manipur. 

Type in the British Museum. 

30. Macronota perraudieri. 

Tseniodera perraudieri, Fairm., Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1893, p. 294. 

The shape and colouring are as in M. virgata, Jans. The 
clypeus and legs are sometimes testaceous-red. The scutellum, 
instead of a median longitudinal line, has the periphery and the 
•centre black, and the anterior sutural mark of the elytra 



62 CETONIIN^. 

sometimes sends a continuation on each side in a straight hne 
towards the shoulder. The elytra are less flattened than those 
of M. virgata, the extremities less produced and less distinctly 
serrated at the margins. 

The cluh of the antenna is elongate in the male. The female 
has the prothorax rather broader, with a smooth longitudinal 
carina along the middle and the sides rather more angulated. 

Length 17-19 mm. ; breadth 7'5-9 mm. 

Assam : Naga Hills, Patkai Hills, Manipur ; Ixdo-Chin'a. 

Tijpe in the Paris Museum. 

31. Macronota virgata. 

Tieniodera virgata, Junson, Notes Leyd. Mus. xiv, 1892, p. 59. 
Tteniodera quadristrigata, Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. Zeilschr. 1892, 
p. 316, pi. iv, fig. 9. 

Black, with the elytra more or less red, and with the following 
yellow markings : — two longitudinal lines upon the head ; four 
complete longitudinal lines upon the prouotum ; the base and 
middle line of the scutellum ; a common A-shaped mark upon 
the elytra behind the scutellum, a pair of closely approximate 
spots a little behind this, a lateral spot on each side, a very little 
anterior to the last, and a narrow transverse line near the apex. 
A spot t at the middle of the pygidium, the greater part of the 
sternum, and lour transverse lines on each side of the abdomen 
beneath are also yellow. 

It is long and narrow and rather flat above. The clypeus is 
deeply notched in front ; the pronotum narrowed in front and 
behind, not angulated at the sides, and furnished with a rather 
pointed basal lobe, which is scarcely depressed. The elytra are 
flat, scarcely costate, strongly narrowed towards the apices, where 
they are finely serrated. The sides are gently sinuated behind 
the shoulders. 

In the female the prothorax is a little broader and more 
strongly narrowed behind and the antennal club is shorter. 

Length 19-21 mm.; breadth 8-9-5 mm. 

Assam : Silhet, Sudiya, Manipur : Burma : Taung-ngu. 

Type in coll. O. E. Jansou ; that of quadristngata in the 
German Entomological National Museum. 

32. Macronota mouhoti. 

Macronota moulioti, Wallace* Trans. Ent. Soc. Land. 1868 (8) iv, 

p. 555, pi. 12, fig. 4. 
Ixorida mouhoti, Thorns., Le Naturaliste, 1880, p 277. 

Black, sometimes with the elytra deep red, and with the 
following pale yellow or orange markings : — two longitudinal lines 
upon the head ; a broad median longitudinal band, a little 



t In a specimen in Mr. B. Or. Nevinson's collection there are four spots 
a transverse line. 



MACEONOTA. 63 

consti'icted at the middle, upon the prothorax ; the entire 
scutellum ; two lateral spots upon each elytron, one before 
and the other beliind the middle, and a sutural line not reaching 
the scutellum or the apex and greatly enlarged at each extremity. 
A large circular patch in the middle of the pygidium, the 
mesosternal epimera, the sides of the sternal plates and large 
irregular patches at the sides of the abdomen are of the same 
colour. 

It is a rather robust species, flattened above. The clypeus is 
strongly notched in front and carinated behind. The 2i'>'onotuni 
is very finely and densely punctured and clothed with micro- 
scopically fine setae. The sides are not angulated but are arcuate 
in front and straight behind, in the S very slightly diverging 
and in the $ nearly parallel. The posterior part of the disc is 
strongly depressed in the middle and the lobe is very short and 
broad. The sides of the elytra are moderately sinuated behind 
the shoulders and narrowed to the ends. There is a strongly 
marked carina down the middle of each, the internal portion is 
rather shining and the external portion finely rugose and opaque. 
The abdomen is rather strongly, but not thickly, punctured. 

The abdomen of the J is longitudinally grooved. 

Length 15"5-19 ram. ; breadth 7-9 mm. 

BuHMA : Teinzo ; Siam ; Cochin CniifA. 

Type in coll. K. Oberthiir ; cotype in the British Museum. 



33. Macronota pulchella. 

Maeronota pulchella, Gestro* Arm. Mtts. Genova, (2) x, 1891, 
p. 844. 

Black, with the elytra partially, the end of the clypeus, the 
tibiae, tarsi and antennal club entirely red ; decorated with yellow 
markings consisting of two broad lines upon the head, two 
incomplete lateral lines upon the prothorax and a median 
V-shaped mark extending from the front to the liind margin, 
a minute median spot and two lateral ones upon each elytron, 
a large patch upon the pygidium, patches upon the mesosternal 
epimera and the sides of the sternum, and four transverse bars 
upon each side of the abdomen. 

This is a small species, elongate and tapering in form. The head 
is moderately broad, with a strong median longitudinal carina, and 
the clypeus gently sinuated in front. The prothorax is transverse, 
closely punctured in the middle and rugose at the sides. It is 
impressed behind and broadly lobed and the sides are obtusely 
angulated before the middle. The sides of the elytra are gently 
sinuated behind the shoulders and the dorsal costa is moderately 
pronounced. The legs are rather slender. 

(S . The club of the antenna is rather long, and the abdomen 
is excavated along the middle. 

Length 12*5 mm.; breadth 5 mm. 



64 



CETOWIIN^. 



BuTiMA : Karen-ni {L. Fen). 
Type in ihe (Tenoa Museum. 
I have seen only a single male specimen (the type). 




Fig. 15, 
Macronotajansoni, male 



34. Macronotajansoni, sp. u. 

Black, with the antenna? orange-red and with three waved 
transverse blood-red bands upon the elytra, the 1st at the front 
margins, narrow and interrupted by the scutellnm, the 2nd 
crossing the suture at the middle ot" the elytra, where it is narrow, 
and advancing obliquely to the outer 
margins, where it is dilated, the 3rd con- 
sisting of a crescent upon each elytron, 
narrowly separated at the suture and 
produced forwards to almost or completely 
fuse with the median baud at the outer 
margins. 

It is an elongate species with slender 
legs. The chjpeus is feebly bilobed and 
there is a smooth carina on the vertex. 
The prothorax' is short, a little wider than 
it is long, with the sides angulated before 
the middle and slightly contracted to the 
base, and the posterior lobe feeble and 
depressed. The scutellum and elytra have 
a silky lustre, the latter have each a 
well-marked costa and the lateral margins 
are very slightly sinuated. 

6 . The greater part of the head, a broad V-shaped mark upon 
the pronotum, the base and apex of the scutellum, a small 
common spot just before the middle of the elytra and a pair 
of smaller marginal spots on each side before and behind the 
last, the middle of the pygidium and the sides of the sternum 
and abdominal segments, are white. 

The head, pronotum and pygidium are finely punctured and 
opaque, and the posterior angles of the pronotum are shar]). 
The club of the antenna is long, the front tibia has a long apical 
tooth and a very feeble lateral one, and the abdomen is strongly 
arched and furrowed beneath. 

5 . The white markings are entirely absent. The head ami 
pronotum are verv coarsely rugose (the latter less so along the 
middle line) and the hind angles of the latter are very obtuse. 
The pygidium is smooth and shining at the sides and apex, and 
there are some very large punctures in the middle. The club of 
the antenna is of moderate length and the front tibia? are strongly 
bidentate. 

Length 16 mm. ; hreadtli 7 mm. 
Assam : Khasi Hills ; Sikkim. 
Tij}ie in the British Museum ; cotypes in coll. 11. Oberthiir. 



MACKONOTA, 05 



35. Macronota antennata. 

]\racronota antennata, Wall.* Trans. Ent. Soc. Loiul. (3) iv, 18G8, 
p. 560. 

Black, with brick-red patches upon the elytra, and decorated 
with pale yellow markings. 

It is very narrow and elongate and only slightly tapering. 
The head is relatively rather broad, with a strong longitudinal 
keel behind and distinctly sinuated at the front margin. The 
prothora.v is coarsely granulated, the posterior part depressed and 
the lobe very slight, so that the scutellum appears very long. 
The sides of the eh/tra are only very gently sinuated and the 
costse are moderately strong. The legs are slender. 

d" . There are two longitudinal pale lines upon the head, a 
median line upon the pronotum, bifurcating in front, but not 
reaching the anterior margin, a broad longitudinal line upon the 
scutellum, constricted or interrupted in the middle, a patch at 
the middle of the elytral suture, two lateral spots and an apical 
one upon each elytron, and patches at the middle of the pygidium, 
the mesosternal epiniera and the sides of the sternum and 
abdomen. The prothorax is broadest at the base and its sides 
are strongly angulated before the middle. The club of the 
antenna is very long and tlie abdomen strongly excavated 
beneath. 

The $ is relatively longer, the prothorax is nearly circular in 
shape, and the antennal club and the hind tarsi are shorter. 
The yellow markings are similar to those of the male, but the 
prothorax has only a short longitudinal line at the posterior part 
and the pygidium is immaculate. 

Length 12 mm. ; breadth 5 mm. 

SiKKiM : Karsiang, Mungphu ; Penang. 

Type in coll. O. E. Janson ; cotype in the British Museum. 

The locality Penang cited by Wallace is very likely erroneous. 



36. Macronota gracilis. 

Macronota gracilis, Arroiv,* Ann. Mar/. Nat. Hist. (7) xix, 1907, 
p. 350. 

Black, with the elytra dark red except for a black patch 
behind the scutellum produced to the shoulders, a transverse 
median fascia and the apical margins, and decorated witii white 
markings consisting of a spot behind the scutellum, another at 
the middle of the elytral suture and t^o transverse marginal 
spots on each elytron. The sides of the stei'num and the margins 
of the basal segments of the abdomen are also marked with 
white. 

The form is very elongate, tapering behind, and the legs are 



66 CBTOIfllX^. 

slender. The head, pronotum, and pygidium are coarsely 
granulated. The head is flat, with a smooth tubercle on the 
vertex and moderately notched in front. The prothorax is almost 
circular iu shape, with all the angles almost obsolete, and 
moderately depressed behind. The elytra have a silky sheen and 
each has a strong costa and is feebly siuuated beliind the shoulder. 
The front tibia' have each three slight teeth, and the four jyoaterior 
tibia', are without teeth or spines at the middle. The antcanal 
chib is of moderate length. 

The male is not yet known. 

Lenf/tJi 15 mm. ; breadth 6 mm. 

AssAjr : Naga Hills (Doherti/), Kbasi Hills ; Bhutan : Maria 
liasti (L. Durel). 

Type iu the British Museum. 



Genus CLEROTA. 

Clerota, Bur^n., Handb. JSiit. iii, 1842, p. 317 ; Lacord., Gen. Col. 
iii, 1856, p. 504. 

Type, C. buddha, G. & P. (Java). 

liange. India and the Malayan lieglon. 

]3ody very smooth, boat-shaped and longitudinally grooved 
above at the middle. Clypeus long, almost pMrallel-sided, deeply 
and narrowly excised in front. Prothorax dilated to the hind 
margin and strongl}' lobed behind. Scutellum acutely pointed. 
Sides of the elytra scarcely sinuated and apices flat. Meso- 
steruum strongly produced, slender, curved and acutely pointed. 
Legs moderately stout ; front tibia? acutely and obliquely 
tridentate, spurs of the hind tibi» long. Mandibles rather 
strong. Maxillae without teeth. Mentum deeply notched. 
Palpi truncate. 

The front tibiae are similar in the two sexes, but a little more 
slender in the male, in which the hind tarsi are considerably longer 
and the pygidium broader. 

Only a single Indian species is known. 



'il. Clerota vittigera. 

]Macronota vittigera, Hope* Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1841, p. 34; 

Wv^ttc, Arcana Ent., i, 1842, p. 104, pi. 28, fig. U. 
Clerota buddha var. d, Bunn., Handb. Ent. iii, 1842, pp. 317 

& 807. 

Black and entirely shining, with orange markings consisting 
of a median line upon the head, median and lateral lines upon 




CLEBOTA. 67 

the pronotuui, the entire scutellum and two large spots upon each 
elytron, placed longitudinally and some- 
times coalescino; to form a broad stripe 
which extends from the front margin to 
a little before the apex. The sides of 
the pygidinm, scutellum, hind coxae 
and ventral segments are also orange- 
coloured. 

The cli/peus is long, scarcely contracted 
before the eyes, impressed and punctured 
on each side and biangulatate at the end. 
The 2i''onotum is depressed behind and 
strongly lobed, and without punctures 
Y^„ ig except near the lateral margins. The 

Clerota'vitt'igcm. latter are elevated, curved, scarcely 

angulated in the middle and the 
posterior angles are acute. The scutellum is smooth and sharply 
pointed. The ehjtra have some lines of punctures which do not 
reach either extremity, and the apices are finely strigose. The 
pycjidium is also finely transversely strigose. 

" The sexual differences have been stated in the generic 
description. 

Length 29-32 mm. ; breadth 13-15 mm. 

SiKKiM : Darjiliug, Mungphu ; Assam : Silhet ; Bhutan : 
Maria Basti. 

Type in the Oxford Museum. 

The locality Mysore attributed to the typical specimen is 
probably a mistake. 

Burmeister regarded this (he apparently saw the type) as a 
variety of the Javanese Clerota huddha, Gr. & P., but it is quite 
ilistinct. 

Group 3. Heterorkhixides. 

This group contains the majority of the Cetoniinj^ in which tlie 
head bears horns or processes. The latter are very varied in form 
and are sometimes peculiar to the male, sometimes ])ossessed by 
both sexes, and in some of their minor forms confined to the 
female. The front tibia} of the male are almost always unarmed 
externally and those of the female toothed. Another sexual 
difference, of a very unusual kind, is found in the maxillse, those 
of the female having at the end of the lower lobe a sharp tooth, 
which is absent or blunt in the male. 

Most of the species are very smooth and shining, and brilliantly 
but uniformly coloured, bright green being the predominant 
shade. 

f2 



68 CETOMiy,!-. 

Table of the Genera. 

1 (4) Base of the pronotum not excised before 

tlie scutelliiin. 

2 (3) Mesosternal process not reachiug the 

front coxfB : horns of the S slender [p. Q9>. 

and branched CvPHONOCKrH.vLus, 

3 {'2) Mesostt-rnal process slender, produced 

between the front coxre : horns of the 

S not branched or slender Xarvcius, p. 70. 

4 (1) Base of the pronotum excised before the 

scutelluiii. 

5 (6) Hind angles of the ])ronotum a little 

produced Dicehos, p. 7J . 

6 (5) Hind angles of the pronotum not pro- 

duced. 

7 (8) Vertex of the head bearing a bifid pro- [p. 77. 

cess Platynocephaliis, 

8 (9) Vertex of the head not bearing a bifid 

process. 

10 (19) Front margin of the clypeus simple. 

11 (12j Hind angles of the prothorax shai-ply 

rectangular, tufted beneath : front tibia 

of the male toothed JuMxos, p. 78. 

12(11) Hind angles of the prothorax rounded: 
front tibia of the male unarmed. 

13 (14) Clypeus abruptly dilated in front Ingkisma, p. 80. 

14 (13) Clypeus not abruptly dilated in front. 

15 (18) Clypeus large and elongate. 

16 (17) Sternal process transverse, dilated in [p. 81. 

front ToitYXOERHlNA, 

17 (16) Sternal process not transverse nor dilated [p. 84. 

in front Eiiomborbhina, 

18 (15) Clypeus small and transverse Ei^chloropus, 

19 (10) Front margin of the clypeus not simple [p. 89. 

(except in Ileterorrhina viutabiUs, c? ). 

20 (21) Front margin of the clypeus notched or [p. 90. 

toothed (except in II. viutabiiis, (S) . . Heteeorrhika, 

21 (20) Front margin of the clypeus bearing a [p. 102. 

horn dilated at the end Trigonophorx'S, 

Genus CYPHONOCEPHALUS. 

Narvcius. suhqen. Cvphouocephalus, JJ'estw., Arcana Ent. i, 1842, 

p:il5. 
Cvphonocephalus, Lacord., Gen. Col. iii. 1856, p. 477. 

Type, Nanicins olivaceus, Dup. 

liange. S. India. 

Form short and broad, rather liattenod abovt*. CJvpeus very 
short, feebly siuuated in front and exposinj^ the organs of the 
mouth regarded from above. Sides of head produced forward 
and upw ard forming a pair of horns, short in the female, between 
which the vertex is concave. Base of the pronotum nearly 
straight, very slightly prominent before the scutellum, but not 
lobed. and the bind angles a little produced backward above the 



CYPHO>'OCEi>nALUS. 



09 



niesostenial epiuiera ; sides broadly rounded in front and approxi- 
mately parallel behind. Scutellnin short, forming an equilateral 
triangle. Lateral margins of elytra sinuated behind the shoulders. 
Mesosternum produced, conical, scarcely curved. 

cj" . Cephalic horns long, curved outwards, with the extremities 
branched and bent backwards. Prothorax inflated above. Legs 
longer than those of the 2 ■, especially the tarsi ; tibiae gently 
curved and unarmed, the front ones rather elongate. Abdomen 
longitudinally grooved beneath. 

2 . Cephalic horns rudimentar)^ Front tibia) short, broad, and 
strongly tridentate ; middle and hind tibite straight and each 
armed with a sharp spine beyond the middle of the outer edge. 

Only a single species of the genus is known. 

38. Cyphonocephaliis olivaceus. 

Narycius olivaceus, Dicj)., Mag. de Zool. CI. ix, v. 1835, pi. 128, fig. 2. 
Naryciiis opalus (j), Westv)., Arcana Ent. i, 1842, p. 114; Burm., 

Haudb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 171. 
Cyphoriocephalus sinaragdulus, Westw., Arcana Ent. \, 1842, p. 115, 
•pi. 33, fig. 2 (n. syn.). 

Bright green, fiery red, or deep blue-black, with the clypeus, 
cephalic horns, outer edges of the tibia), and tarsi of the male 
black, and with golden-red reflections upon the lower surface. 




Fig. 17. — Ci/pltonoccj)halt'.i olicaccus, male, with lateral view (above) 
and fox*e part of female (below). 

The upper surface is coriaceous and moderately shining. The 
prothorax is transverse, with the sides almost parallel from the 
hind angles to beyond the middle and broadly rounded in front, 
the anterior angles being obliterated and the front margin a little 
produced above the head. Tlie elytra are punctate-striate, with 



70 CETONHN.!. 

the sides slightly approximating heliind and sinuated behind the 
shoulders. 

(5 . The cephalic horns together form about three-fourths of 
the circumference of a circle. The tips are blunt and strongly 
recurved, and a short lateral branch is given ott' shortly before 
them. The prothoracc is rather opaque and strongly inflated 
above, leaving a narrow flattened margin on each side. The 
abdomen is a little hollowed beneath. 

$ . The cephaHc horns are short, flat and horizontal, producing 
the appearance of a false clypeus deeply cleft as in Thanmastopeus. 
The 2^''onx)tv.m is shining and irregularly and rather coarsely 
punctured. The scutellum is slightly produced at the apex. 

Length 23-30 mm. ; breadth 13-15 mm. 

Madras : Nilgiri Hills. 

Tyoe in coll, K. Oberthiir; that of smarcu/didns in the Bristol 
Museum of Xatural History. 

The genus Ct/phonocejdKdus was based upon a single, poorly 
developed, male specimen, and the only other individual hitherto 
described (Dupont's type) is a female which has been accepted as 
that of Narijchis OjKdus. The figure agrees well \\'\{\\ females of 
the present species which I have examined, and Dupont's state- 
ment that the tarsi are longer than those of K. ojxdvs seems to 
nie to exclude the possibility of its belonging to that species as 
Westwood believed. 

A good series of C. olivacevs has been collected by Mr. II . L. 
Andre wes and Capt. A. K. "Weld Downing, and the latter has 
supplied some interesting facts regarding its habits, Wlien 
sitting in the branches of a tree much frequented by it, with a 
view to capturing specimens, he has often seen two males fighting 
on the flowers. " They get their horns locked together, and one 
ends by knocking the other buzzing down the tree. The one 
knocked down frequently returns to the attack, flying round 
until he finds his original enemy, and goes for him again. They 
lower their heads and raise them sharply when fighting, and their 
horns can be heard five yards away knocking against each other." 
Capt. Downing has a couple of male specimens with the tip of a 
horn broken off, probably in such encounters. 

Genus NARYCIUS. 

Narycius, Btiponi, Ma;/, de Zool. v, 18J]o, CI. ix, pi. 1^^, fig. 1 ; 
Wcsiirood. Arcana Ent. 1842, p. 114; Bunn., Ilandb. Ent. iii, 
1842, p. 170 : Lacord., Gen. Co/, iii. ]s-,G, p. 476. 

Ti'PE, N. opalus, Dup. 

Rawje. S. India. 

Term rather short and broad, not very convex. Protliorax 
strongly transverse, with the base very slightly prominent before the 
scutclhun, but not lobed, the hijul angles almost covering the meso- 
sternal epimera, the sides brondly rounded in front. Scutellum 
short, forming an equilateral triangle. Elytra moderately broad. 



KARTCIUS. — DICEROS. 71 

not tapei'iug behind, with the sides sinviated behind the shoulders. 
Mesosternal process angular. 

d . Sides of the head above the eyes elevated into strong carina) 
which unite posteriorly within the occipital cavity, so that tlie 
head appears deeply hollowed out, and are produced anteriorly as 
a pair of long, approximately horizontal, horns. Head deflected in 
front so that the mouth is at right angles to the direction of the 
horns. Anterior tibia rather slender but not elongate, armed 
with two slight external teeth and two irregular internal ones, 
and with the terminal spur short and strongly hooked ; middle 
tibia slightly curved ; hind tibia straight and fringed at the inner 
edge. Abdomen longitudinally grooved. 

2 . Unknown. 

Only one species of the genus is known. 

39. Narycius opalus. (Plate I, fig. 9.) 

Narycius opalus, Diq)., I. c; Westtv., Arc. Ent. i, 1841, p. 5, pi. 1, 
iig. o ; id., op. cit. p. 114; Burm., Handb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 171. 

Eosy green and shining, the cephalic horns, elytra, pygidium 
and lower surface pinkish-testaceous with slight green reflections. 
The surface is finely coriaceous, with the prothorax and scutelluin 
irregularly punctured, the former having two pits near the hind 
margin, before the scutellum, and the elytra are striate-punctate. 

cJ . The cephalic horns may attain two-thirds of the length of 
the thorax and abdomen together. Their upper edges are nearly 
straight and parallel, they expand slightly towards the end and 
the tips are pointed and a little recurved. The prothorax is 
rather inflated above and is broadest a little before the middle. 

Length 22-25 mm.; breadth 13 mm. 

Madras : Travancore ; Nilgiri Hills ; Mercara, Coorg. 

Type in coll. E. Oberthiir. 

Narycius olivaceus, Dup., which is said by Westwood {op. cit. 
p. 114) to be the female of this beetle, seems to me to be really 
that of Cyphonocephalus smaragdulus, AVestw., to M'hich I have 
therefore applied Dupont's name. 

Genus DICEROS. 

Diceros, Lacord., Genera des Cobjopt. iii, 1856, p. 486. 
Dicheros, G. cS- P., Monoyr. Cet. 1833, p. 40. 
Mystroceros, Burm., Hundh. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 217. 

Type, Cetonia bicomis, Latr. {= D. pJagiatus, G. & P.), from 
Timor. 

Range. India and the Malayan Region. 

Body very smooth, moderately convex, long and narrow, dis- 
tinctly tapering from shoulder to apex. Eyes very prominent. 
Clypeus moderately loug,not much dilated, sometimes with the sides 
produced in the males into a pair of horizontal horns. Prothorax 



72 CETOXIIX^. 

rather convex above, with the posterior margin trisinuate and the 
liind angles produced backwai'ds and ahiiost concealing the meso- 
sternal epiiuera. Scutelluiu rather short, with the sides sinuated 
and the apex blunt. Lateral margins of elytra distinctly sinuated 
and the apical angles acutely produced. Lower surface of body 
smooth, with the mesosternal process long, narrow and strongly 
curved. Legs rather short, but not stout, with the tarsi rather 
thick and closely articulated. Mandible with the chitinous outer 
lobe rather short and pointed. Maxilla not long, terminating in 
two hooked teeth internally and a tuft of hairs externally. Mentum 
emarginate in front. 

cJ . Tlie abdomen is deeply grooved throughout its length, and 
the front tibi;x? are simple or have only a very feeble upper tooth. 

2 . The front tibiae are bidentate. 

Ken ^^ ^^^^' ^p<^<^^<^s. 

1 (2) Clypeus armed in front with a pair 

of horns or processes, long in 

the male dives, Westw., p. 72. 

2 (1) Clypeus unarmed. 

■'{ (6) Forehead bearing a single median 

lobe. [p. 74. 

4 (5) Prothorax entirely black roepstorffi, Wood-Mason, 

T) (4) Prothorax red and black chiUlreni, Westw., p. 74. 

6 (3) Forehead without a median lobe. 

7 (lO) PronotiHii very smooth. 

8 (9) Elytra black, each Avith a yellow 

patch bimacula, Wied., p. 75. 

9 (8) Elytra yellow, with narrow black 

margins cnvera, Newm., p. 76. 

10 (7) Pronotum strongly punctured .... gracilis, Jans., p. 76. 



40. Diceros dives. (Plate I, hg. 10, $ , and tig. 11, j .) 

TIeterorrhina dives, IVestiv.^^ Arcana Eni. i, 1842, p. 134, pi. 33, fig. 5. 
iMystroceros diardi, Burm., Handb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 217. 
Gnathocera macleay, (i. S,- P., Monoyr. Cet. 1833, p. 129, pi. 19, tig. 2. 
(5") Heterorrhina mitrata, Wall.,^ Tra7is. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) iv, 
1868, p. 528, pi. 11, fig. 1 (n. syn.). 

Brilliant green with rosy reflections and with the clypeal pro- 
cesses, antenna?, tibiic and tarsi (except the inner edges of the 
front tibia) and the extreme ends of the hind ones), a large heart- 
vsliaped median ))atch extending from base to apex of the pronotum, 
the anterior jjart of the elytra and a broad apical patch reaching 
the margins of the sides and middle, black. The basal and median 
part of tht» i)ygidium, parts of the front and middle femora, the 
coxa), sides of the sternum and abdomen, and the basal part of 
each ventral segment are deep mahogany colour. 

The surface is very highly glazed, and the shape elongate-oval 
and not very convex. The head is slightly punctured, strongly 
excavated, bicornute in front, with a laminar horizontal process 



DICEROS. 73 

px'ojecting forwai'd over the excavation from between the eyes. 
The pronotum is very lightly punctured in the middle and more 
closely and coarsely at tlie sides. It is strongly transverse, with 
the sides rounded and not augulated, bordered by an impressed 
raargiual line which is discontinued at about the posterior \ ot" 
its length, and the mesosternal epimera are almost covered by the 
produced hind angles. The scatelJum is shortly triangular and 
moderately sharp at the apex. The e^j/tra have rather feeble rows 
ot" irregular punctures and are feebly sinuated at the sides and 
acute at the apical angles. The pygidlam is very coarsely punc- 
tured. The sternal process is very slender, acute, and strongly 
curved. There are large but scattered punctures ou the meta- 
sternum aud legs, and all the punctures, both above and beneath, 
are black-pigment(>d. The legs are moderately stout and the front 
tibiae rather broad. 

S . The clypeus is nearly straight in front and a pair of long 
and slender horns spring from its sides just in front of the eyes. 
They are flattened and nearly parallel, except at the tips, where 
they are a little incui-ved and bluntly i-ouuded. The prothorax is 
narrowed in front, and the elytra are more spinose behind than 
in the female. The club of the antenna is a little longer. The 
front tibiae are quite simple, aud the abdomen is channelled along 
the middle beneath. 

$ . Two short angular processes spring from the front margin 
of the clypeus. The front tibia) are bluntly bidentate, and all the 
tarsi are rather shorter than in the male. 

Length 19-21 mm.; breadth 10 mm. 

Bengal (?); Penang. 

'Type in the Paris Museum, diardl having been described from 
the same specimen ; type of miirata in the British Museum. 

This beautiful beetle, although discovered so long ago as 1815, 
is extremely rare, and has been the subject of much discussion. 
Only a single specimen of the c? (the original specimen in the 
Paris Museum) is yet known. I have been able to make a careful 
comparison of this with the two female specimens from Penang in 
the British Museum to which the name Heterorrhina miirata was 
given by Wallace, and find that they agree so exactly in all points 
but the armature, that 1 have associated them as a single species 
almost without hesitation. I am not convinced, though, that the 
male was actually brought, as supposed, from Bengal, and M. Lesne, 
of the Paris Museum, tells me that MM. Diard and Duvaucel, its 
discoverers, did not collect only within the Indian borders and 
that the localities in which their specimens were found were not 
recorded with any precision. It is possible therefore that this 
species may not really belong to the Indian fauna. It is 
also possible that it may be found in Lower Burma but not in 
Bengal. 

Dr. Ivraatz discussed this species at length (Deutsche Ent. 
Zeitschr. 1892, p. 370), and concluded that the male type-specimen 



74 CETOXIIN^. 

was a compound one, having had the head of a quite different 
species, probably Diceros peteli, attached to it. It is true that the 
head of this specimen has at some time been detached and re-fixed, 
but it is not the head of D. peteli, and there is no reason to consider 
it other than the original one. 

41. Diceros roepstorflB. 

Diceros roepstorffi, Wood-Mason* Joum. Asiat. S'oc. Beng. 1876^ 
part ii, p. 52. 

Shining black above and below, except for a nearly circular 
orange patch at the outer margin of each elytron a little before 
the middle. 

The clypeiis is quadrate, with the front margin nearly straight^ 
recurved and slightly produced in the middle, the front part 
excavated and the posterior part rugosely punctured, broadly 
elevated in the middle and forming in front a broad arcuate 
projecting crest. The protliorax and scuiellvm are very finely 
punctured, the former strongly bisinuated and margined at the 
sides and the marginal lines complete. The eh/tra are very lightly 
serially punctured and scarcely rugose at the apices. The pyr/idiinn 
is finely transversely rugulose, the metasternum is coarsely punc- 
tured at the sides, and the ventral se(jmcats have each a row of fiue 
punctures at the middle. 

Lenr/th 17 mm. ; hreadtli 8 mm. 

Andaman Is. 

Type in the Indian ^luseum. 

41*. Diceros childreni. 

Heterorrhina chiUlivni, Wesfir..* Arctma Eni. i. 1842, p. 189, pi- 36, 
fig. 3. 

Shining black, with the pronotum (except a large more or less 
cruciform black mark at the centre), the scutellum, femora, parts 
of the sternum and the terminal part of the abdomen deep blood- 
red, and a large bright yellow patch about half the length of the 
elytra placed before the middle of each and reaching the outer, 
but not tlie inner, margin. 

The chjpeus is quadrate and nearly straight in front, with 
the margin strongly raised and slightly and broadly produced 
in the niiddle, the front part excavated and smooth and the 
posterior ])art punctured and provided with a carina which is 
bluntly produced in front. The pronotum is very smooth and 
convex and exceedingly finely punctured, with the sides strongly 
bisinuated and margined, the marginal stria? being complete. Tiie 
scuteUinn has only a very few fine punctures, and the elytra are 
very lightly serially punctured, with the apices slightly rugose. 
The pyf/idhnn is finely transversely strigose, the metastermim 



DICEROS, 75 

coarsely punctured at the sides, and the ventral segments have each 
a row of punctures at the middle. 

Length 14-18 ram.; breadth 7-9 ram. 

Bengal ; Assam : Khasi Hills, Southern Slopes (Indian Mus.). 

Type in the British Museum. 

43. Diceros bimacula. 

Cetonia bimacula, IFicd.* Zool. Miu/. ii, 1, 1823, p. 805 Schauin, 

Ann. Sue. Ent. France, 1849, p. 252. 
Heterorrhina coiifusa, 'l\'estw.,^ Areana Ent. i, 1842, p. 139, pi. 36, 

fig-. 2. 
Gnathocera bimaculata, G. Sf P.,* Monogr. Cet. 1833, p. 142, pi. 22, 

fig. 3. 

Shilling black, with a blood-red triangular patch upon each side 
of the prouotum (of which the base extends along nearly the 
w hole lateral margin, the t\\o apices approximating a little before 
the basal margin) and a large bright yellow patch nearly half the 
length of the elytra placed before the middle of each and reaching 
the outer but not the inner margin, the inner angles of each patch 
being excised. The last segment of the abdomen is deep red 
above and below. 

The dypeus is quadrate and straight in front, with the angles 
broadly rounded, the surface is indistinctly punctured and the 
central part gently raised. The iJronotum is smooth, with very 
line, scattered punctures, its sides gently sinuated and bordered 
with a lateral line upon the anterior half only. The scutellum is 
broad and smooth and the elytra are very faintly seriately punc- 
tured, with the apices slightly rugose. The pygid'mm is finely 
transvei'sely strigose, the metasternum has very large deep punc- 
tures at the sides, and each ventral segment has a row of punctures 
at the middle. 

Length 16-3 8 mm.; breadth 8-9 mra. 

Travancoee : Trivandrura (June) ; Ceylon. 

Type in the Copenhagen Museum ; that of confusa in the 
Oxford Museum, that of bimaculata in coll. K. Oberthlir. 

The upper surface is less strongly punctured than that of 
D. cuvera, Newin., the yellow patches upon the elytra are much 
smaller and the lateral striae of the pronotum are obsolete behind. 

Westwood was unable to recognise this species as that previously 
described by Wiedemann, but thei'e is no apparent reason for 
his doubt. 

44. Diceros ciivera. 

Dicheros cuvera, Keivm,,^" Ent. Mny. v, 1837, p. 384. 

Shining black, with a deep blood-red patch, irregularly triangular 
in shape, on each side of the pronotum (the bases reaching the 
lateral margins and the apices approximating just before the hind 



76 CETOJ^IIN.!. 

margin) and a very large bright yellow patcli upon eacli elytrou, 
leaving only a narrow black border all round, the external border 
extremely fine. The inner side of each yellow patch is slightly 
produced both in front and belaud. The terminal segment of the 
abdomen is deep red. 

The chjpeus is quadrate and straight in front, with the angles 
broadly rounded, the surface is indistinctly punctured and the 
whole central part gently raised. The pronotnui is smooth, with 
very fine scattered punctures, and its sides are gently siiiuated 
ami bordered with striic which are scarcely abbreviated behind. 
Tlie scuteUum is unpunctured, and the elytra have each a strongly 
impressed series of punctures near the suture and several fainter 
series upon the disc. The pifcjidlum is finely transvei'sely strigose, 
the iiietasternam has very large punctures at the sides, and each 
ventral segment has a row of punctures at the middle. 

Lencjtli lo~19 mm.; breadth 7-9 mm. 

Bombay : Bombay, Kanara. 

Tyjpe in the British Museum. 



4.J. Diceros gracilis. 

Dicevos gracilis, Janson, The Entomologist, vol. xlii, 1009, p. 22o. 

Shining black, with the pygidium, last ventral segment and 
lateral margins of the prothorax frequently a very deep blood-red, 
the red thoracic margin being broadly produced inwards just 
before the base. Each elytron is decorated with a very pale 
yellow rectangular median patch, not 
quite twice as long as it is broad, and 
separated from the outer edge by an 
extremely fine, and from the inner edge 
by a moderately broad, black line. 

This is a very small species of the 
usual elongate shape, but rather strongly 
jninctured above. The head is closely 
puncturedand thech/peus simple, rounded, 
and reflexed at the margin. 'Yhe jn-ouotum 
is very convex and distinctly punctured 
all over, with a series of large punctures 
Fig. IS.— JJiWro.'i gracilis, closely collected in a transverse linear 
depression on each side before the base ; 
the sides are gently curved and finely margined and the hind 
angles prominent. The scutellum is short and feebly punctured, 
and the elytra are evenly punctured in regular rows which do not 
quite reach the extremity ; the apices are a little rugose. The 
jvjgidluni is finely transversely strigose, the met((sternuya very 
coarsely and sparsely punctured at the sides and smooth in the 
middle, and the abdomen coarsely punctured at the sides and 
(in the $ ) more finely and closely in the middle. 




DICEEOS. — PLATYNOCErilALUS. i i 

Of the six specimens I have seen the males are considerably 
smaller than the females. The front tibia of the d is feebly 
bidentate, that of the $ sti'ongly so. 

Lenr/th 11-14*5 mm. ; breadth 5-G mm. 

Bhutan : Maria Basti ; Burma : ThaiTawaddy. 

Type in coll. O. E. Janson. 



Genus PLATYNOCEPHALUS. 

Narycius, snbyenus Platynoceplialus, Westw., Travs. Enf. Soc. Lond. 
iii, 1854, p. 07. 

Type, P. luimiltoni, Westw. 

Itanr/e. Burma. 

Prothorax about as broad as it is long, distinctly narrower than 
the elytra across the shoulders and almost parallel-sided behind, 
^\'ith the base very fe«bly emarginate before the scutellum. 
8cutellum very short, scarcely as long as its breadth at the base, 
with the sides bisiuuate and the apex very acute. Elytra ratlier 
straight-sided, narrowing from base to apex, with the shoulders 
prominent and the margins a little sinuated behind the shoulders. 
Mesosternum produced into a moderately long, sharp, conical 
process. Maxillae moderately long, strougly tri-dentate. Mentum 
broad and fiat, Avith the front margin nearly straight and tlie 
posterior part dilated. 

5 . Head broad, excavated, Avith a bifid horizontal process from 
the vertex overhanging the cavity and the clypeus not reflexed at 
the margin, broadly excised, with the angles rather sharp. Legs 
robust, with the front tibise broad and armed with three similar 
oblique teeth. 

Although this is a very isolated genus, it is impossible properly 
to indicate its generic chai'acters, for the male, which in all proba- 
bility differs greatly from the female, is entirely unknown and it 
cannot be determined x'i hat features are peculiar to one sex. It 
may even prove to belong to a diff extent group from that in 
which it is here provisionally located. The single type-specimen, 
although discovered more than half a ceuturj^ ago, still remains 
the only known representative of its genus. 

46. Platynoceplialus hamiltoni. 

riatynoeephalus hamiltoni, Westw., I. c. pi. 7, fig. 2. 

5 . Testaceous yellow, with the outer margins of the elytra 
and the abdomen reddish, and the metasternum (but not the 
mesosternal process), the tibiae, the shoulders, a lateral band 
parallel to the outer margins of the elytra, the sutural margins 
and the extreme margins of the head, prothorax, and scutellum, 
black. 



/.S 



cp^to'ilnm:. 



The body is moderately elongate and rather flat, w ith the lower 
surface aud the pygidium clothed with minute decumbent grey 
hairs. The head is broader than it is long, coarsely punctured 
and thinly setose. It is excavated above, the hind margin of 
the excavation gives rise at the middle to 
two coalescing processes projecting hori- 
zontally forward, and the front of the 
eh/pens is arcuately excised, with rather 
sharj) angles. The protlionLv is thinly 
punctured, with the sides nearly parallel 
behind, feebly angulated in the middle, and 
from there convergent and almost straight. 
The base is very feebly emarginated before 
the scii-telluhi. The latter is very short, 
acutely pointed, and has only a few small 
punctures at the sides. The el)jti'a are 
rather strongly punctate-striate, two of the 
dorsal intervals being smootli and feebly 
convex, the x-est irregularly punctured, and 
the apical margins more coarsely and closely 
punctured. The sides are moderately 
siiniated belilnd the shoulders and the apical angles bluntly pro- 
duced. Tlie piiijidlam is finely rugose, and the sides of the 
metastenmm and ahdomen are strongly punctured. The form of 
the front tibia is rather pecuhar, the three teeth being strong, 
equal and very oblique. All the tarsi are rather short. 
Length :26 nnn.; breadth 13 mm. 
BuiiMA : Moulmein. 
Ti/pe in the British Museum. 




Fig. 19. — I'lati/iioccphali^s 

hamiUonl, female ; 

natural size. 



(ienus JUMNOS. 

•lumnos, Saunders, Trans. Ent. Soc. Land, ii, l8o'J, j'- 1~<J. pi. x^i, 
fig. 1 ; Westwuod, Cab. of Orient. Entom. pi. xvii, liirs- 1 & '2. 

Type, J. raclccri, Saund. 

Bawje. North India and Burma. 

J'''orm moderately elongate, rather parallel-sided, and smooth 
and shining above. Clypeus quadrate. Protliorax sinuous at the 
sides, witli the hind angles sharp. Scutellum moderately long 
and pointed. ]*]lytra sinuated behind the shoulders. Mesosternal 
process short and flat, rounded or obtusely pointed in front. 
Pront tibiie bidentate externally. 

S . Clypeus straighter in front than in the $ . Pi'othorax 
more convex. IVont legs elongated, with the tibia) slender, 
hooked at the end and irregularly toothed beneath. Middle and 
hind tibia? more closely fringed at the inner edge. Abdomen 
impressed beneath. 



JUMNOS. 79 



Key to the Species. 



Pronotum without yellow lateral lines ; elytra 

decorated witli four very large spots .... ruckeri, Saund., p. 79. 
Pronotum decorated with yellow lateral lines ; 

elytra with four small spots roylei, Hope, p. 79. 



47. Jumnos ruckeri. (Plate 1, fig. 6.) 

Juranos ruckeri, Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ii, 1839, p. 176, 
pi. xvi, fig. 1 ; Westio., Cab. of Orient. Entom. pi. xvii, figs. 1 
& 2. 

Deep metallic green, with a large orauge spot on the front half 
of each elytron and a still larger one on the posterior half, the 
Jatter usually occupying almost the full breadth of the elytron. 

It is a very large insect, elongate in shape, slightly narrowing 
behind, very smooth and coriaceous above. The clypeus rugose, 
the margins reflexed, the sides straight and very slightly diverging 
towards the front, and the front margin nearly straight. The 
pygicUum is very finely rugose, tbe metasternuni rugose and setose, 
and the mesosterwd process short and bluntly angular at the end. 

S . The clypeus is granulated and without distinct punctures, 
and the angles are rather sharp. The prothorax is swollen above, 
longer than that of the female and a little narrowed towards the 
base, its surface being less shining and more coriaceous. The 
front legs are greatly elongated, with the tibiae strongly but 
irregularly tuberculated beueath and the terminal external tooth 
very feeble and blunt. The fringe at the inner edge of the 
•middle and hind tibite is close but short, aud the middle tibiae are 
not toothed externally. The abdomen is broadly impressed along 
the middle beneath. 

Lenytli 37-46 mm. ; breadth 19-23 mm. 

SiKKiM : Darjiling; Assam: Manipur; Burma. 

Mr. O. E. Janson has a specimen fi-om Burma in which the 
yellow patches are almost absent. 



48. Jumnos roylei. 

Cetonia roylei, Hope^^ Royle's Himalayas, 1839, Entom. p. o4, pi. 9, 
fig. 1 ; Westw., Arcana Ent. i, 1842, p. 117, pi. 29, fig. 2. 

Deep bronzy brown or green, with a yellow margin at each side 
•of the pronotum, and a round anterior spot aud a lunate posterior 
■ one, of the same colour, on each elvtron. 

The form is moderately elongate, with the elytra scarcely 
narrowed behind. The head and clypeus are rugose, the prothorax 
strongly punctured, the scutellum punctured at the sides, and 
the elytra finely rugose, except in the scutellar region, where 
•they are strongly punctured. The pygidium is finely rugose, the 



80 cetoxiix.t:. 

sides of tlie metastemum are coarsely rugose aud hairy, and the 
mesosternal process broad and rounded at the end. 

S . There is a distinct median carina upon the head, which 
is granulose and minutely setose, and the front margin of the 
clypeus is straight and refiexed. The prothorax is a little more 
convex than that of the female. The front legs are only slightly 
elongated, the two external teeth of the front tibia are sharp and 
equal, ti)e middle tibia has a minute spine at the middle of its outer 
edge, and the fringes of the four posterior tibite are moderately 
long. The abdomen is arched and longitudinally grooved beneath. 
2 . The head is rugosely punctured with the clypeus sometimes 
feebly bilobed and the margin not reflexed. 

Length 19-27 mm. ; breadth U-5-14 mm. 

United Provinces : Landaur ; Bhutax ; Assam : Silhet. 

Type in the Oxford Museum. 

Dr. Benson found this species abundant in the hollows of oaks. 



Genus INGRISMA. 
Ingrisnia, Fttirmuire, Aim. Soc. Ent. BcUj. xxxvii, 1803, p. 292. 

Type, J. rasuta, Fairm. (Tonidn). 

Range. Burma, Tonkin. 

Form elongate and depressed. Clypeus long, constricted, 
angularly dilated in front, with the front margin rounded and 
reflexed. Prothorax more or less triangular, with the basal 
margin very slightly excised before the scutellum. Scutellum 
rather short, acutely pointed. Elytra strongly sinuated at tlie 
sides. Sternal process rather slender, strongly bent downwards, 
flattened and blunt. 

S . Clypeus more dilated in front. The front legs longer and 
more slender, and the tibiic without teeth externally ; hind tibiae 
furnishcnl with a close-set fringe of golden hairs. Club of the 
antenna rather long. Abdomen not channelled beneath. 

$ . Front tibiae broader and bidentate ; hind tibiae scarcely 
fringed. 

A single Burmese species is the only representative of the 
genus known, except the type-species, the female of which bears 
another name. Anotlier insect from Hainan which has been 
referred to it is not truly congeneric. 

40. Ingrisnia eiiryrrhina. 

IletLroiihina eiiryrrhina, Gesiro,* Ann. Mus. Oenova, 1891, p. 838, 

pi. 2, ti-.'.. 1 & 2. 
Iiij,a'isiiia bingliauii, Janson* Trcni^. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1903, p. 308 

(n. syn.). 

Green, blue, fiery-red, purple or black, above and beneath, with 



INGRISMA. — TORYNORRHINA. 



81 



the sides of the bind coxae and abdomen, the antennae and 
legs reddish, and sometimes also the extreme lateral margins of 
the prothorax. 

It is depressed and elongate in shape, with the sides of the elytra 
rather straight. The head is long and 
rather riigosely punctured above. The 
protliorax is punctured all over, but 
very finely in the middle, and the sides 
are finely margined and sinuated. 
The scuteUiiiii is sparingly punctured. 
The eli/tni are distinctly punctured in 
rows on the disc and very finely rugose 
at the lateral and apical margins. The 
piKlidium is finely rugose, and the 
sides of the metasternum and ahdohiea 
strigosely punctured. 

The sexual differences are stated 
above. 

Length 24-30 mm. ; hreadth 12-5 
mm. 

Burma : Karen-ni ; Tenasserim : 
Thaung-yin Valley. 

Tijpe in the Genoa Museum ; that 
of hiur/hami in coll. O. E. Janson. 
I. bingJiami, Jans., was based u])on a specimen of better develop- 
ment than those previously described by Dr. Gestro. 




Fig. 20. 
I/igrisma curyrrluna, male. 



Genus TORYNORRHINA. 



Torynorrhina, Arroic, 
p. 4;33. 



Ann. May. Xat. Hist. (7) xix, 1907, 



Type, Rhomhorrli'ma distincta, Hope. 

Range. N. India, Burma, China, Japan. 

Body elongate and depressed. Clypeus simple, rather long, 
gradually dilating towards the front, with the anterior margin 
regularly rounded. Pronotum rather triangular, with the pos- 
terior angles well-marked but not produced, and the base mode- 
rately excised before the scutellum. Sides of scutellum slightly 
sinuated and apex acute. Elytra long, not much narrowed from 
base to apex, sinuated at the sides and rugose at the posterior 
margins. Sternal process well-developed, broad, dilated and trans- 
verse in front, and formed by the mesosternum and metasternum 
together. Legs moderately long, with the middle and hind tibiae 
fringed at the inner edge. Mandibles much reduced. Maxillae 
slender, with a long fringe at the extremity. Mentum strongly 
bilobed. 



82 CETO^^IIXX 

Front tibia? slender and unarmed in the J , broader, and armed 
with two sharp oblique teeth in the ^ . 



Ken ^^ '^"^ Species. 

1 (4) A dark posterior border to the 

elytra. 

2 (3) Dark border not sharply defined distinda, Hope, p. 82. 

3 (2) Dark border i?harply defined (ijncah'i>, Westw., p. 83. 

4 (1) p]lytra without dark posterior border, 
fl (8) Hairy clothinfr black. 

6 (7) Colour blue-black liyacinUnna, Hope, p. 83. 

7 (6) Colour green inciscc, sp. n., p. 83. 

8 (6) Hairy clothing yellow opalina, Hope, p. 84. 



50. Torjrnorrhina distincta. 

Rhomborrhina distincta, Hope* Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. iii, 1841, 

p. 63. 
Khomborrbina mellvi, Biirm. (nee G. S,- P.), Handb. Ent. iii, 1842, 

p. 198 ; Westw., Arcana Ent. i, 1842, p. 118. 
Tar. Rhomborrhina flammea, (restro,* Ann. Mvs. Getiova (2) vi, 

1888, p. 115 (n. syn.). 
Var. Rhomborrhina cjiriana, ?c?.,* op. cit. (2) x, 1891, p. 837 (n. sj-n.). 
Var. Rhomborrhiua ultramariuea, Nonf., Stettin. Ent. Zeit. 1906, 
p. 222 (n. syn.). 

Bright metallic green above, A'arying to golden green, opales- 
cent, fiery-red (var. flammea), red, with the scutellum black 
(var. cariana) or deep blue (var. vUramarinea). with the lower 
surface and legs deep green or blue, the abdomen sometimes 
black, and the posterior margin of tbe elytra and tbe pygidium 
dark and hairy, the posterior border of the elytra not sharply 
defined. 

The clypeus is densely and rugosely punctured, the pronotnm 
strongly punctured except in the middle, the scutelhon very 
minutely and scantily punctured, and the ehftra irregularly and 
rather coarsely punctured, with the posterior margins and the 
hinder part of the hiteral margins coarsely rugose. The piigidium 
is coarsely granulated, tbe sides of the metastermnn are closely 
punctured, and the abdomen very smooth. The middle and hind 
iihicp. are fringed v.ith black hairs at the inner edge. 

Length 29-32 mm.; breadth 15-10 mm. 

Bhutan ; Assam : Manipur ; Burma : Karen-ni, Kachin Hills. 

Ti/j)e in the Oxford IMuseum. 

The three succeeding forms are extremely close to the pi*e- 
ceding and to one another, and I have only treated them as 
distinct because, from the good series 1 have examined, the}' seem 
to be less variable in their own localities than T. distincta. 



TORYNORKHINA. 



83 




Fig. 21. — TorynoiTliina apicalis, inale 
(natural size), with details of sternal 
process aud iVont tibia of the female. 



51. Torynorrhina apicalis. 

Ilhomborrhina apicalis, Westiv.,* Arcana Ent. i, 1842, p. 118, pi. 30, 
fig-. 2 ; Schaum, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1849, p. 246. 

Slightly opalescent pink 
above and dark olive-green 
beneath, with the apical 
edges of the elytra, the 
pygidium and legs bLack,. 
the apical black border of 
the elytra sharply defined 
in front. 

The general form and 
features are exactly those of 
T. distlncta, Hope, but the 
size is a trifle larger on the 
whole and the rugose pos- 
terior border of the elytra 
is quite black and sharply 
defined, instead of merging 
insensibly into the general 
colour. The colour of tha 
upper surface is peculiar 
and, unlike that of the preceding species, seems to be constant. 

Length 31-33 mm. ; breadth 14-16-5 mm. 

SiKKiM : Mungphu ; Nepal. 

Tyi^e in the Oxford Museum ; co-type in the British Museum. 

52. Torynorrhina hyacinthina. 

Ilhomborrhina hyacinthina, Hope,* Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. iii, 1841,. 
p. 62 ; Westiv., Arcana Ent. i, 1842, p. 119, pi. 30, fig. 1. 

Deep indigo-black, with the head, legs and lower surface rather 
more distinctly blue. 

The form is the same as in the two preceding species, but the 
upper surface is more sti-ongly and rugosely punctured. The 
entire surface of the 2^^'onotam is distinctly punctured (the sides 
very densely), the scutellum is finely but evidently punctured, and 
the elytra are covered with large transverse impressions or 
punctures. The hairy fringe of the hind tibicv is rather less 
developed. 

Length 32-35 mm. ; breadth 15-16 mm. 

Assam : Khasi Hills, Silhet ; Bhutan. 

Type in the Oxford Museum. 

53. Torynorrhina incisa, sp. n. 

Bright metallic green, except a small spot on each humeral 
callus, the edges of the ventral segments and the tarsi, which are 
black. 

g2 



84 CETONiixj;. 

It is a little smaller than T. hijacintliiiia, Hope, more sliiniug 
and less coarsely sculptured. The eh/tra are densely marked with 
black-pigmented crescent-shaped impressions, deeply impressed 
but not very coarse. 

Length 30-'A'2 mm. ; hreadtli 15-1 d mm, 

Assam : Sudiya, Sibsagar. 

Type in the British Museum. 



54. Torynorrhina opalina. 

Cetonia opalina, Hope* Grays Zool. Misc. 1831, p. 24. 
Goliathus opalinus, G. ^- P., Monogr. Cet. p. 186, pi. 26, lig. 5. 

Pale pinkish olivaceous green above and beneath, with the 
scutellum dark green, deepening from base to apex, and the tarsi 
and edges of tlie ventral segments black. 

This is a rather smaller form than those preceding, very smooth 
and shining, and less closely punctured. The hairy clothing of 
the apices of the elytra, the pygidium, sides of the metasternum, 
and the fringes of the four posterior tibia3 are tawny coloured. 
The pronotum is rather deeply emarginate before the scutellum, 
which is rather short and has distinctly curvilinear sides. 

Length 28-:53 mm.; breadth 115-15 mm. 

Punjab : Murree ; United Phovinces : Dehra Dun, Mus- 
soori ; Nepal; Sikkim : Darjiling; Tibet. 

Ti/2)e in the British Museum. 



Genus RHOMBORRHINA. 

llhouiborrliiiia, Hope, Coleop. Man. i, 1837, p. 120; Arrow, Aim. 

Ma;/. Nat. Hist. (7) xix, 1907, p. 433. 
Anomalocera, Westic, Arcana Ent. i, 1842, p. 120; Arrow, Ann. 

Ma<j. Nat. Hist. (7) xix, 1007, p. 319. 
Diphyllomorpha, Hope, 'J'rans. Linn. Soc, xix (2), 1843, p. 107. 

Type, Goliathus heros, G. & P. 

Range. India, China, Malayan Eegion. 

Form elongate, rather flattened above, generally very smooth 
and sliiniug. Head Hat, without frontal process ; clypeus simple, 
elongate, nearly straight in front, not distinctly toothed or notched. 
Protliorax rather triangular, with the hind angles not produced 
and the base excised in frout of the scutellum. Scutellum mode- 
rately long, acute. Elytra smooth, sinuated at the sides. Sternal 
process longer than broad, pointed or blunt at the end. Legs 
moderately slender, with the four posterior tibias more or less 
fringed at the inner edge. 

S . The front tibia) are slender and unarmed, the club of the 
antenna is generally long, and the abdomen is arched and some- 
times channelled beneath. 

$ . The front tibiae are broader and bidentnte externally. 



EnOMBOREHITiA. 85 



Keij to the Species. 

1 (6) Mesosternal process broad, uot 

tapering. 

2 (3) Green, with a black sutural patch . . heros, G. & P., p. 85, 

3 (2) Uniformlj' coloured. 

4 (.5) Mesosternal process curved mellyi, G. & P., p. 86. 

5 (4) Mesosternal process straight gestroi, Moser, p. 86. 

6 (1) Mesosternal process narrow and 

tapering. [p. 87 

7 (8) Head relatively small microcephala, Westw., 

8 (7) Head relatively large. 

9 (10) Elytra extremely glossy, without [p. 87 

puncturation f/laberrima, Westw., 

10 (9) Elytra punctured, not very glossv'. 

11 (12) Sides of body very hairy beneath . . viearesi, Hope, p. 88. 

12 (11) Sides of body not very hairy 

beneath siihopaca, Arrow, p. 88. 



55, Khomborrhina heros, (Plate I, fig. 1.) 

Goliathus heros, G. S, P., Monogv. Cet. 1833, p. 15-5, pi. 26, 
fig. 3. 

Bright apple-green or blue-green, sometimes with golden or 
rosy reflections, and with the humeral calli, the sutural margins 
of the elytra, aud the parts adjoining the scutellura and the edges 
of the ventral segments indigo-black, and the anteunse and tarsi 
black. 

It is long and very smooth. The cli/peiis is rugosely punctured, 
quadrate, as broad as its length measured from the point of 
insertion of the antennae, scarcely dilated at the end, with the 
front margin straight and minutely produced vertically in the 
middle. The prothorcLv is minutely coriaceous, punctured at 
the sides, with the lateral margins feebly angulated in the middle. 
The scutellum is rather small, minutely coriaceous and uupunc- 
tured. The elytra are very smooth, with a strongly impressed 
and punctured sutural stria on each and irregularly scattered 
punctures upon the posterior half, and the margins are coarsely 
strigose posteriorly. The pjigidium is evenly and moderately 
finely rugulose. The sternal process is narrow, a little longer than 
broad measured from the meso-metasternal suture, and blunt at 
the end. The metasternum is thinly but distinctly punctured, 
except in the middle, and the sides of the abdomen are coarsely 
sti'igose. 

S . The abdomen is arched but not channelled beneath. 

Length 35 mm. ; hreadth 17 mm, 

SiKKiM : Mungphu ; Tonkin (Lcmce, 1908), 

Type in the Paris Museum. 

This is often confused with the Chinese B. resplendens, Swartz, 
which closely resembles it. 



86 cetoniin.t:. 

56. Rhomborrhina mellyi. 

Goliatlius mellyi, G. S,- P., Monoyr. Cd. 1833, p. 150, pi. 26, fig. 4 ; 

Schaum, Ati/i. Soc. Ent. France, 1849, p. 245. 
lihomborrbina dives, Westic, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. iv, 1845, p. 90, 

pi. 5, fig. 5. 

Bright apple-green, witli slight pinkish reflections, especially 
upon the lower surface, and with the tarsi and anteiinse black. 

Elongate in shape and very smooth. The clijpens is finely 
rugose, quadrate, about as broad as it is long, measured from the 
point of insertion of the antennae, and scarcely widening towards 
the front margin, which is nearly straight. The jn-othorax is 
coriaceous, with fine punctures at the sides, the lateral margins 
feebly angulated in the middle and the base strongly excised 
before the sctitellum, which is unpunctured. The eh/tra are very 
smooth, with scarcely perceptible traces of sutural and discoidal 
stria?, but rather strongly rugulose near the margins posteriorly. 
The pygidmm is rugulose except in the middle. The sternal 
process is narrow, parallel-sided, broadly rounded at the end, and 
about as long as broad measured from the meso-metasternal 
suture. The metastemum is not distinctly punctured, and the 
(thdomen is veiy smooth except at the sides, which are sliglitly 
strigose. 

S . The abdomen is arched but not channelled, and the antennal 
club and all the tarsi are a little longer than in the female. 

Length 31-39 mm. ; breadth 15-18 mm. 

SiKKiM : Darjiling, Mungphu ; Assam: Khasi Hills, Manipur; 
Burma : Shan States, Euby Mines. 

Type in the Geneva Museum. 

57. Rhomborrhina gestroi. 

Ithoiiibnrrliiiia gestroi, Moser,^ Berl. Eiit. Zeilschr. 1903, p. 317. 

Uniform deep violet in colour. 

Elongate in form, scarcely tapering behind, and very smooth 
and shining. The chjpeus is quadrate, almost as broad as it is 
long, and very slightly widening towards the front margin, which 
is straight, strongly reflexed, and slightly prominent vertically 
in the middle. The prothorax is finely coriaceous, not visibly 
punctured, rather convex and very narrow in front, with the sides 
feebly angulated in the middle, tlie hind angles rounded and the 
base deeply emarginate before the scutellum. The scutellum is 
scarcely visibly ])unctured, and the elijtra have only traces of seriate 
punctures, but thrir apic-al margins are strigose. The piigidhim 
is rugulose. The sternal process is straight, very flat, truncated, 
a very little constricted and slightly longer than it is wide. The 
metastemum is unpunctured and the abdomen feebly strigose at 
the sides. 



ItHOMBORRniJfA. 87 

d" . The abdomen is slightly ai'ched aud channelled beneath, 
and the anteonal club of moderate length. 
Lencjtli 3G mm. 
ASSAM : Shillong. 
Type in coll. Moser. 
I have seen only the unique type-specimen. 

58. Rhomborrliina niicrocephala. 

IlhomboiThina micvocephala, Westw.,* Arcana Ent. \, 1842, p. 119, 

pi. 30, tig. 3 ; Thorns. Tiipi Ceton. 1878, p. 8. 
Anomalocera mearesi, Barm, (nee Hope), Ilandh. Ent. iii, 1842, 

1). 781. 

Deep olive-brown, with an opalescent lustre, the head, legs and 
lower surface deep green, and the tarsi and antenna? black. 

The body is very smooth and glossy, oval in shape and not very 
flat. The head is small and narrow, the clypens rather longer than 
it is broad, very slightly dilated in front, \\'\t\\ the margins straight 
and the surface even and tinely punctured. The prothorax is 
triangular, excessively finely punctured, and the scuteJhtm scarcely 
punctured. The elytra are rugose at the margins posteriorly, the 
rugosity resolving itself into punctures which become finer ante- 
riorly and vanish about the middle of the elytra. The pyfjidiuni 
is rather finely rugose. The sternal process is small, narrow and 
bluntly pointed at the end. The metastenmni and abdomen are 
sparsely punctured at the sidas. 

cJ. The abdomen is arched but not channelled beneath, and 
the club of the antenna is not long. 

Lemjtli 28-30 mm. ; breadth 14-15"5 mm. 

Himalayas. 

Type in the Oxford Museum; cotype in coll. Janson. 

59. Rhomborrhina glaberrima. 

Anomalocera glaberrima, Westiv.,* Arcana Ent. i, 1842, p. 136, 

pl.34,%. 1. 
Corvpliocera hirtiventris, Redt.,* Ilnqel s luiscJomr, iv (2), 1848, 

p! 528. 

Deep green, greenish purple, or purplish black. 

Moderately convex and elongate in shape, and very smooth and 
glossy. The clypeus is flat, finely and closely punctured, rather 
narrow, parallel-sided, and as long as it is broad, measured from 
the point of insertion of the antenna. T\\q jyrothorax is triangular, 
with the sides nearly straight and the upper surface quite smooth 
and unpunctured, except for a few fine punctures at the sides. 
The elytra are also quite smooth, except for an incomplete series 
of punctures upon each, adjoining the suture, and the posterior 
margins, which are rugose and thinly clothed with yellow hairs. 
The pygkUiim is rugose and rather thickly clothed with similar 



8S cetoniinj:. 

hairs. The sterna] j^^'O'^'^^s is slender, curved aud pointed. Tlie 
metasternnm is smooth, deeply channelled in the middle and 
clotlied with yellow hairs at the sides, and the abdomen is entirely 
smooth. 

c^ . The cluh of the antenna is Aery long, the middle and hind 
tibiae are thickly fringed with yellow hair at the inner edge, and 
the abdomen is arched beneath and slightly channelled in front. 

Lenr/th 23-26 mm. ; hreculth 10-5-12 mm. 

Po'.TAB: Murree; Unitkd Protikces : Mussoori ; Sikkim: 
Darjiling. 

Type in the British Musenm ; I hat of h'lrtivcntns in the Vienna 
Museum. 



60. Rhomhorrhina mearesi. 

Diplivlldiuorpha mearesi, Hope,* Trans. Linn. Soc. xix (2), 1843, 

p. 107, pi. 10, fig. 1. 
Auomalocera punyi, Westw.,* Arcana Ent. i, 1842, p. 120, pi. 30, 

tig. 6. 

Light apple-green above and below, with pinkish reflections 
above; the antennae and tarsi brown. 

This species is smaller than R. r/]aberrima, rather shorter rela- 
tively aud less polished above. The chjpeus is similar in shape 
and sculpture, but the angles are rather more pronounced. The 
proiliorax is also similar, but has fine scattered punctures nearly 
all over it. The scutellum is smooth and the ehjlra finely punc- 
tured, some of the punctures arranged in longitudinal rows. The 
posterior i)art of the elytral margins and also the p7/gidium are 
rugose and \ ery scantily clothed with hair. The steimed p)>'ocess is 
slender, pointed and strongly curved. The metasternvm is smooth 
and furrowed in the middle, but finely punctured and hairy at 
the sides, and the (ddomcn is quite smooth beneath, with its sides 
thickly hairy. 

<5 . The club of the antenna is still longer than in li. (jlaher- 
yhna, the middle and hind tibia^ are thickly fringed with yellow 
hairs, and the abdomen is channelled beneath. 

Length 20-22 mm.; breadth 9-5-10-5 mm. 

Sikkim : Darjiling. 

Type in the Oxford Museum; parryi was described from the 
same specimen. 

Gl. Ehomborrhina subopaca. 

Anomalocera subopaca, Arroir,* Ann. May. Nat. Hist. (7) xix, 1907, 
p. 34S. 

Green, with slight opalescent reflections; the antennae and 
tarsi nearly black. 

Elongate, parallel-sided, rather flat above and not highly glazed. 
The chjpens is granulated, about as long as it is broad, slightly 



EUOMEOEBIIINA. — ELTIILOROPUS. 80 

widening towards the front, with the anterior and lateral margins 
nearly straight. The iwotliorax is rather shorter relatively than 
in 11. f/Jabernina and mearesi, \\ith the sides a little more distinctly 
augiilated in the middle and the hase strongly trisinuated ; the 
l^uncturation very coarse and rugose at the sides but becoming 
very fine in the middle. The elytra are finely and shallowly, but 
rather closely, strigosely punctured, some of the punctures forming 
rows anteriorly, the apical and posterior lateral margins are 
coarsely strigose, but scarcely hairy, and the apical angles are 
slightly pi'oduced. The 2\>/gidrain is densely rugose and clothed 
with short, not closely-set setje. The sternal process is moderately 
long, blunt and not much curved. The metasternum is densely 
punctured and pubescent laterally, but smooth and deeply grooved 
in the middle, and the abdomen is almost smooth. 

(S . The form is more elongate, the prothorax more narro^^■ed 
in front, the autennal club long, the hind tibia thickly fringed, 
and the abdomen deeply channelled beneath. 

Length 22 mm.: hreadth 10-11 mm. 

Assam : Manipur. 

Type in the British Museum. 



Genus EUCHLOROPUS. 

Eucliloropus, Arrow, Ann. May. Nat. Hist. (7) xix, 1907, pii. 3-jC) 
& 4.33. 

Type, Cetonia lo'ta, Y. 

lianr/e. That of the type species. 

leather compact in shape, with the legs stout. Clypeus shorr, 
and rectangular, with the margins simple, straight and reflexed. 
Sternal process long and slender, curved and sharply pointed at 
the end. Club of the antenna very short in both sexes. Elytra 
deeply striated. 

S . Eront tibi;e slender and simple. Hind femora thickened 
and curved ; tibite attenuated and strongly curved at the base, and 
furnished at the inner edge with a thick fringe of yellow hairs. 
Abdomen arched but not ciiannelled beneath. 

§ . Front tibife broad and bidentate. Hind legs simple. All 
the tarsi shorter than those of the male. 

Only a single species is known. 

(12. Euchloropiis Isetus. 

Cetonia heta, F., Syst. Fleut. ii, 1801, p. 150. 

Gnathocera lasta, G. i)- P., Motioyr. Cet. 1833, p. 135, pi. 20, fig. 6. 
Hetei'orrliina la^ta, Westw., Arcama Ent. i, 1842, p. 137, pi. 34, tig. 2. 
Heterorrhina sylbetica, Thorns.,^' Mus. Scient. 1860, i. p. 30; 

Gestro, Ann.' Mug. Civ. Genora, 1888, p. 98; id., op. cit. 1891, 

p. 839 (n. syu.). 

Bright emerald-green above and below, including the legs and 




^0 CETOXIIN-E. 

tarsi, very smooth and glossy, but rather strongly punctured and 
the punctures pigmented with black. 

The body is rather broad and convex. 
The chjpeus is I'ectangular, rather broader 
than long, coarsely punctured and without 
median carina or processes of any kind, 
the margins straight and the angles fairly 
sharp. The iJi-Oiiotum is strongly nar- 
rowed in front, strongly but not densely 
punctured at the sides and very finely or 
not at all punctured in the middle. The 
scutdluhi is not long, moderately sharp at 
the apex, and unpunctured. The eli/tm 
are strongly striate-punctate, with the 
intervals between the strise rather convex, 
Yi„ 2''> '"-"^^ ^^^ sides are rather rugose posteriorly. 

Euchloropus Icetas, male. The pi/;jidlitm is transversely strigose, and 
the metastermun, hind coxcp, and abdomen 
are strongly but sparingly punctured at the sides and smooth in 
the middle. 

In addition to the sexual distinctions described above the 
pronotum is more triangular and more narro\\ed in front in 
the (S , and the pygidium is less closely strigose. 
Len;jth li)-22 mm.; breadth 11-12 ram. 

Bengal: Calcutta: Assam: Silhet; BLaniA: Karen-ni; Malay 
Pe>insula; Jaya; &c. 

Type lost ; that of s)/lhetica in coll. li. Oberthiir. 
After a careful comparison of a long series, I am not able to 
recognise the differences said by Thomson to exist between 
^'xamples from N. India and Java. 

■ Genus HETERORRHINA. 

lleterorrhiiia, H'estic, Arcana Ent. i, 1842, p. 132. 
Coryphoceia, Burm., Handb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 220. 

Type, Cetonia nif/ritarsis, Hope. 

liange. Tropical Asia and Africa. 

Form variable, but generally elongate, tapering and depressed, 
with rather slender legs ; very shining and free from hair above 
and beneath. Clypeus not largo nor dilated, with the front 
margin reflexed and (except in the d of //. mtttahiJis) gently 
toothed or notched, and the forehead in the 2 , or both st^xes, 
bearing a small prominence which is free in front. Prothorax 
more or less triangular, with the posterior angles well-marked 
but not produced, and the base excised before the scutellum. 
Scutellum rather acute at the apex. Sternal process long and 
slender, except in //. mutabilis and dispar. Pygidium broad and 
flat, not hairy. 

The front tibial are bidentate in the female, and generally 
slender and unarmed in the male. When teeth are present in 
both sexes, the upper one is feebler in tlie male. 



IIETEROREHINA. 91 

Key to the Species. 

1 (24) Clypeus not bilobed. 

2 (o) Mesosternal process very short, 

'6 (4) Elytra distinctly costate mutabUis, Hope, p. 91. 

4 (3) Elytra not distinctly costate dispai; Arrow, p. 92. 

5 (2) JNlesosternal process long. 

(3 (9) Metasternnni clothed with moder- 
ately thick hair. 

7 (8) Body rather long and depressed: 

pygidium granulose nifjntarsis, Hope, p. 99. 

8 (7) Body rather short and convex : 

pygidium strigose. (Front tibias 

bidentate in both sexes.) ohesa, Jaus., p. 97. 

9 (6) Metasternum not hairy. 

10 (15) I'ronotum strongly and rather evenly 

punctured. 

11 (12) Pygidium finely strigose leonardi, Gestro, p. 98. 

12 (11) Pvgidiuiu coarsely strigose. 

13 (14) Tibite yellow tibialis, Westw., p. 98. 

14 (13) Tibiaj and tarsi green imnctatissima, "Westw., 

1.5 (10) Pronotum not, or very lightly, punc- [p. 99. 

tured in the middle. 

16 (19) Pygidium shining, not closely stri- 

gose. 

17 (18) Elytra highly glazed, scarcely 

punctured . '. elegans, Fab., p. 93. 

18 (17) l^lytra punctured, not highly glazed, planata, .\rrow, p. 94. 

19 (16) Pygidium \ery closely and linely 

strigose. 

20 (23) Pygidium uniformly strigose. 

21 (22) Frontal lobe broad" and truncate in 

front micans, Guer, p. 95. 

22 (21) Frontal lobe narrow and pointed in 

front gracilis, Arrow, p. 96. 

23 (20) Pygidium less closely strigose at the _ [p. 96. 

base sinuatocollis, Schaum, 

24 (1) Clypeus feebly bilobed. 

25 (28) Posterior margins of elytra shining. 

26 (27) Frontal lobe extending to the middle [p. 100. 

of clypeus jwrphi/refica, Westw., 

27 (26) Frontal lobe extending beyond the 

middle of clypeus . .7 amasna, Hope, p. 101. 

28 (25) Posterior margins of elytra rugose. . barmanica, Gestro, p. 101. 

63. HeterorrMna mutabilis. 

Cetonia mutabilis, Hope,* Grays Zool. Misc. 1831, p. 24. 
Gnathocera hope, G. 8,- P.,* Monoyr. Cat. 1833, p. 134, pi. 20, fig. 4. 
Heterorrhina hopei, Westio., Arcana Eat. i, 1842, p. 134, pi. 33, fig. 3. 
Coryphocera aflinis, Reclt.,* Hik/eVs Kaschmir, iv (2), 1848, p. 530. 
(5) Cetonia bengalensis, Hope'* Gray's Zool. Misc. 1831, p^24. 
Heterorrhina bengalensis, Westw., Arcana Ent. i, 1842, p. 137, pi. 35, 

fig. 1. 
(Gnathocera dorsalis, G. <§• P., Monogr. Cet. 1833, p. 143, pi. 22, fig. 4. 
Gnathocera melanaria, G. 8f P., I. c. pi. 22, fig. 5. 

The two sexes of this species are remarkably diflPerent in form 



92 CEToyiiN^. 

and colour, aud possess little in common except a closely punc- 
tured upper surface, costate elytra, short clypeus and very short 
sternal process. 

The male is shining green, blue-green, fiery-red, or purple above 
and beneath. The body is short, compact and moderately de- 
pressed. The clypevs is much shorter than it is broad, quadrate, 
finely rugosely punctured, with the front margin straight, strongly 
reflexed and not toothed or notched, and the forehead without 
a distinct carina. The 'pronoHnn is strongly punctured all over, 
moderately narrowed in front and siniiated at the sides beyond 
the middle. The scutelhim is sparingly punctured. The elytra 
are coarsely and closely punctured in ro«s \\hich enclose two 
costa* upon the disc of each, only the punctures towards the sides 
and apices being irregular. The pygidium is rugose. The sternal 
process is narrow, but very short and blunt. The metasternum is 
thinly punctured at the sides and broadly furrowed at the middle, 
and the ahdouten is barely punctured aud neither channelled nor 
arched beneath. The front tihiie are unarmed, and the middle 
and hind tibia' moderately fringed. 

The female is black, or brownish black, scarcely shining, elon- 
gate, nearly parallel-sided, and more convex than the male. The 
puncturation is similar, but that of the elytra shallower and less 
distinct. The head is more coarsely rugose, with a posterior 
carina terminating abruptly in front but scarcely produced. The 
front margin is a little produced upwards in the middle, the 
process generally ending in two teeth. The prothorax is almost 
semicircular in shape. All the tarsi, especially those of the hind 
legs, are very short, the front tibicn are broad and bidentate, and 
the hind tVme are very scantily fringed at the inner edge. 

Length 19-21 mm. ; breadth 9-10 mm. 

United Provixces : Dehra Dun, Mussoori ; Nei'AL ; Bhutax. 

Type in the British Museum ; that of hopei at Oxford ; of 
affiiiis at Vienna ; and of hengalensis in the British Museum. 

04. Heterorrhina dispar. 

Iloterorrhinu dispar, Arrow,* Ann. Marj. ^'at. Ili.st. (7) xix, 1907, 
p. 347. 

The body is moderately elongate, not much depressed, and 
rather strongly and uniformly punctured above. The head is 
rugosely punctured, with tlie clypeus rather broader than it is 
long and the front margin prominent in the middle. The 
prothorax is coarsely and closely punctured, with the interstices 
extremely finely punctulated. The scittelhnu is punctured, excepr 
along the middle line, and the elytra rugosely punctured, some of 
the punctures forming double rows. T\w pygidimn is transversely 
rugose, the ruetasternma smooth in the middle and coarsely 
punctured at the sides, and the ahdomea finely punctured. The 
sternal process is short but rather sharj). 

(S . yhining olive-green in colour, with the abdomen and legs 



HEXERORRHINA. 



93 



reddish. The head is unarmed posteriorly and the clypeus 
soinewhat excavated, with the front margin curved, reflexed and 
sHghtly produced in the middle. The sides of the prothorax are 
strongly angulated in the middle and nearly straight in front and 
behind. 

2 . The colour is purplish black, with castaneous abdomen and 
legs. The form is more elongate and the upper surface more 
opaque. The clypeus is strongly excavated, with the front margin 




Fig. 23. — Heterorrhina dispar, male, with (a) lateral outline of sternal 
process, and (b) anterior part of female. 

rather strongly produced upwards in the middle, and the forehead 
is armed with a longitudinal carina freely produced and truncated 
in front. The prothorax is more convex and less contracted in 
front than in the male. The legs are stouter, with the front 
tibiae strongly bidentate, and all the tarsi shorter and thicker than 
in the other sex. 

Length 20-22 nmi. ; breadth 10-11 mm. 

SiKKiM : Darjiling. 

Type in the British Museum. 

In the peculiar differences of form and colour between the two 
sexes this species shows relationship only to H. vintahilis, Hope, 
from which it is quite easily distinguished. It is larger and has 
less distinctly costate elytra, besides which the sternal process, 
although short, is much less so than in that species, and the 
clypeus is longer and quite differently shaped both in male and 
female. 



€5, Heterorrhina elegans. 

Cetonia elegans, Fab.* Spec. Ins. i, 1781, p. 56 ; Westw., Arcana 

Ent. i, 1842, p. 138. 
Cetonia cuprea, Herbst, Naiursyst. Ki'tfer., iii, 1790, p. 222, pi. 29, 

fig. 5. 
Coryphocera coxalis, Blanch.* Cat. Col. Paris, 1850, p. 26. 
Var. Heterorrhina antliracina, Westw.* Cab. Or. Ent. 1848, p. 36, 

pi. 17, fig. 7. 



94 CETONiix.i:. 

Var. Corvpliocera fulgidissima, Kanu.,^' Notes Leyd. Mus. 1891, 
p. 182. ' 

Emerald green, blue, fiery red (var. fidf/idissima), indigo, or black 
(var. anthracina), with the sides ot" the hind coxa" orange and the 
antennte, legs, the sutural margins of the elytra posteriorly and 
the apical call) black (generally also the humeral calli, but less 
distinctly). 

The form is elongate oval, with the surface very sniooth and 
moderately convex above. The clypens is sparingly punctured, 
quadrate and parallel-sided, with the front margin straight, 
fitrongly recurved, and broadly toothed in the middle, the tooth 
minutely notched, and the forehead furnished with a lobed 
longitudinal carina. The prothorax is rather narrow in front 
and feebly punctured at the sides alone. The scutellmn is 
unpunctured, and the eli/ira are almost smooth at the sides and 
apices, with vestiges of seriate piincturation on the disc. The 
lateral margins are only feebly sinuated. The ^;?/r//r//;(}» is 
coarsely strigose transversely and the metasternum and abdomen ai"o 
very sparingly punctured. The sternal j^foccss is narrow, curved 
and blunt. The middle and hind tihice are fringed in both sexes. 

cJ . The front tibia? are unarmed, the hind tibia? bear a tuft of 
long hairs near the extremity, the hind tarsi are longer than those 
of the female, and the abdomen is deeply channelled beneath. 

Length 21-28 mm. ; breadth 10-14 min. 

Bengal: Chapra, Maldah, Chota jS'ag-pur; Maueas : Mysore, 
Trichinopoli, Nilgiri Hills ; Cetlox. 

Ti/j^e in the British Museum ; that of co.ralis in the Paris 
Museum ; of var. anthracina at Oxford and of var. fidr/idissirna 
in coll. Janson. 

Westwood's description and figures are taken not only from the 
true B, elecjans, F., but also from H. micans, Gui'r. and J/, sinuato- 
collis, Schaum, which he did not distinguish from tlie present 
species. 

H. eler/ans is distinguishable from all other Indian species of 
the genus by its extremely glossy surface, as well as by the black 
spot near the end of each elytron. The latter varies greatly in 
size but is rarely very small and sometimes forms a large irregular 
patch. In the great series in M. Oberthiir's collection are 
examples from Chota Nagpur in which the black pigmentation is 
considerably developed. The apical patch is large, there is a well- 
mai'ked huuienil spot, the sutural stripe is broad and the 
scutellum is com])letely surrounded with black, while vague dark 
markings are distributed over the ])ronotuin. 

6n. Heterorrhina planata, sp. n. 

Uniform bright shining green, with the sides of the hind coxa? 
orange, and the antenna; and tarsi black. 

It is a large species, flattened above and moderately elongate. 
The clypius is quadrate, broader than it is long, M'ith the front 
margiu straight and reflexed and armed with a broad notched 



HETEROmiHIIfA. 95 

tooth iu the middle. The forehead is moderately punctured and 
bears a rather broad longitudinal carina which forms a short 
truncate lobe in front. The protJwra.v is triangular, not A'erj 
convex, and finely punctured. The scutellum is very sparingly 
punctured, and the eh/tra finel)' but distinctly punctured in rows, 
with the apical margins rugulose. The ^>yr/?'cZiH>» is similarh^ 
rugulose and the sides of the body beneath exhibit scattered linear 
punctures. The sternal process is slender, curved and bluntly 
rounded at the end. 

The head is similar in both sexes. The front tibia is slender 
and unarmed iu the male and bidentate in the female. The hind 
tibia of the male is fringed, but the fringe is not very conspicuous 
nor much longer at the extremitiy of the tibia. The abdomen is 
deeply channelled in the male. 

Length 19-22 mm. ; breadth 9"5-ll mm. 

BoMBAr : Kanara ; Madras : Nilgiri Hills (Mercara, IN'odgani). 

Type in the British Museum. 

This species has been found by Mr. T. E. D. Bell, Mr. H. L. 
Andrewes and Capt. A. K. W. Downing flying in bamboo jungle 
at 3000 to 4000 ft. altitude. 

67. Heterorrhina micans. 

Gnathocera micans, Guer.,* Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1840, p. 80. 
Var. Gnathocera olivacea, Gucr.,* L c. (n. sj'u.). 
Heterorrhina olivacea, Westw., Arcana Ent. i, 1842, p. 139, pi. 35, 
fig. 7. 

Uniform shining grass-green, olive-green, or deep blue above 
and beneath. 

The form is elongate, oval and moderately convex. The chjpeus 
is irregularly punctured, quadrate, and rather wider than it is 
long, with the front margin straight and slightly produced 
upwards in the middle, and v^ith a frontal carina, horizontally 
produced in front. The ptrothorax is finely punctured, except in 
the middle, with its sides rather strongly sinuated. The scutellum 
is almost unpunctured and the elytra finely punctate-striate, with 
the posterior margins strigose. The pygiclmm is very finely 
ti'ansversely strigose, the metasternum coarsely punctured at the 
sides, and the abdomen, coarsely but not closely punctured. The 
sternal jjrocess is slender, flat, strongly curved and blunt. 

In addition to the usual sexual difference in the front tibijB,. 
the abdomen of tlie male is smoother and rather shallowly furrowed 
longitudinally at the base, the hairy fringes of the two posterior 
pairs of tibite are closer and in the last pair form a tuft at the 
extremity, and the hind tarsi are rather longer than those of the 
female. 

Length 23-26 mm.; breadth 11-14 mm, 

Bombay. Kanara, Western Ghauts (ff. P. F. Tabourel); 
Madras : Travancore, Trichinopoli, Nilgiri Hills, Shevaroy Hills ;. 
Bengal : Chota Nagpur. 

Type in coll. E. Oberthiir : also that of olivacea. 



96 CETONiixji:. 

68. Heterorrhina gracilis, sp. n. 

Bright grass-gTet,'!!, .sometimes with rosy reflections beneath, 
and the sides of the hind coxae yellow. 

Tlie body is elongate, depressed above, and quite naked except 
for a few i-etse upon the front and middle coxae and upon the 
extremity of the abdomen. The head is moderately punctured, 
with the front margin strongly elevated and bearing at the middle 
a strong tooth not distinctly bifid. The forehead bears a strong, 
very narrow longitudinal carina which is freely produced and 
almost pointed in front. Hhn pronotum is triangular and not very 
convex, very feebly punctured in the middle and strongly at the 
sides. The latter are very slightly siiuiated, the hind-angles very 
prominent and the base «ide and deeply emarginate in the 
middle. The scutellum is scarcely punctured and the ehjtra have 
impressed lines of moderately strong but rather distant punctures. 
The sides are strongly sinuated behind the shoulders and the 
apical margins coarsely strigose, with the angles acutely produced. 
The pygidmm is very finely strigose and the metasternum and 
/(hdo)iieu have large elongate impressions at the sides, the 
metasternum being smooth and the abdomen finely punctured at 
the middle. The sterncd process is long, narrow, and blunt at the 
end. The front tibia' are bidentate in both sexes, and the hind 
tibid' thinly ciliated. 

cJ . The front tibia is slender and the upper tooth small but 
sharp. The abdomen is very feebly impressed along the middle 
beneath. 

Length 19-22 mm. ; breadth 9*5-11 mm. 

Madras : Nilgiri Hills (//. L. Andreives). 

Type in the British Museum. 

<Sd. Heterorrhina sinuatocoUis. 

Heterorrhina siuuatocollis, Schaum, Ann. Sac. Ent. France, 1849, 

p. 249. 
Coryphocera smaragdina, linrni. (nee 6'. S) P.), Handh. Ent. iii, 

1842, p. 229. 
Heterorrhina elegaiis, rar., Westic. Arcana Ent. \, 1842, p. 138, 

pi. 3."), lig. 3. 

Bright green or indigo-blue, very smooth and shining, with the 
■elytra! suture, the tibiae, tarsi and the apical part of the pygidium 
piceous or greenish black. 

The body is elongate and moderately convex. The ch/peas is 
■quadrate, strongly and rugosely punctured, and excavated in 
front, with the front margin strongly reflexed and broadly toothed 
in the middle, the excavation being overhung by a slight horizontal 
projection. The pronotum is strongly punctured at the sides, 
more feebly in the middle, with the lateral margins deeply 
sinuated behind and much narrowed in front. The scidellum is 
rather short and feebly punctured. The ch/tra are strongly 
punctured in irregular rows, with the apices strigose and the 
lateral margins very gently sinuated behind the shoulders. The 



HETEROERHINA. 97 

]iygidium is very finely and closely strigose upon its apical half 
and less closely upon its basal half. The metastermmi and abdomen 
are smooth in the middle and marked with deep crescentic 
punctures at the sides. The sternal -process is slender, moderately 
long and curved at the apex. 

(S . The club of the antenna is rather long. The front tibia 
is slightly sinuated externally near the apex, the hind femur 
gently arched, and the hind tibia furnished with a rather long 
fringe of yellow hairs. The abdomen is deeply and narrowly 
channelled beneath along the middle. 

$ . The pronotum is less narrowed in front and the front tibia 
is rather broad and bidentate. 

Lenr/t7i 18"5-22 mm.; breadth 9-9*5 mm. 

Bombay : Belgaum. 

Type in the Paris Museum. 

I am indebted to M. Pierre Lesne, of the Paris Museum, for 
Idndly examining the specimens in that collection, which are the 
originals of the descriptions of both Burmeister and Schaum, and 
affording me the information necessary for establishing the identity 
of the species. 

70. Heterorrhina obesa. 

Heterorrhina obesa, Janson, Cist. Ent. ill. 1884, p. 104. 

Deep green, blue-green, indigo, purple or fiery red, above and 
beneath, with the sides of the hind coxae reddish and the antennae 
and tarsi black. 

This is a species of rather abnormal form, short, stout and 
convex, and the sides of the metasternum are clothed with long 
hairs. The head is coarsely punctured and the clypeus quadrate, 
broader than it is long, with the front margin nearly straight, 
reflexed and broadly toothed in the middle. The forehead is pro- 
vided with a short carina which is slightly lobed in front. The 
jtrothorax is rather broad, well punctured, and rather strongly 
sinuated at the sides ; the scutellum is punctured and the elytra are 
rather rugosely punctured, the punctures arranged in rows upon the 
disc, and the apical margins strigose. The pyyidium is transversely 
strigose, and the metasternum and abdomen are well punctured, the 
punctures becoming coarse and strigose at the sides. The Jiind 
tibia} have a long but rather thin fringe. 

cJ . The prothorax is rather more narrowed in front than in the 
female, the antennal club is longer, and the abdomen is slightly 
channelled beneath. The front tibiae are not very slender and are 
feebly bidentate. 

5 . The front tibiae are broader and strongly bidentate. 

Length 18-24 mm. ; breadth 9'5-14 mm, 

Madras : Kodaikanal Mts., Anaimalai Hills, Trichinopoli. 

Tyjye in coll, 0. E. Janson. 

This species was described from Assam, owing to a mistake as to 
the origin of the first discovered specimens. 

H 



98 CEToyiix-T. 

71. Heterorrhina leonardi. 

Heteronbina leouardi, G'esfro* Aim. Mas. Genova, (2) x, 1891, 
p. 840, pi. i>, figs. 3 & 4. 

Grass-green, with the sides of the liiiul cowe aud the antennae 
reddish, and the tarsi black. 

The body is rather broad, scarcely tapering behind, and it is 
strongly punctured above. The ch/pem is quadrate and rather 
broad, closely punctured, with the front margin straight and 
broadly elevated in the middle, the forehead being provided with 
a semicircular horizontal lobe. The prothorax is rather short, 
rapidly narrowed to the front, and coarsely and uniformly 
punctured. The scutellum is irregularly punctured. The elytra 
are strongly and coarsely punctured in rows, the punctures annular, 
partly confluent, and leaving two smooth costae upon each elytron ; 
the a'pical aud posterior lateral margins are rugose. T\\e ivjgkUum 
is finely rugose and the sides of the body beneath are rugosely 
punctured. The sternal process is slender and rather tapering. 

S . The front tibia3 are slender and unarmed and the hind tibia? 
have a rather long, but not thick, fringe of golden hairs. The 
abdomen is neither channelled nor arched beneath. 

2 (which I have not seen). The front tibiae are bidentate 
and the front of the clypeus (in the typical specimen) is black. 

Len(/th 19 mm. ; breadth 9 mm. 

BUEMA : Karen-ui (2700 to 4000 ft.). 

Ti/2>e in the Genoa Museum. 

72. Heterorrhina tibialis. 

Heterorrhina tibialis, Westw.,* Arcana Ent. i, 1842, p. 130, pi. .34, 

fig. 6. 
Trigouopliorus hookeri ( 5 ) White,* Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 14, 

pi. 41, fig. 2. 

Grass-green, with the lower surface usually more yellowisli ; 
the tibise (except the extremities) arid the lateral edges of the hind 
coxa) testaceous. 

The form is rather elengated and depressed, strongly punctured 
and moderately shining above. Thechjpcas is rugosely punctured, 
(juadrate, very slightly dilated anteriorly, scarcely as long as broad 
(measured from the point of insertion of the antenna), with the 
front margin nearly straight, reflexed and, in the female, toothed 
at tlie middle. There is a transverse arcuate frontal carina, which 
is feeble in the male. The ^9/-o?7to)vw is strongly punctured, rather 
triangular, with the sides very gently curved and strongly 
approximating in front. The scuteUiun is sparingly punctured. 
The cli/tra are coarsely punctured, some of the punctures forming 
rows and enclosing well-marked costa}. The sides and apices are 
rugose. The j)i/gidium is rather rugose, with a distinct 
impression on each side ; the punctures on the mcfasiernum are 
•coarse and those on the abdomen fine and irregular. The sternal 



ILETERORBHIXA. 99 

process is moderately long, slightly tapering and blunt. The legs are 
rather slender, and the four poaterior tibia' rather iiarrowly fringed. 

This species is not a A'ariable one and the sexes do not con- 
spicuously differ except in the form of th<! front tibise and that of 
the head, the female having a strong transv^erse carina befoi'e the 
middle of the clypeus and a strong tooth at tlie front margin. 

Leni/th 21~'2'S mm. ; breadth 11-1 1'o mm. 

Assam : jManipur. 

Ti/2)e in the Oxford Museum ; cotype in the 13ritish Museuui. 

73. Heterorrhina punctatissima. 

lleterorrhina punctatissima, Westic.,''^ Arcana Ent. \, 1842, p. 135, 

pi. 34, fig. 5. 
Corvphe jucuuda, Hope (nee Gerniar)^ Trans. Ent. Sov. Lond. iii, 

1841, p. (54. 

Bright green, or lier}- red, the whole insect above and below 
uniformly coloured, except the antennae and tarsi, which are black. 

The form is modei'ately elongated and rather flat. The licad is 
rugosely punctured, the chipexis being quadrate and shorter than it 
is broad, with the front margin straight, reflexed and armed with 
a broad vertical tooth in the middle. The forehead is furnislied 
with a short and broad horizontal lobe. The prothorax is rather 
coarsely punctured, the scutellum feebly, and the eh/tra strongly 
and closely, most of the punctures upon the last arranged in 
regular rows which leave two elevated costa) upon the disc of each 
elytron. The pijgidium is evenly transversely strigose, the 
meiastenuun coarsely punctured except in the middle, where it is 
smooth, and the abdomen rather sparingly punctured all over. 
The sternal process is straight and blunt at the end. 

cT . The frontal lobe is narrow, occupying about a tliird of the 
breadth of the clypeus, the front tibiaj are simple, the middle and 
hind tibiae thickly fringed, and the hind tarsi longer than those 
of the female. The abdomen is not channelled beneath. 

5 . The frontal lobe is broadly semicircular in shape, occupying 
nearly the whole breadth of the clypeus, the front tibia) are 
bidentate, and the prothorax is rather shorter and less narro\\ed 
in front than in the male. 

Length 23-26 mm. ; breadth 12-13 mm. 

Assam : Khasi Hills, Sudiya, Silhet, Manipur ; Sikkim : 
Mungphu. 

Type in the Oxford Museum ; jucunda was described from the 
same specimen. 

74. Heterorrhina nigritarsis. (Plate I, fig. 2 (male), fig. 3 (female).) 

Cetonia iiio-ritarsis, jEfo^je,* Gray's Zool. Miscell. 1831, p. 24; JFcstic, 

Arcana Ent. i, 1842, p. 133, pi. 30, tigs. 7 & 8. 
Gnathocera nigritarsis, G. c^- P., Monoffr. Cet. 1833, p. 134, pi. 20, 

fig. 3. 
J^ar. Cetonia mutabilis, Westiv. (nee Hope), I. c. p. 134, pi. 30, fig. 7 

Orass-green, golden-green, fiery red, purple or indigo, often 

h2 



100 CETONIIN^. 

with the elytra (except along the suture), the femora and tibife 
lighter in colour than the rest ot" the body. 

The shape is moderately elongated, the female more oval and 
compact than the mule. The liead is rather short, rugoselj 
punctured, with a smooth median carina (which is sharply elevated 
and free in front in the female only). The chjpens is rather broader 
than it is long, with the margins curvilinear and strongly reflexed 
and the front edge broadly elevated in the middle. The pro- 
thorax is rather short, narrox^ed in front in the male, and approx- 
imately semicircular in the female, with the sides sinuated beyond 
the middle and the disc rather strongly punctured all over. The 
scutellum bears a few punctures and the elytra are rather coarsely 
punctnred, with two costae indicated upon the disc of each and the 
external margins rugose posteriorly. The piigidium is rugosely 
granular and hairy and bears a broad shallow impression on each 
side. The mctastermim is coarsely punctured and clothed with 
yellow hair except in the middle, and the abdomen is very smooth. 
The sternal j'rocess is not very long and tapers to a point. 

The two sexes differ considerably in appearance. The male is 
more elongate, more shining, and frequently of a brighter colour 
than the female, and in addition to the different form of the head, 
prothorax and front tibiae, the legs and the club of the antenna 
are more slender. The abdomen is not channelled beneath. 

Length 20-23 mm. ; breadth 10-11 mm. 

Nepal ; United Provinces : Dehra Dun, JNIussoori ; Punjab : 
Kulu ; SiKKiM : Darjiling. 

Type lost ; cotype in the British Museum. 

75. Heterorrhina porphyretica. 

Ileterorrhina porphvretica, Jf'esftc.,^ Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud, v, 1849, 
p. 2, pi. 16, H-. 1.' 

Deep iiidigo-blue, with the outer margins of the elytra and 
the three costa^ upon each more or less obscurely reddish. 

The body is depressed and rather elongate. The head is 
sparingly ])unctured, the clypeus strongly excavated, bilobed in 
front and broader than it is long, with its sides strongly curved, 
and the forehead armed with a narro\\' carina strongly lobed 
in front, the lobe extending to about the middle of the clypeus 
and sharply pointed at the end. The prothora.v is distinctly 
and evenly punctured all over, with its sides gently sinuated and 
moderately contracted in front. The scntelluni is distinctly punc- 
tured, and the elytra are decorated with large annular punctures 
closely set in double rows, leaving three well-marked costsB 
upon each elytron. The outer edges are gently sinuated and the 
apical margins shining, but with coarse transverse punctures. 
The pygidium is slightly rugose, the sides of the metastenmm 
coarsely punctured and the abdomen moderately punctured. The 
sternal j^rocess is slender, curved and pointed. 

cJ . The frontal lobe is narrower and more pointed, the antennal 



nETBEOBRHINA. 101 

club long, the front tibia unarmed, the middle and hind tibiae 
fringed with long, but not close-set, pale hairs and the abdomen 
strongly cliannelled beneath, 

Leiujth 18-20 mm. ; breadth 8-9 mm. 

Punjab: Kulu. 

Ty2^e in the Oxford Museum. 

76. Heterorrhina amcena. 

Cetonia ameeiia, Hope,* Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. iii, 1841, p. 64 ; 
Weshv., Arcana Ent. i, 1842, p. 135, pi. 34, fig. 4. 

Pale green, with the outer mai-gins of the elytra and the costae 
yellowish, or entirely yellow, and with the tibiae and tarsi 
purplish. All the punctures are black-pigmented. 

The shape is depressed and rather elongate. The head is 
sparingly punctured, \\-ith the di/jjens deeply excavated, bilobed in 
front and moderately long, Avith strongly curved sides ; the 
forehead armed with a strong horizontal lobe extending to beyond 
the middle of the clypeal cavity and sharply pointed at the end. 
The sides of the prothorax and eli/tra are very gently sinuated and 
the upper and lower surfaces are sculptured as in H. porphyretica. 

S . The froutal lobe is narrower and more acutely pointed than 
in the female, the front tibia is unarmed, the antennal club long, 
and the abdomen deeply channelled beneath. 

Lenyth 17-20 mm. ; breadth 8-9 mm. 

Bhutan ; Bengal : Dacca, Shreepur ; Assam. 

Type in the Oxford Museum. 

This insect has been found by Mr. H. M. Lefroy frequenting 
grass. 

77. Heterorrhina barmanica. 

Ileteron-hina anioena, rar. barmanica, Gestro^^ Ann. Mm. Genova, 
{2) vi, 1888, p. 99. 

Clay-yellow, with a gi*een lustre most apparent upon the fore- 
head, the disc of the pronotum, the scutellum, the furrows of the 
elytra, and the legs and lower surface ; all the punctures pigmented 
with black. 

The form is very elongate and depi-essed. The head is sparingly 
punctured and strongly excavated, the eh/peus produced, with the 
front margin gently bilobed and the sides strongly curved : the 
forehead armed with a strong lobe, moderately slender and angular 
at the end and free throughout its length, the excavation of the 
head extending far back between the eyes. The prothorax and 
scutellum are distinctly and regularly punctured, the sides of the 
former strongly angulated at the middle and the posterior angle 
almost produced. The elytra are very feebly sinuated behind the 
shoulders, rather straight-sided and attenuated behind, with their 
posterior margins rugose. The puncturation of the elytra, 
pygidium and under surface are the same as in the pi-eceding 
species. 



102 CETONIIN.I. 

The sexes differ as in H. amona and porpJiyretica. 

Lent/th 16-21 min. ; breadth S-10 nnn, 

EuKMA : IJhauio (L. Fea). 

Type in tlie Genoa Mnseura. 

This was described as a variety of the preceding species, bnt the 
head is very markedly longer and the i-elationship to H. anto'na 
is scarcely so close as that of H. amana to JI. porj^Jnjrctica. 



Genus TRIGONOPHORUS. 

TrigoiKipborus. Hope, Grai/s ZooL MiscvU. 18-51. p. i'4 : U'cafu'., 
Arcmia Ent. \, 1842, p. li'O. 

Type, Trigonopliorvs nepalensis, Hope. 

Jianr/e. India and Ijurina. 

Body depressed, elongate and jialced, with moderately slender 
legs. Head broad, excavated, the forehead armed with a horizontal 
lobe directed forwards ; the clypeus bearing at the middle of the 
front margin a triangular horn curving forwards and upwards, 
slender at the base and broader at the extremity. JSides of the 
clypeus nearly straight and the angles rounded. Sides of the 
prothorax curved, posterior angles well-marlced, and the base 
rectilinear, gently emarginate at the middle. Scutellum nearly 
equilateral, with the sides straight and the apex sharp. Elytra 
plane, not costate, with the sides distinctly sinuated. Sternal 
process long. IMandible consisting of a feeble outer lobe and a 
broad, pubescent membranous inner lobe. Mentum deeply emar- 
ginate. Palpi slender. 

c? . The legs are rather slender and the front tibia) unarmed. 
The posterior cephalic horn is generally acute. 

2 . The legs are stouter anil the front tibia? broad and 
strongly bidentate. The posterior cephalic horn is generally 
blunt. 

All the known species of this genus inhabit our region and all 
are normally of a nearly uniform green, the legs excepted. 



Kci/ to the Species. 

1 (4) lu'inora not green. 

2 (3) iH'niora and tibire bright orange /«ywA'H,v/V. Hope, j). lOu. 

o (2) Femora :md tibifc dark rod sautiderst, Westw., 

4 (I) I'Vmora {.neeii. [p. 103. 

i") (14) Tibiii' not fireon. 
t) (13) Tibi;e reddisli. 

7 (10) Metastennuu closelv puiicturod and 

hairy. " . . , tP- '^^^■^■ 

8 (0) Clypeill process entire (/rnci/ipcs. Wcstw., 

9 (8) Clypeal process bitid hooleri, AVhite, p. 104. 



a?IlIGONOPHOEUS. 103 

10 (7) Metasternum sparsely punctured, 

scarcely hairy. 

11 (12) Elytra distinctly punctured, meta- [p. lOo. 

^ sternum shining- scit/til/ans, Arro^v, 

12 (11) l^lytra indistinctly punctured, meta- 

sternum coriaceous fe(s, Gestro, p. 106. 

13 (0) Tibia? black foveiceps, Gestro, p.|l 07. 

14 (.5) Tibiaj green delcsserti, Gu^r., p.-'l07. 

78. Trigonophorus nepalensis. 

Trio'onophorus nepalensis, IIopc,^' Gray's Zool. Miscell. 1831, p. 24 ; 

Westic, Arcfma Ent. i, 1842, p. 121, pi. 29, tig-. 3. 
( 2 ) Trig-onophorus hardwickei, Hope,* I. c. 
lihomborrhina cantori, Hope, Trans. Ent. Soc. LonO. iii, 1841, 

p. (J2. 

Deep green, blue-green, or indigo-black, moderately sinning, 
with the lower surface dark, the femora, tibite, and hind coxae 
orange-red without any suffusion of green, and the tarsi black. 

Tiie form is moderately elongate and convex. The licad is 
rather long, excavated, with the chjpeus closely granulated in 
front, the sides rounded and scarcely reflexed, and the anterior 
process slender, gradually dilated, and straight in front. The 
prothorax and ehjtra are coriaceous and finely punctured ; the 
scutelhun almost unpunctured. The 2\'/f/«^J«wi is feebly rugose, 
the metasUrnum. coriaceous and indistinctly punctured, and the 
abdomen almost smooth. The sternal 2}rocess is narrow, curved and 
directed slightly downwards. 

6 . The posterior cephalic process is long and acuminate, and 
the prothorax narrowed iu front. 

$ . The posterior cephalic process is truncated and dilated in 
front and the anterior process short. The prothorax is more 
transverse and the pygidium rather setose. 

Length 28-32 mm. ; breadth 15 mm. 

SiKKiM : Karsiang ; Bhutan ; Assam : Cacliar, Xaga Hills, 
Manipur. 

Types of nejmlensis and ha rdivid'ei in the British Museum ; that 
of cantori in the Oxford Museum. 

79. Trigonophorus saundersi. 

Trigonophorus saundersi, IVestio.,^'- Arcana Ent. i, 1842, p. 122, 
pi. 29, fig. 5. 

Shining grass-green, with the lower surface dark, the femora 
and tibijE dark purplish red, and the tarsi and antenna? black. 

The body is moderately broad and depressed. The dypeits is 
rugose and rather parallel- sided, with the anterior process strongly 
dilated but not large or slender. The protliorax is coriaceous and 
distinctly punctured at the sides, with the marginal striae abbre- 
viated behind, the hind angles moderately prominent, and the 



104 CETONIIN.?:. 

base gently excised in the middle. The sciUellum is barely punc- 
tured . The ehjtra are distinctly punctured, some of the punctures 
forming imperfect rows. The ]»ji/ldm„i is feebly punctured, the 
mttasternum coarsely punctured at the sides, and the abdomen 
smooth. The sternal lyrocess is slender and curved. 

The sexual differences are the same as those of T. gracillpes. 

Lciujth 30 mm.; hreadth 15 mm. 

SiKKiM : Darjiling, 

Tiijie in coll. \i. Oberthiir ; cotypes in the O.xford Museum. 

This species is very closely similar to T. (jracUipes and T. nepn- 
lensis, from which it is distinguishable by the colouring of the 
legs and the puucturation of the elytra and metasternum. The 
lower surface of tlie bod}' is also darker than in the former species, 
and the clypeal process does not attain so great a development as 
that of 7\ nepalensis. 

80, Trigonophorus gracilipes. 

Trigonopbonis gracilipes, Tfesfjr.,* Trans. Ent. Soc. Loml. iv, 184o, 
p. 88, pi. 4, fig-. .5. 

Slightly opalescent pea-green, sometimes suffused with fier}' 
red. not very shining, with the tibiae dull red and the tarsi black. 

The body is moderately broad and depressed, and the legs are 
rather slender. The head is strongly excavated, closely granulated 
and slightly pubescent, with the sides convex and dilated in 
front ; the clypeal process straight in front, not very slender nor 
broadly dilated. The protliorax is coriaceous and punctured at 
the sides, the scutelhun with scarcely perceptible punctures, the 
eh/tra strongly punctured, some of the punctures forming incom- 
plete rows. The sides of the pronotmn are completely margined, 
tlie hind angles rather prominent, and the base gently excised in 
the middle. The sides of the ehjtra are rather strongly sinuated. 
The piigidhon is slightly rugose, the sides of the metastermim are 
well ])unctured and thinly clothed with pale yellow hair, and the 
abdomen is smooth. The sternal process is slender and curved. 
The hind ttbice have a short fringe of pale hairs. 

c? . The posterior cephalic process is triangular, and the pro- 
thorax tapers to the front. 

5 . The posterior cephalic process is loiig, moderately broad, 
nearly parallel-sided, and slightly emarginate in front. The pro- 
thorax is broad. 

Len(/ih 26-2S mm. ; breadth 13-o mm. 

iSiKKiM : Darjiling, Mungphu ; Bhutax ; Ass.iM : Manipur. 

Ti//H' in the Oxford ^fuseum. 

81. Trigonophorus hookeri. 

Trigonophorus liookeri, White,^ Proc. Zool. Soc. 185G, p. 14, pi. 41, 

Trigonoplionis jmrvus, Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. Zcitschr. 1894, p. i^Oo. 
Bright green, jndigo, or deep blue, with the tibia?, the femora 



TEIGONOPHORIJS. 



105 



•wholly or partly, and the sides of the hind coxae orange-red, and 
the tarsi black. 

This is a small species, rather elongate in form, depressed above 
and strongly, almost rugosely, punctured. The head is rather 
parallel-sided, excavated and granulated, with the margins not 
much elevated and the anterior process bifid, with the points not 
very divergent. The protliorax and eliitra are coriaceous and 
strongly punctured, and there are rudimentary costse upon the 
latter. ' The sides of the prothorax are sinuated and completely 
margined, the hind angles rather prominent and the base strongly 
excised before the scutellum, which bears a few fine punctures. 
The sides of the elytra are rather strongly sinuated behind the 
shoulders. The jujgidiuni is feebly rugose, the metasternum punc- 
tured and clothed with long yellow hairs, except in the middle, 
which, with the abdomen, is smooth and shining. The sternal 
process is extremely slender and curved. 

6 . The posterior cephalic process is slender and acutely 
pointed, and the prothorax tapers towards the front. The 
abdomen is not channelled beneath. 

$ . The posterior cephalic process is T-shaped and slender, and 
the prothorax broad. 

Len(jth 22 mm. ; breadth 11*5 mm. 

Assam : kShillong, Khasi Hills. 

Tijpc in the British Museum ; that of T. parvus in the German 
Entomological National Museum. 

In the typical green form the hind femora and the greater part 
of the front and middle femora are metallic green, but in the blue 
variety all the femora, as well as the tibiae, are orange-coloured. 

A female of Ileterorrhina tibialis, Westw., was associated by 
Adam White with a male of this species in the belief that they 
were the two sexes of the same insect, and it is that insect which 
is represented in fig. 2 of the Plate quoted above. 



82. Trigonophorus scintillans, sp. n. 

Bright shining green or golden-green above and beneath, with 
the tibiae and the sides of the hind coxae bright yellow, the femora 
slightly suffused with metallic green and the tarsi black. 

The body is depressed and rather broad. The ch/peus is 
strongly granulated in front and the anterior horn entire. The 
pronotum is coriaceous and strongly punctured at the sides, the 
scutellum bears a very few punctures, and the elytra are well 
punctured. The pygidium is shining, but granulose and slightly 
setose, the metasternum shining and strongly but not closely punc- 
tured at the sides, and the abdomen almost smooth. The sternal 
process is long, narrow, and directed a little downwards. 

S . The anterior cephalic process is long and gently dilated and 
the posterior pi'ocess acute and moderately long. 

2 . The anterior cephalic process is short and rapidly dilated 



106 



CEToyiix.T:. 



aud the posterior process rectangular and not dilated in 
front. 

Lcnrfth 27-31 mm. ; Ireaclth 14-16 mm. 

SiKKiM : Mungplui, Darjiliug, Karsiaug. 

Type in the British Museum ; cotypes in coll. R. Oberthitr. 

This is the most brilliant species of the genus. It is very closely 




Fitr. 24. 



-Trhiono])Jiori(s sciniillans, and head of male (above) i'roin 
the side, and female (below) from above. 



related to T. nepalensis, but generally larger and more strongly 
punctured. The femora have a slight metallic green lustre, and 
the metasternuni is shining. The posterior horn of the fi'inale is 
rectangular instead of hannner-shaped. 



83. Trigonophorus feae. 

Trifjfonophoius feto, Gcstro* Ann. Mus. Genova, (2) x, 1891, p. 841, 
pi. 2, tig. 5. 

Bright green, with the tibiie and sides of the hind co.xa' rod 
aud the tarsi black. 

5> . The form is rather broad. The clypeus is rather short, 
closely granulated, excavated, with the sides curved and not much 
elevated ; the anterior process is strongly dilated and tn'sinuate 
in front and the posterior lobe long, not slender, dilated and 
straight in front. The ^»-o/7<o>Y(.r, scnteUnni and chjtra are 
coriaceous and indistinctly punctured, a few of the punctures 
upon the elytra forming imperfect rows. The firothora.v is broad 
and rather thit, with the hind angles rather prominent and the 
base very feebly excised before the scutellum. The pyr/idiwn is 
finely rugose and setose, and the sides of the body beneath are 
coriaceous and scarcely ])unctured. The sternal ^)?'Of<'i<f.s is very 
slender, sharply pointed, and nearly straight. 



T]{IGO]S"OriIORU,S. 107 

The male is unknown, 

Len'jtli 25 mm. ; breadth 13 mm, 

BuiuiA : Karen-ni (/., Feci), 2700 to 3000 ft. 

'^'>/p<^ in the Genoa Museum. 

84, Trigoiiophorus foveiceps. 

Trigonoplioriis foYt'iceps, Gestro, * Ann. Mas. Genuva, (2) vi, 1888, 
p. 114; op. cit. (2) X, 1891, p. 842, pi. 2, figs. 7 & 8. 

Pea-green and very smooth and shining, with the femora and 
lower surface rather brighter, and the tibia) and tarsi black. 

5 . Tlie form is rather broad. The diipeus is ratlier short, 
granulated, not deeply excavated, with the sides parallel and the 
margins not much elevated ; the anterior process is small, 
moderately dilated and straight in front, and the posterior lobe 
large, very prominent, oval in shape and slightly concave above. 
The protliora.v is broad, strongly angulated before the middle and 
sinuated behind, with the hind angles rather prominent. The 
sides are completely margined, the base feebly excised before the 
scutellum, and the surface coriaceous and feebly punctured at 
the sides. The scutelhnn is smooth and the eh/tra feebly punctured 
in incomplete rows. The ]>7/(]idiu7ii is coriaceous, the mefasiernuiu 
moderately punctured at the sides, and the ahdomai very smooth. 
The sUnud jvocess is slender and strongly curved. 

A single female is the only known specimen. 

Length 28 mm. ; hreadth 13'5 mm. 

BunMA : Kachiu Hills {L. Fea). 

Type in the Genoa Museum, 

85. Trigonophorus delesserti. 

Goliathus delt-sserti, Guer., liev. Zuol. 1><39, p. 220; To>/. Delesserf, 

1843, p. 42, pi. 12, fig. 2. 
Trigonopliorus delesserti, Weshv., Avcctita Ent. i, 1842, p. 122, pi. 29, 

fig. 4. 

OliA'e-green, with the pygidium, legs and lower surface brighter, 
sometimes golden-green, and the tarsi black. There are frequently 
indefinite darker patches upon the upper surface and occasionally 
the whole insect is blue-black, with the head, legs and lower 
surface a little lighter. 

The head is rugosely punctured, with a smooth median longi- 
tudinal carina, on each side of which there is a I'ow of stiff bristles. 
The clt/pens is short and broad, with the angles well marked and 
the anterior process large, slender at the base, sti"ongly and 
abruptly dilated, with sharp, recurved lateral angles and sinuate 
front margin. The head is excavated between the eyes and the 
forehead is furnished with a short horizontal lobe, triangular and 
acutely pointed in both sexes, but scarcely reaching the level of 
the front of the eyes. The prothorax is very transverse, with the 
sides completely margined and strongly angulated in the middle : 



108 CETONIIN.i;. 

the surface is coriaceous and only visibly punctured at the sides. 
The scuteUum is without distinct punctui'es and the elytra are 
]ninctured in rather indistinct rows and rugose at the apical 
luargnis. The pijgidium is transversely rugose, the sides of the 
metasternwn coarsely punctured, and the abdomen almost smooth. 
The sternal process is flattened, curved and blunt. 

(5 . There is a vestige of a lateral tooth to the front tibia and 
the abdomen is lightly channelled beneath. 

2 . The pygidium is slightly setose. 

Lencjth 42 mm. ; hreadtlt 20 mm. 

Madras : Nilgiri Hills, Anainialai Hills. 

This beetle sometimes appears in enormous luimbers. Mr. H. 
L. Andrewes has usually found it in Blue Gum trees {Eucalyptus 
fjlohulus) flying about the tops or feeding upon the sap which 
exudes from tlie trunks, and he and ]Mr. Gray have seen the males 
fiercely fighting together by butting each other with their horns. 
Mr. Andrewes has more than once picked up detached heads 
beneath the trees, possibly dropped by birds. 



Group 4. Cj:to\ii/)i:.s. 

This is the largest and most typical Group in the Subfamily. The 
species are generally compactly built and most of them are covered 
on the upper surface with a dull bloom and decorated with a white 
or yellow powdery matter. The base of the pronotum has its 
sides inclined, not in a transverse line as in the previous group, 
and is excised in front of the scutellum, the posterior angles 
of the prothorax becoming obtuse and sometimes completely 
obliterated. The scutellum is generally blunt at its apex and 
is never very acute, as in the remaining groups of Cktoniini and 
the CiiEMASi'ociiiLiNA. The sexes are alike or distinguis'r.ed only 
by slight external differences. 

Table of the Genera. 

1 {-) Sides of elytra not distinctly sinuated [p. 109. 

behind the sbouldei-s Axthracophora, 

2 (1) Sides of elytra distinctly sinuated behind 
tlie filioulders. 



."! (10) Pronotum not abruptly emarginate behind 
1 (7) Clypeus toothed at front angles. 
h («)) Clypeus stronijly depressed at the sides 
»■) (5) Clypeus Hat 



* 



Except in Glyci/phaua molat/en^is, Qu6r. 



ANTHKAOOPHORA. 10f> 

12 (13) Metallic ; hind tibia digitate Cetoxia, p. 132. 

18 (12) Not metallic : bind tibia not digitate : 

sternal process usually vertical Glycosia, p. 129. 

14 (11) Sternal process broad and flat, or absent. 
l-~> (18) Clj'peus not elongate, rather broad in front. 

16 (17) First joint of hind tarsus spinose ^Ethikssa, p. 135. 

17 (16) First joint of hind tarsus not spinose .... PROTiEXiA, p. 136. 

18 (15) Clypeus elongate, narrow in front. 

19 (22) Clypeus flat. [p. 163. 

20 (21) Clypeus bilobed : Oxycetonia, 

21 (20) Clypeus entire Stalagmosoma, 

[p. 170. 

22 (19) Clypeus keeled, with produced angles .... Chiloloba, p. 171. 



Genus ANTHRACOPHORA. 

Anthracophora, Bunn.,IIandh. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 633; Lacord., Gen. 
Col. iii, 1856, p. 540. 

Type, A. rustlcoJa, Burm. (China and Japan). 

liange. Japan, China, Siam, India, Java. 

Form compactly oval, a little depressed, with rather short legs. 
Head short, the clypeus ahoufc twice as broad as it is long, with 
the front margin reflexed and not distinctly excised. Protborax 
rather broad, with the base narrowly excised at the middle. 
Scutellum rather small, not sharply pointed. Elytra completely 
covering the abdomen at the sides, very little sinuated behind the 
shoulders and blunt at the apical angles. Prosternum forming 
two nodular processes in front of the anterior coxae. Middle 
coxse rather wide apart, the sternum a little produced in front of 
them, of varied shape but not dilated in front. Tibise rather 
short, the front ones ai'med with two or three short teeth, the middle 
and hind ones acutely digitate at the end. Mandibles stout at 
the base, with the outer lobe thin but moderately chitinised and 
not long. Maxilla not long, thickly fringed at the extremity, the 
lower lobe forming a A'ery slender hooked tooth and the outer one 
a bluntly bidentate process. Mentum broad iu front and very 
obtusely emarginate. Antennae rather short. 

The sexes are alike externally. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (6) Sternal process conical, very short. 

2 (5) Front tibiae tridentate. 

3 (4) Elytra decorated with a lateral pale patch placed [p. 110. 

behind the middle siamensis, Kr., 

4(3) Elytra decorated with very small scattered white [p. 110. 

markings, sometimes absent crucifera, Oliv., 

5 (2) Front tibiae bidentate ^ufo, Arrow, 

[p. 112. 

6 (1) Sternal process semicircular dalmanni, Hope, 

[p. 112 



110 CETOXIIX.I. 



86. Anthracophora siainensis. 

Aiithracopbora siamonsis, Kraatz^^ Deutsche Ent. Zeltxchr. 1894, 
p. i^K). 

Black, with the legs and lower surface shining and bearing a 
few reddish seta) : the upper surface covered with a black or 
olive-black velvety bloom, with small interspersed bare patches 
upon the elytra, and decorated with silky pale yellowish markings 
as follows : — minute indefinite spots upon the vertex of the head 
<ind the sides of the pronotum (a row of three being generally dis- 
tinguishable on each side of the latter), a minute spot in each 
angle of the scutellum (sometimes indistinguishable), and a large 
double patcli on each elytron, occupying the greater part of the 
posterior half of the outer margin. There is an indefinite 
sprinkling of the same colour upon the pygidium, femora and sides 
of the sternum and abdomen. 

The form is rather broadly oval and robust. The head is finely 
rugose, with the front margin entire, broadly rounded at the sides 
and scarcely reflexed. The prothorcuc is very coarsely punctured 
(more coarsely at the sides), with the lateral niargins bisinuate 
iuid the base narrowly excised in the middle. The ftcutelhan is 
moderately long, with the apex moderately pointed, and bears a 
few large punctures. The elytra bear rows of very large horse- 
shoe-shaped impressions, some of which are elongate and con- 
tiguous, producing a chain-like appearance. The p;i>jidiiim is 
rugose, impressed on each side, and setose, the metaslennim smooth 
in the middle and very coarsely punctured at the sides, and the 
abdomen very coarsely punctured all over. The mcsosti'rnimi forms 
a very short and blunt conical process, and the front tibia are 
armed with three acute short teeth. 

Length lit mm. ; hreadth 10 mm. 

Assam : Khasi Hills ; Si \Ji. 

Type in the Grerman Entomological National Museum. 



87. Anthracophora crucifera. 

Cetoiiia cnicifora. 0//r., Ent. i, (J, 1789, p. .j9, pi. o, fig. :29 ; Burm., 

Hmidl). Ent. iii, 1842, p. GL>4. 
Cetonia atiomaculala, F., Ent. Si/st. i, 2, 1702, p. 141 ; G. ^- P., 

Monoyr. Cet. p. 171, pi. oO, tig. '6. 
Tar. Anthracophora ceylouensis, Kraatz^^ Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. 

1895, p. 110. 

Black and shining, with a sprinkling of small sooty patches 
upon the elytra, and decorated with silvery-white markings dis- 
tributed as follows: — scattered spots on the head, an irrcguhir 
patch bordering each side of the pronotum, a minute spot in each 
angle of the scutellum, and an irregular sprinkling at the lateral 
and apical borders of the elytra (very sparse before the middle 
•and generally including a more or less apparent postmedian 



AlJTTnB ACOPHOllA . Ill 

•agf^lonieration). There is a similar sprinkling upon the pygldium, 
the sides of fhe metasteruum and abdomen, and the middle and 
hind femora. 

The form, size and markings are very variable and the latter 
are liable to disappear entirely. The Jteadis moderately punctured, 
the clypeal margin being reflexed and very feebly sinuated in 
front. The j^rothorax is coarsely punctured at the sides, scarcely 
punctured in the middle, with the lateral margins strongly curved 
and slightly sinuated before the posterior angles, and the base very 
feebly and nan-owly emarginate in the middle. The scutellum is 
rather short and moderately sharp at the apex. The elytra are 
uniformly striated with irregular lines of coarse punctures and the 
alternate intervals are distinctly raised. The p>jgidium is coarsely 
rugose. The vieta sternum and abdomen are smooth in the middle 
and decorated with large crescent-shaped impressions at the sides. 
The sternal process is very bluntly conical, with its anterior face 
nearly vertical. The front tihio' are armed with three strong acute 
teeth. 

Length 15-21 mm. ; breadth S-11 mm. 

United Provinces : Dehra Dun ; Bengal : Sahibganj, Pusa, 
Purneah Dist., Berhampur ; Bombay; Surat ; Madras: Banga- 
lore ; Ceylon. 

Type in the Paris Museum ; that of atromaculata in the Copen- 
hagen Museum. 

The var. ceylonensls was described from a single example differing 
from typical specimens only in a few small details which appear 
to me of no importance; but in case further specimens should 
prove these to have a greater value than I can at present assign 
to them, I give the following description from the type specimen 
kindly lent me by the Berlin Entomological National Museum. 

Var. ceylonensls. 

Black, with the head, legs aud lower surface shining and the 
upper surface and pygidium opaque ; decorated with small greyish 
spots upon the head, pronotum (a lateral and sublateral line of 
spots on each side), scutellum (a spot in each angle), elytra, 
pygidium, and the sides of the metasteruum and abdomen. The 
spots are most closely aggregated behind the outer margins and 
at the apices of the elytra, upon the pygidium aud the sides of the 
body beneath. 

The form is as described above, but it is larger; the front 
margin of the clypeus is straight, the sides of the prothorax are 
angulated exactly in the middle and the base is angularly emar- 
ginate before the scutellum. There are a few coarse punctures 
close to the sides. The scatellum is rather long and narrow. The 
elytra are coarsely punctured in irregular rows and the alternate 
intervals are elevated. The pygidium is coarsely rugose, the 
middle of the metastermmi and abdomen sparsely punctured, and 
the sides decorated with large crescent-shaped impressions. The 




112 CETONIIN.i;. 

sternal process is bluntly conical, and the front tibicv are acutely 
tridentate. 

Lenr/ih 24 mm. 

Ceylon. 

Type in the German Entomological National Museum. 



88. Anthracophora bufo. 

Anthracophora bufo, Arrotv* Arm. May. Nat. Hist. (7) xix, 1907, 
p. 353. 

Deep red-brown, irregularly speckled above and below with 
yellow markings ; opaque and velvety, except at the middle of th© 
prothorax, metasternum and abdomen and a 
stroug costa on the anterior half of each 
elytron. 

The form is ovate and depressed. The 
clypeus is broad, entire and strongly punc- 
tured. The jyrotliorax is strongly but not 
closely punctured in the middle, very coarsely 
and rugosely at the sides, with the lateral 
margins distinctly angulated at the middle, 
and strongly sinuated behind. ThescuieUum 
Fig. 2."). is rather short, punctured, opaque and varie- 

Anthmcophora bufo. gated. The elytra are irregularly punctured 
and striated, and each has a smooth curved 
costa on the basal half. The pygidium is rugose, and the meta- 
sternum and abdomen are strongly punctured and shining in the 
middle, but opaque and closely sculptured with crescent- shaped 
impressions at the sides. The legs are very short, opaque, and 
decorated like the body, and there are two very short teeth on 
the front tibia. The sternal process is short but rather sharply 
conical. 

Lewjtli 10 mm. ; breadth 8"5 mm. 

Assam : Sylhet. 

Type in the British Museum. 



89. Anthracophora dalmanni. 

Cetonia dalmanni, Hope,'':' Grm/s Zool. Miscell. 1831, p. 24. 
Anthracophora bohcmaui, Westiu.^^ Trans. Ent. Soc. Land, v, 1849, 
p. 14U, pi. It), tig. 7. 

Black, with the clypeus, legs and lower surfiice shining, the 
upper surface and pygidium opaque ; the elytra decorated with 
irregular brick-red spots, scattered and inconspicuous in front 
and confluent behind the middle, where they form a more or 
less extensive apical patch. The pygidium and the sides of 
the abdominal segments are partly or entirely of the same 
colour. 



ANTHEACOPEOBA. — ANATOXA. 113 

The shape is elongate-oval. The head is very finely punctured, 
with the chjpeus short, almost straight in front and with a very 
feebly reflexed margin. The protliorciM is very coarsely punctured 
at the sides and has two slight depressions near the front and two 
more near the base. The sides are strongly angulated near the 
middle and the base deeply and narrowly emarginate in the middle. 
The scutellum is long and narrow. The ehjtra are coarsely and 
shallowly punctate-striate and the alternate intervals elevated, 
especially in the anterior part. The pygidium is microscopically 
rugose, the metastenmm and abdomen smooth in the middle and 
coarsely rugose at the sides. The sternal pn'ocess is very short, 
broadly rounded in front, and bears a deep transverse groove. 
The //-oni tibia is armed with three sharp teeth, the terminal one 

§ . The terminal tooth of the front tibia has a very peculiar 
thickening beneath and is less acute at the eud than that of the 
male. The last two ventral segments are rather strongly 
punctured. 

Length 18-22 mm. ; breadth 10-12 mm. 

United Pbovinces : Laudaur, Naini Tal (Xov.) ; Nepal ; 
SiKKiM : Darjiling, Karsiang, 5000 ft. {Annandale, June). 

Type in the British Museum ; that of bohemani in the Oxford 
Museum. 

This insect is recorded as being found feeding upon the resinous 
exudation of oak-trees. 



Genus ANATONA. 

Auatona, Burm., Handb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 503 ; Laoord., Gen. Col . 

iii, 1856, p. 530. 
Eumimela, Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. xxv, 1881, p. 264. 

Type, Cetonia stlllata, Newm, 

Mange. India. 

Form shortly oval, compact and convex, slightly pubescent above 
and beneath. Clypeus attenuated almost to the extremity, where 
it is rather abruptly dilated, reflexed and nearly straight, the angles 
being prominent and rounded laterally. Base of the pronotum 
gently rounded, very feebly excised in the middle ; hind angles 
broadly rounded. Scutellum broad at the base and scarcely 
longer than its breadth, with the apex angulated. Sides of the 
elytra sinuated behind the shoulders ; the sutural angles sharp 
but not produced. Middle coxae rather wide apart and the 
sternum not produced nor dilated in front; mesosternal part 
extremely narrow and the suture fringed with hairs. Front 
tibiae strongly and rather irregularly tridentate ; hind tibiae 
truncate. 

(S . The abdomen is arched, but not channelled, beneath. 



114 CETONIIN^. 

Keij to the Species. 

1 (4) Upper surface opaque and spotted. [p. 114. 

2 (3) Grey, brown or red, -svith yellow markings, stillata, Newm., 

3 (2) Black, "with white markings alboffuttata, Burm., 

[p. 115. 

4 (1) Upper surface shining, not spotted castanoptera, Burm., 

[p. 116. 

90. Anatona stillata. 

Cetonia stillata, Keicm.* Ent. May. v, 1838, p. 169. 
Cetonia lignea, Blanch., Liste Cet. Miis. Paris, 1842, p. 8. 
Anatona tlavoguttata, Burm.,* Handb. Eiit. iii, 1842, p. 604; 

RecU., HiiyeVs Kaschmir, iv, 2, 1848, p. 580, pi. 25, fig. 2. 
Anatona pilicollis, Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. 1898, p. 223. 

Black, with the elytra red or chocolate-coloured and the upper 
surface, except the head, covered with a greyish or tawuy hloom 
and decorated with yellow markings as follows : a border on each 
side of the prothorax, and two discoidal and two basal spots ; a 
small spot near the shoulder of each elytron, another near the 
middle of the inner margin, three small patches adjoining the 
outer margin, a fourth occupying the apical angle, and a spot a 
little in front of the last. A patch on each side of the pygidium 
(sometimes divided into two), the mesosternal epimera,part of the 
hind femora, and the sides of the metasternum and abdomen are 
similarly decorated. 

The form is short, oval and convex. The head is granulated 
and clothed on the vertex with long tawny hairs. The j'l'onottim 
is rather strongly punctured, with the sides strongly curved, the 
front angles acute and the hind angles almost obsolete. The base 
is gently curved and very feebly emarginate before the scuiellum, 
which is short and triangular. The eh/tra are coarsely punctate- 
striate, sinuated behind the shoulders and sharply angular, but 
not spinose, at the apices. The pijr/idiwn is finely punctured and 
sparingly clothed with yellow hair.s. The metasternum is smooth 
in the middle and thickly hairy at the sides, and the abdomen is 
sparingly punctured and setose. 

c5' . The abdomen is a little arched and nearly smooth, and the 
hind tarsi are rather longer than those of the female. 

Leiifjth 11-14 mm. ; breadth 6-8 mm. 

Punjab : Campbellpur, Kangra Valley (Dudgeon), Kulu ; Cen- 
TiiAL India : Mhow ; Bombay : Kanara, Khaudesh (3500 ft.) ; 
Madras : Bangalore. 

Tyj^e in the British INTuseum ; that of lignea in the Paris 
Museum; oi favoynttata in the Oxford Museum ; oi inlicoUis in 
the German Entomological National Museum. 

The wide distribution of this insect is very remarkable. It 
varies considerably in size and in the colour of the elytra, and in 
its markings tends to form local races, the typical southern form 
usually having the spots larger and the thoracic margin broader 



ANATONA. 115 

and extending beyond the hind angles. In the northern form the 
latter generally stops at the angle and the discoidal spots are 
absent. 

It is exceedingly abundant during the autumn rains in the 
districts it inhabits. Mr, T, R, D, Bell records that upon the 
day following a fall of rain he has found them swarming all over the 
Khandesh plateau, flying in thousands close to the ground, over 
the burnt grass, and making a humming noise like a swarm of bees, 
which they very much resemble on the wing. The females burrow 
into the ground and apparently deposit their eggs among the grass 
roots, upon which no doubt the larvae feed. The beetles are also 
sometimes found clinging together in clusters, in which the different 
varieties occur together. 



91. Anatona alboguttata. 

Anatona alboguttata, Burm., Hanlb. Eat. iii, 1842, p. 504. 

Black, with the prothorax, scutellum and elytra opaque, and 
the head, pygidium, legs and lower surface shining ; decorated 
with the following white markings : — a mar- 
ginal line on each side of the pronotum, a 
narrow median line, not reaching the front 
or hind margin and interrupted behind the 
middle, and three spots placed in a longi- 
tudinal line on each side ; the mesosternal 
epimera and a spot at the apex of the 
scutellum ; from six to eight on each ely- 
tron and two on each side of the pygidium 
(sometimes coalescing). A spot near the 
extremity of each hind femur and patches at 
Fig. 26. the sides of the sternum, hind cox« and 

Anatona alboguttata. abdomen are also white. 

This species is far larger than the other 
two. It is of similar form, compact and convex. The head is 
very small, finely granulated, clothed with long yellow hairs on 
the forehead, with the clypeus strongly rounded from side to side, 
but not carinated. and narrow but a little dilated in front. The 
prothorax has the sides strongly rounded, the hind angles 
moderately well-marked and the base feebly excised in the middle. 
The scutellum is short, with the sides regularly rounded and the 
apex blunt. The elytra are smooth, very scantily punctured, gently 
sinuated at the outer edges and rather bluntly angulated at the 
apices. The injgidmm is finely rugose and pubescent, the meta- 
sternum coarsely rugose and pubescent at the sides and smooth in 
the middle, and the abdomen almost smooth. The front tibia is 
armed with three long and sharp teeth not standing far apart. 
S . The abdomen is broadly excavated beneath. 
Length 17-20 mm. ; breadth 9-10*o mm. 
Madbas : Bangalore ; Deccan {teste Burmeister), 

i2 




116 CETONIIN^. 

92. Anatona castanoptera. 

Anoplochilus castauopterus, Burm,, Hcmdb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 509. 
Eumimela pyeialis, Kraatz,* Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. xxv, 1881, 
p. 264 (n. syn.)- 

Shining black above and beneath, with the elytra sometimes 
reddish chestnut, and thinly clothed with tawny hairs, except upon 
the scutellum and at the middle of the metasteruum and abdomen, 
the hairs being very short and scanty upon the elytra. 

The size and form are the same as those of A. stillata. The 
head is granulated and the proihorax very strongly and uniformly 
punctured, with the sides rounded, the hind angles obsolete, and 
the base broadly emarginate in the middle. The scutellum is 
smooth and marked with a slight longitudinal impression ; and the 
elytra are marked with rows of large, shallow and more or less 
confluent pits ; the sides are sinuated and the apical angles 
fairly well marked. The i>y<jidium is rugose, the mttasternum 
smooth in the middle and punctured at the sides, and the ventral 
segments have each a median row of punctures and are irregularly 
punctured at the sides. The teeth of the front tibia are strong, 
the 1st and 3rd sharp and directed obliquely forward, and the 2nd 
broad and directed slightly backward. 

cJ . The abdomen is broadly excavated and the hind tibiae and 
tarsi have a conspicuous tawny fringe. 

Length 12 mm. ; breadth 7 mm. 

Punjab : Kulu ; Bombay (teste Burmeister). 

Ti/j^e unknown ; that of pggialis in the German Entomological 
National Museum ; co-type in the British Museum. 

Burmeister's type perhaps has the head damaged or abnormal. 

Genus POGONOPUS, nov. 

Type, Pogonopus pusillus, sp. n. 

Range. India. 

Body small, compact and convex. Clypeus flat, narrowed a 
little to the front, with the anterior augles forming reflexed teeth. 
Pronotum convex, narrow in front, with the sides regularly 
curved, the hind augles completely obliterated, and the base 
gently curved and hardly perceptibly sinuated before the scutellum. 
Scutellum short, broad at the base and moderately sharp at the 
apex. Elytra moderately sinuated at the side margins and not 
sharp at the apical angles. Mesosternum broad and hairy in 
front and not produced. Legs rather short, front tibia armed 
with three strong teeth ; hind tibia truncate at the end. 

S . Abdomen arched beneath. Hind tarsus bearing a rather 
long fringe of hairs beneath. 

The two interesting little species for which I have formed this 
genus are both characterised by markings composed of a peculiar 
silky matter having a pearly-blue lustre which in certain lights 
may vary from nearly white to nearly black. 




POGONOPUS. 117 

Key to the Species. 

Pygidium clothed with short erect setse ; base 
of pronotum scarcely emarginate in the 
middle pusillus, sp. n., p. 117. 

Pygidium not clothed with setfe ; base of pro- 
notum very gently emarginate in the 
middle aryentifer, Westw., p. 117, 

93. Pogonopiis pusillus, sp. n. 

Shining black, with a slate-grey opaque covering upon the 
vertex of the bead, the pronotum, scutelkim and elytra, with two 
small anterior spots on each side of the 
pronotum ; the three angles of the scutellum, 
the posterior half of the elytral suture, the 
humeral and apical calli and parts of the 
outer margins, denuded and shining ; 
decorated with silvery-blue markings form- 
ing a lateral border on each side of the 
pronotum, and upon the posterior half of 
each elytron an irregular outer border 
extending to the suture and two small 
spots near the suture. The pygidium has 
also a large irregular patch on each side, 
Fig. 27. and the sides of the sternum, a patch on 

Pogonopus pusillus. ^.j^g bind coxa and a marginal row of spots 
on each side of the abdomen beneath are of 
the same colour. The head, pygidium and sides of the body 
beneath are clothed with yellow setae. 

It is a very small insect, elongate-oval and convex in shape. 
The chjpeus is granulated, with its front angles very sharp. The 
pronotum is distinctly punctured except in the middle and the 
basal margin is gently curved, with a hardly perceptible sinuation 
in the middle. The scutellum is short but rather sharp at the 
apex. The elytra bear large horseshoe-shaped punctures in 
irregular double rows, extending from the base nearly to the apex. 
The pygidium is strigose, and the metasternum and abdomen are 
very smooth and shining in the middle. 

I have seen only a single male specimen, taken by Capt. 
A. K. W. Downing. 

Length 9 mm. ; breadth 5 mm. 
Madras : Podanur, near Coimbatore. 
Type in the British Museum. 

94. Pogonopus argentifer. 

Anoplocheila argentifera, Westio.* Trans. Ent. Soc. Land, v, 1849, 
p. 148, pi. 16, tig. 6. 

Black, with the legs and lower surface shining, and the pro- 
notum, scutellum and elytra opaque ; decorated with the following 



118 CETONIDT-S. 

glistening pearly-blue markings: — the lateral margins of the pro- 
notum and two median and two basal spots, which frequently fuse 
with the borders, leaving only a median cross-shaped black mark ; 
the mesosternal epimera and parts of the scutellum ; the lateral 
parts of the elytra (continued round the apical margins but some- 
times interrupted), and a median and a subapical spot upon each 
(sometimes united to the borders). The greater part of tlie 
pygidium, the sides of the sternum, a row of minute spots on each 
side of the abdomen, and a large patch upon each hind femur are 
also of the same colour. 

This is a very small species, elongate-oval and very convex. 
The head is densely granulated, with the sides of the dypevs 
strongly rounded, the front margin refiexed and the front angles 
rather produced. The irronotam is strongly punctured, rather 
narrow in front, with the posterior angles little indicated and the 
base regulai-ly curved and verj^ gently emargiuate in the middle. 
The scutellum is short and rather blunt, and the elytra are strongly 
punctured in rows, well sinuated at the sides and rather obtuse 
at the apical angles. The ptfjidium is smooth, finely and sparsely 
punctured, the sides of the metastenium strongly, and those of 
the abdomen slightly, punctured and pubescent. The mesostenium 
is eetose, little dilated before the coxae and not produced, aud the 
front tibia is armed with three strong teeth. 

c5' . The abdomen is broadly channelled and the hind tibiae and 
tarsi bear a long but not dense fringe. 

2 . All the tarsi are distinctly shorter than in the 6 . 

Length 12 mm.; breadth 5"5 mm. 

Bombay : Poena. 

Type in the Oxford Museum. 



Genus GYMNOPHANA, nov. 

Type, Cetonia oatesi, Gestro. 

liange. That of the type. 

Porm depressed and not very elongate, with very long and slender 
legs. Clypeus quadrate, with the front margin broadly excised 
and not reflexed. Prothorax pear-shaped, narrow in front, with 
the curvature of the sides regular and continued uninterruptedly 
round the base, which is scarcely excised in the middle. Scutellum 
rather long and pointed. Elytra strongly sinuated at the outer 
margins and spinose at the apical angles. Sternal process very 
short and transversely dilated. 

S . Legs very slender, the front tibiae not toothed, the hind 
tibiae truncate at the end, and all the tarsi considerably longer than 
the tibiae, the middle ones about twice as long. 

The female is not yet known. 

Although of very distinctive form, this new genus is nearly 
related to GJycyphana, from which it differs in having the pro- 



GYMXOPIIANA. 



119 



thorax strongly narrowed from behind forwards and scarcely at all 
emarginate before the scutellum, in the unarmed front tibisa of 
the male, and the very long and slender tarsi. 



95. G-ymnopliana oatesi. 

Cetonia oatesi, Ge&tro* Ann. Mus. Genova, (2) x, 1891, p. 848. 

Black, with the pronotum, scutellum and elytra opaque, and 
decorated with white or pale yellow markings as follows :— a 
border at each side of the pronotum and a pair of minute spots at 

the middle ; an irregular patch 
beyond the middle of each elytron, 
adjoining the lateral margin and 
sending a short process towards the 
inner margin, and an apical border, 
slightly dilated at the suture ; three 
irregular spots on each side of the 
pygidium ; the mesosternal epimera ; 
the sides of the sternum, hind coxae 
and abdomen, and patches upon the 
middle and hind femora. 

The body is slightly depressed, 
not very elongate and scarcely 
narrowed behind. The eyes are very 
prominent, the Jiead rugose, with 
the vertex hairy and the chjpeus 
rather flat, long and narrow, the 
sides rather straight, and the auterior 
edge broadly emarginate and scarcely 
reflexed. The surface of the pro- 
notum, scutellum and elytra is very smooth and not perceptibly 
punctured. The pronotum is very narrow in front and i-atber 
elevated in the middle, the sides are rather straight in front 
and strongly, almost semicircularly, rounded behind, the hind 
angles completely obliterated and the base very feebly emarginate 
in the middle. The pygidium is finely rugose, and the metastemum 
and abdomen are very smooth in the middle and thinly clothed 
with whitish hairs at the sides. 

S . The front tibiae are rather broad, slightly sinuated at the 
end externally but scarcely toothed, the middle tibiae are very 
short, and all the tarsi, especially those of the front and middle 
legs, are very long and slender. The apical angles of the elytra 
are very strongly spinose. The abdomen is arched. 
The female is unknown. 
Length 12*5 mm. ; breadth 6*5 mm. 
Tenassebim : Tbagata, 1200-1500 ft. (L. Fea ; April). 
Type in the Genoa Museum. 




Fig. 28. 
Gyynnophana oatesi. 



120 CETONIIN.^. 

Genus GLYCYPHANA. 

Glyc-yphana, L'linn. Handb. Ent. iii, 184:2, p. 345. 
Euryomia, Lacord., Gen. Col. iii, 1856, p. 625. 

Type, Cetonia liorsfieldi, Hope. 

RatKje. The Oriental liegion. 

Form elongate and very depressed, not much tapering behind, 
with the legs ratlier short. Clypeus bilobed, with the margin not 
reflexed. Prothorax short, with the hind angles obsolete or very 
slightly indicated and the base trisinuate, without abrupt eraargi- 
nation (except in G. maJa)/ensis, Guer,). Scutellum rather long, 
with the sides curvilinear and the apex very blunt. Front tibioe 
tridentate in both sexes. Hind tibise strongly spinose at the end. 
Tarsi generally short and closely articulated. Mesosternum 
flat, a little dilated before the middle coxa) but scarcely at all 
produced. 

The abdomen is not arched or channelled in the male, but the 
spurs of the hind tibise are more acute in that sex. 

Although structurally alike the sexes frequently differ in their 
coloration, and owing to the significance of these differences 
having been overlooked they have in several cases been given 
different names. 

Kei/ to the Species. 

1 (14) Elytra not spinose at the apical angles. 

2 (11) lilack species, usually with red and orange 

or froklen markinnrs. 

3 (6) Elytra! markings shining-. 

4 (5) Elytra 1 markings irregular, not continuous. horsfieldi,'H.o^e, 

5 (4) Elytral markings forming a regular trans- [p. 121. 

verse band aurocincta, sp. n., 

6 (3) Elytral markings dull. [p. 122. 

7 (10) Mesosternal epimera black. 

8 (9) Elytra decorated with a transverse chain of 

yfillow spots catena, sp. n., p. 122. 

9 (8) Eachelytron decorated with oneyellowspot [p. 12.3. 

or two placed obliquely biiiotata, G. ifc P., 

10 (7) Mesosternal epimera yellow torquata, V., p. 124. 

11 (2) Green species, with pale spots. [p. 124. 

12 (13) Pronotum with a pale lateral line mcobarica^ Jans., 

13 (12) Pronotum without pale lateral line nepalevm, Kr., 

14 (1) Elytra spinose at the apical angles. [p. 125. 

15 (20) Pronotum gently sinuated before the 

scutellum. 
IG (17) Each elytron decorated with a longitudinal 

yellow stripe /estiva, F., p. 126. 

17 (16) Elytra decorated with pale spots. [p. 126. 

18 (19) Median lateral spot of elytron large sicainsoni, G. Sc P., 

19 (18) All spots of elytra minute andamanensis,Jan9., 

20 (15) Pronotum deeply and abruptly excised [p. 127. 

before the scutellum malayensis, Gu6r., 

[p. 128. 



GLXCYPHANA. 121 

96. Glycyphana horsfieldi. 

Cetonia horsfieldi, Hope* Grays Zool. Miscell. 1831, p. 25 ; 

Burm., Handb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 34G. 
Cetonia marginicollis, G. ^- P., Monogr. CeL 1833, p. 251, pi. 47, 

fig. 6. 
Var. Glyciphana biargentata, Thoinson* Typi Cetonid. 1878, p. 26. 

Opaque velvety-black above, with the head, legs and lower 
surface shining and very minutely and thinly setose ; the pronotum 
completely encircled with a deep red marginal band, the pygidium 
and last ventral segment red and each elytron ornamented with a 
glistening silvery or golden triangular patch placed just behind 
the middle, with its base reaching the outer margin. The outer 
edges of the hind coxae are of the same colour. 

The species is long and narrow in shape. The head is rugosely 
punctured, with the chjpeus not long, a little narrowed towards 
the front and deeply notched. The protliorax is strongly trans- 
verse, moderately and evenly punctured, rather narrow in front, 
where it is very sloping on each side of the middle, with the sides 
strongly and evenly curved, the hind angles obsolete and the base 
very slightly emarginate in the middle. The seutellum is long and 
narrow. The elytra are deeply punctate-striate, with the sides 
strongly sinuated close to the sliouiders and the sutural angles not 
sharp. The ijyfjidium is rather flat, opaque, and finely striolated 
transversely, the metastenium is smooth in the middle and coarsely 
striolated at the sides, and the abdomen is coarsely and not closely 
punctured. The front tibia is armed with three sharp teeth. 

d . The front tibiae are narrower in front with the teeth rather 
farther apart, and the hind tarsi are a Httle longer than those of 
the female. 

Length 13-14 mm. ; breadth 6-6-5 mm. 

Nepal ; Sikkim : Mungphu ; Bhutan : Maria Basti ; Burma : 
Bhamo ; Assam : Silhet, Manipur ; Bengal : Chota Nagpur ; 
Ceylon : Pundaluoya, Ivandy. 

Type in the British Museum ; that of biargentata in coll. 
E. Oberthiir. 

6r. horsfieldi has been recorded as frequenting the flowers of 
Hibiscus. 

This species seems to occur throughout a large part of the 
Indian area and, as might be expected, is highly variable, the 
varieties being to some extent localised. The typical form (from 
the Himalayas) is small and narro\\-, with rather small triangular 
golden elytral patches. The Ceylon form is generally rather 
larger and broader, with the golden patches rather large. 
A similar form occurs at Chota Nagpur. 

A striking variety, of which the exact locality is not known, has 
the golden area extending almost to the base and apex of the elytra. 
This may be called var. auridenta. 

In the var. biargentata the red markings have disappeared. Its 
precise habitat is also uncertain. 



122 CEToxiiy.B. 

97. Glycyphana aurocincta, sp. n. 

Velvety-black, with the clypeus, legs and lower surface shining ; 
the pygidium and the lateral and posterior margins of the pronotum 
blood-red ; the elytra traversed just beyond the middle by a 
glistening golden band, very narrowly interrupted at the suture, 
the front edge forming a nearly straight line, the hinder edge 
strongly concave. 

The body is depressed in shape and moderately elongate. The 
head is broad, closely punctured, and deeply notched at the front 
margin. The pronotum is a little wider than it is long, with the 
lateral and posterior margins continuously curved, the hind angles 
obsolete and the base very feebly siuuated in front of the scutellum. 
The scutellum is rather pointed. The ehjtra are punctate-striate, 
strongly sinuated behind the shoulders and not spinose at the 
apical angles. The pii(jklium is minutely striolated transversely, 
the mctasternum coarsely rugose at the sides, and the abdomen very 
coarsely punctured. The front tilia is armed with three acute 
teeth. 

I have not seen the male. 

Length 12-13 ram. ; breadth G-o mm. 

Bhutan : Maria Basti (L. Durel). 

Type in the British Museum ; co-types in coll. E, Oberthiir. 

M. Oberthiir has kindly presented the type to the J^ational 
Collection. 



98. Glycyphana catena, sp. u. 

"Velvety-black, with the clypeus, legs and lower surface shining, 
the lower surface very minutely and thinly setose ; the pygidium 
(e.\cept a central black spot) and the latera,l 
and posterior margins of the pronotum 
blood-red ; the elytra traversed at the middle 
by a chain of six orange spots, those at the 
outer edges large, the rest small. The meta- 
sternum, bind coxae, and 2nd, 3rd and 4th 
ventral segments are decorated with large 
white patches at the sides. 

The body is long, narrow and depressed. 

The head is short, the chjpeus broadly bilobed 

Fig. 29. and closely punctured. The jj>-o/7(orrt.r is 

Glycyphana catena. transverse, with its anterior part drawn into 

a sharp point as seen from behind. The 

lateral and basal margins are strongly and continuously curved, 

the hind angles obsolete and the base very gently excised before 

the scutellum. The scutellum is very long and narrow ; the elytra 

are striated, tlie sides very deeply sinuated behind the shoulders 

and the apical angles not spinose. The pygidium is minutely 

punctured, the mctasternum smooth in the middle and coarsely 




GLTCTPHANA. 



123 



rugose at the sides, and the abdomen coarsely punctured. The 
front tibia is armed with three acute teeth. 

Length 15 mm. ; breadth 7'5 mm. 

SiKKiM : DarjiUng ; Bhutan : Maria Basti {L. Durel.) 

Type in the British Museum ; co-types in colL E. Oberthiir 
and the Indian Museum. 

I have seen three specimens (all of them males), one of which has 
been kindly given to the British Museum by M. Kene Oberthiir. 



99. Glycyphana binotata. 

Cetonia biHotata, G. ^ P., Monogr. Cet. 1833, p. 250, pi. 47, fig. 5. 
Glycyphana biuotata, Burm., Handh. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 347. 
Glycyphana torquata, Mohn. (nee Fabr.), Arch, fur Naturg. 1871, 

p. 286 ; Gestro, Ann. Mus. Gen. (2) x, 1891, p. 847. 
( 6 ) Glycyphana albomaculata, Mohn., I. c. p. 287. 

Black, witli the upper surface and pygidium velvety, and the 
clypeus, legs and lower surface shining, the prothorax encircled 
with a deep red band, more or less interrupted in the middle of 
the base. In the $ the pygidium has a large patch of the same 
colour ou each side and each elytron has a bright orange-yellow 
patch placed just behind the middle of the outer margin. In the 
S the patches on the pygidium are bright yellow and there are 
two orange spots placed transversely on each elytron, the inner 
spot a httle behind the outer one. The sides of the sternum and 
abdomen are with or without yellow patches. 

The body is long, narrow and very depressed. The head is 
finely and closely punctured, with the clypeus broad and bilobed. 
The pronotum is strongly punctured, very transverse, much 
narrowed in front, where it is sharply elevated in the middle, with 
the hind angles entirely obliterated and the base gently sinuated. 
The scutellum is long and narrow. The elytra are deeply striated 
and have large irregular punctures at the sides, the outer margins 
are strongly sinuated behind the shoulders and the apical angles 
sharp but not spinose. The metasternum is transversely strigose, 
except in the middle, and the abdomen coarsely punctured. The 
leys are short and the tarsi very closely articulated. 

The difference between the sexes has already been described. 

Length 16-17 mm. ; breadth 7-8 mm. 

Tenasseeim : Tavoy, Meetan ; Malay Peniksula ; Java ; 
Borneo. 

All the Burmese specimens I have seen are females and the 
description of the male is therefore taken from the specimens 
collected outside our boundaries. All the Burmese examples 
differ from other females in the larger size of the yellow elytral 
patch, and there may therefore be a corresponding difference in 
males from the same region. 

The male of this species has been generally known as 
O. torquata, F., but incorrectly. 



124 CEToyiix.t. 

100. Glycyphana torquata. 

Cetonia torquata, i\ * S>/st. Eleut. ii, 1801, p. lo7. 

Glycvphaiia torquata, Arrow, A)in. >§• Mar/. Nat. Hist. (7) xix, 

1907, p. 435. 
((5) Glycyphana subcincta, Jariso7i* Cist. Enf. ii, 1881, p. C07. 
Glycypbaua bimacula, Kraatz* Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. 1804, p. 294. 

Black, opaque above, with the frout of the head, the legs and 
the lower surface shining; the pronotum broadly bordered with 
red, which terminates before reaching the front angles and is 
slightly interrupted before the scutellum. The male has a large 
lateral yellow patch upon each elytron just behind the middle, and 
the female two smaller spots placed transversely, anotheranteriorly, 
consisting of two contiguous spots, and one on each side of the 
pygidium. The mesosternal epimera and the sides of the sternum 
and abdomen are also yellow. 

It is elongate, very depressed, and scarcely narrowed behind. 
The head is closely punctured and strongly notched in front. The 
protliorax is finely punctured and rather broad and transverse, 
with the sides strongly rounded, the hind angles obsolete and the 
base gently siuuated. The scutellum is long and blunt, with curvi- 
linear sides. The ehjtra are deeply striated, strongly siuuated 
behind the shotilders, and sharply angular but not spinose at the 
apical angles. The pyrjidium is finely transversely striated. The 
metasternu.ii is smooth ni the middle and coarsely strigose at the 
sides, and the abdomen is moderately punctured. 

I have examined three males and two females, in wliich the 
markings difl;er sexually in the striking manner described. The 
types of G. suhcincta, Jans., and G. bimacula, Kr., are both males 
and exactly agree. The type of Fabricius is identical with a female 
in the British Museum. 

Type in the Copenhagen Museum ; that of subcincta in coll. 
O. E. Janson, and of bimacula in the German Entomological 
National Museum. 

Length 17 mm.; breadth 8'5 mm. 

Andaman Is. 

Fabricius was ignorant of tlie locality from which the specimen 
he described had come, but the habitat " Java " has since been 
attaclied to it, perhaps only from the belief that it was the species 
described from that island as Cetonia binoiata, G. & P. 

101. Glycjrphana nicobarica. 

Glycyphana nicobarica, Janson, Cist. Ent. ii, 1877, p. 144. 

Deep green and opaque above, with the head, legs and lower 
surface olivaceous and shining, and the pygidium brick-red 
and opaque ; decorated with pale yellow markings consisting of 
two minute spots at the back of the head, a narrow marginal line 
on each side of the prothorax and a pair of discoidal spots 
(occasionally with an additional pair anteriorly), the mesosternal 



GLYCTPHANA. 125 

epimera, three discoidal aud four marginal spots on each elytron 
(the 4th occupying the apical angle), two spots at the base and 
two in the lateral angles of the pygidium (sometimes coalescing), 
and the entire sides of the sternum and abdomen. 

The form is depressed, moderately elongate, parallel- sided and 
scarcely narrowing behind. The head is densely punctured and 
moderately notched in front. Thepronotum is sparsely punctured, 
narrower than the elytra, with the sides strongly converging in 
front aud well rounded behind, the posterior augles obsolete and 
the base very feebly and broadly emargiiiate before the scutellura. 
The latter is short, moderately broad at the base aud very blunt at 
the apex. The elytra are feebly punctured, strongly sinuated 
behind the shoulders, and sharply angular but not spinose at the 
apical angles. The pygidium is concentrically striated and the 
metasternum and abdomen are strongly punctured except in the 
middle. The sternal process is truncated and very short. 

The sexes are alike, but the (5 is distinguishable by the shorter 
and sharper spurs of the hind tibiae. 

Length 12-13 mm. ; breadth 5'5-6 mm. 

NiCOBAB Is. 

Type in coll. 0. E. Janson. 

Some examples of a closely related Australian species, G. con- 
spersa, G. & P., almost exactly resemble this in size, colour and 
markings, but they are always a little broader and more strongly 
punctured. 

102. Glycyphana nepalensis. 

Glycyphana nepalensis, Kraatz,* Deutsche JEnt. Zeitschr, 1894, 

p. 294. 
Glvcyphana aspera, Gestro (nee Wallace), Ann. Mus. Gen. (2) 

i, 1891, p. 847. 

Dull olive-green, witli the pygidium brick-red, the pronotum 
and pygidium opaque, the scutellum and elytra moderately shining, 
and the head, legs and lower surface very shining. There are pale 
yellow markings consisting of a pair of minute spots behind the 
eyes, a pair, widely separated, at the middle of the pronotum, and 
another pair placed closer together in front of the last ; and about 
eight minute spots on each elytron. The sides of the pygidium, 
sternum and abdomen are also pale yellow. 

This is a very small, elongate and depressed species. The head 
is densely punctured and not very strongly emarginate in front. 
The pronotum is strongly punctured all over, narrower than the 
elytra but distinctly transverse, with all the angles obsolete, the 
sides strongly curved, and the base gently sinuated. The scutellum 
is long, with curvilinear sides, and very blunt at the apex. The 
elytra are coarsely punctate-striate, with the sides strongly sinuated 
behind the shoulders, and the apical augles acute. The pygidium 
is concentrically striated, and the sternum and abdomen are clothed, 
like the legs, with short yellow sette, except along the middle line, 
where they are smooth and shining. 



126 CETONIIN^. 

The sexes are alike, but the front tibiae of the c^ are a little more 
slender than those of the $ . 

Length 11 mm. ; breadth 5"5 mm. 

Assam : Manipur (Doherfy) ; Buhma : Karen-ni (L. Fea) ; 
Bhutan : Maria Basti. 

Type in the German Entomological National Museum. 

103. Glycyphana festiva, 

Cetonia festiva, F.* Etit. Sysf. i, 2, 1792, p. 147. 
Glycyphana festiva, Burm., Handb. Ent. iv, 1, 1844, p. 565. 
Glycyphana bowriugi, Wallace,* Trans. Ent. Soc. (3) iv, 1868, 
p. 573, pi. 14, fig. 5 (n. syu.). 

Deep olivaceous-green ; the elytra with a yellow oblique stripe 
at the middle of each, extending from the front margin to a little 
before the hind margin, two short and fine transverse white lines 
at the posterior part of the outer margin, and a minute white spot 
in the apical angle ; the prothorax with white patches or lines 
upon the front angles beneath. The mesosterual epimera and the 
sides of the metasternum, hind coxae and abdomen are also white. 
Tbe upper surface is opaque and the head, legs and lower surface are 
shining. The latter parts are sometimes black and the lateral and 
apical margins of the elytra are frequently coloured deep chocolate. 
The margin of the pronotum is sometimes vaguely reddish. 

The form is depressed, moderately elongate and slightly 
narrowing behind. The head is densely punctured and deeply 
notched in front. The 2^ ^'o not um is coarsely punctured, with the 
sides strongly curved, the hind angles rounded off and the base 
trisinuate. The scutellum is short and blunt, and the elytra are 
distinctly punctured in rows, strongly sinuated at the sides and 
very spinose at the apical angles. The pygidhim is coarsely 
rugose, and the sides of the metasternum and the abdomen are 
coarsely punctured. The/;-o)i^ tibia bears two very sharp teeth 
and the third is distant and almost obsolete. 

$ . The front tibia is a little broader than in the male. 

The type-specimen of Fabricius has a white patch on each side 
of the pygidium, but this is most often absent. 

Length 13 mm. ; breadth 6-5 mm. 

Tenassekim : Siam ; Malay Peninsula ; Borneo. 

Type in the Copenhagen University Museum ; that of boivringi 
in the British Museum. 

104. Glycyphana swainsoni. 

Cetouia swainsoni, G. ^- P.* Monogr. Cet. 1833, p. 249, pi. 47, 
fig. 4 ; Schaum, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1844, p. 370. 

Black, with the prothorax, scutellum and elytra (and the pygi- 
dium of the 6 ) opaque ; the pronotum generally with a blood- 
red patch, sometimes confined to each posterior angle and some- 
times ovei'spreadiug the whole upper surface except a triangular 



GLTCTPHANA. 127 

area in front of the scutellum. There are also white or pale yellow- 
markings consisting of a pair of minute spots at the middle of the 
pronotum and a second anterior pair (one or both pairs frequently 
absent), a transverse patch beyond the middle of each elytron, 
adjoining the outer margin, and three minute spots anterior and 
three posterior to this patch (some of them frequently absent). In 
the (S the sides of the pygidium and those of the sternum and 
abdomen are broadly bordered with the same colour. In the $ 
the pygidium is black and shining, and the sides of the abdomen 
are only partially decorated with white. 

The body is depressed and moderately elongate, and the upper 
surface is studded with extremely minute setae. The head is 
finely and closely punctured, and the front margin moderately 
deeply notched in the middle. The prothorax is very short and 
transverse, finely and fairly closely punctured above, with the 
hind angles rounded off and the base sinuated. The scutellum is 
short and very blunt. The elytra are strongly jjunctate-striate, 
with the apical part rugose, the lateral margins strongly sinuated 
behind the shoulders, the apical margins finely serrated and the 
apical angles spinose. The pygidmm is transversely strigose, the 
metasternum and abdomen are sparingly punctured in the middle 
and rugosely at the sides, and the sternal process is very short and 
broad. The uppermost tooth of the front tibia is rather feeble. 

The sexual difference in the coloration of the pygidium and 
abdomen has been described above. 

Length 12-14'5 mm. ; breadth 5-7 mm. 

Assam: Khasi Hills; Bcjkma: Karen Hills; Tenasserim : 
Tavoy (Ahsovvn). 

Type in the Oxford Museum. 

105. Glycyphana andamanensis. 

Glycyphana andamaneusis, Janson, Cist. Ent. n, 1877, p. 143 ; 

Kraatz, Deutsche JEtit. Zeitschr. 1885, p. 15. 
( 2 ) Euryomia andamana, Thorns., Typi Cetonid. 1878, p. 24. 

Dark green, olive, or (in the $ ) black, opaque above, with the 
head, legs and lower surface shining castaueous or blackish ; 
decorated with whitish markings, consisting of a longitudinal line 
on each side of the forehead, a narrow lateral line on each side of 
the pronotum and four small discoidal spots (a pair near the middle 
placed rather wide apart and an anterior pair placed nearer 
together), a minute spot at each anterior angle of the scutellum, 
and about eight irregular spots upon each elytron. There are 
also six spots upon the pygidium, more or less coalescing into an 
encircling line, and a series at the sides of the sternum, bind 
coxae, and abdomen, the latter very small in the $ , but forming 
a continuous broad band in the J . 

The shape is moderately elongate and depressed. The head is 
closely and evenly punctured, except upon the vertex, and rather 
deeply notched at the front margin. The pronotum is strougly 



128 CETOXIIX-E. 

punctured, considerably narrower than the el)'tra, with the sides 
converging strongly in front, almost parallel behind, the hind 
angles rounded off, and the base gently emarginate in the middle. 
The scutellum is rather narrow and very blunt at the apex. The 
ib/tra are rather coarsely puuctate-striate, very strongly sinuated 
behind the shoulders, and acutely spinose at the apical angles. 
The pygidkmi is concentrically strigose and slightly keeled longi- 
tudinally, the metastenium smooth in the middle and coarsely 
punctured at the sides, and the ahdonien very sparsely punctured. 
The sternal process is very short and truncate. 

The (5 is olive-green or brown above, with the lower surface 
green and broadly bordered with yellow. The $ is entirely black, 
with small yellowish spots only at the sides of the abdomen 
beneath. 

Length 13-14 mm. ; breadth 6-7-7 mm. 

Andaman Is. 

Type in coll. 0. E. Janson; that of andarnana in coll. Oberthiir. 

106, Glycyphana malayensis. 

Cetonia malayensis, Gucr., Rev. Zool. 1840, p. 81. 

Glycyphaua malayana, Schaum, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1844, p. 373. 

Deep red, chocolate, olive-green, or indigo, with the head, legs, 
pygidium and lower surface, and the lateral and apical margius of 
the elytra, black, and decorated with white as follows : — a spot on 
each mesosternal epimeron, four placed at equal distances along 
the outer margin of each elytron, one in the apical angle, and one 
a short distance before it, a large patch on each side of the 
pygidium, a row at the sides of the body beneath and an inner 
row upon the metasternum and the basal segments of the abdomen. 
Thei'e is sometimes a minute spot at each front angle of the 
pronotum and occasionally another near each liiiid angle. 

The body is rather broad and flat, not narrowing behind, opaque 
above and sliiuing beneath. The head is densely punctured and 
the chjpens deeply notched in front. The prothorax is strongly, 
but not closely, punctured, except near the sides, the lateral 
margins are angulated in the middle, the hind angles indicated, 
the base wide and deeply and abruptly emarginate in the middle. 
The scutellum is moderately long and blunt. The elytra are 
irregularly punctate-striate, except at the sides and apices, which 
are very coarsely and irregularly punctured. They are strongly 
sinuated behind the shoulders and acutely spinose at the apical 
angles. The pygidium is rugose and clothed with yellowish setae, 
and the sides of the metasternum and abdomen are coarsely rugose. 
The sternal 2»-ocess is prominent and nearly circular. The front 
tibiee are rather stout and strongly and sharply bidentate. 

The two sexes are almost alike, but the teeth of the front tibiae 
are a very little more acute in the J . 

Length 17-20 mm. ; breadth S-5-10 mm. 

BuBMA : Karen Hills ; Malay Peninsula ; Sumatra ; Borneo. 



GLTCOSIA.. 129 

Genus GLYCOSIA. 
Glycosia, Schoch, Ent. Nachr. 1896, p. 80. 

Ttpe, Cetonia tricolor, Oliv. 

Mange. India and the Malayan Eegion. 

Form flattened, rather broad at the shoulders. Head rather 
small, with the clypeus bilobed and not reflexed at the margin. 
Prothorax short, narrow in front and broad at the base, with the 
hind angles well marked, and the base narrowly and abruptly 
emarginate in the middle. Scutellura small, not very blunt at the 
apex. Elytra strongly sinuated behind the shoulders. Sternal 
process prominent, rather compressed and generally directed 
obliquely downwards. Legs moderately slender, the front tibia 
armed with three acute teeth and the hind tibia not digitate at 
the extremity. 

cf . The prothorax is broader at the base than in the other sex, 
and the spurs of the hind tibiae are more slender and acute. 

Key to tJie Species. 

1 (4) Sternal process vertical in front. 

2 (3) Pronotum opaque, with red margin . . tricolor, Oliv., p. 129. 

3 (2) Pronotum shining, black hiplagiata, Arrow, p. 130. 

4 (1) Sternal process produced forwards . . hictifera, Fairm., p. 131. 

107. Glycosia tricolor. 

Cetonia tricolor, Oliv., Ent. i, 6, 1789, p. 88, pi. 12, fig. 116 ; G. ^' P., 

Monogr. Cet. 1833, p. 245, pi. 46, fig. 4. 
Glycypbaua tricolor, Burm., Handb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 346. 
Glycosia plagiata, Schoch, Ent. Nachr. 1896, p. 86 ; Kraatz, 

Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. 1896, p. 376. 

Black, with the head, legs and lower surface shining, and the 
prothorax, scutellum, elytra and pygidium opaque ; the pygidium, 
mesosternal epimera and lateral margins of the pronotum (some- 
times also the hind margin, except in the middle) blood-red ; each 

elytron decorated near the 
middle with a large pale 
yellow patch, irregularly 
triangular in shape, the 
base resting upon the outer 
margin and the apex bent 
obliquely backwards and 
nearly reaching the inner 
margin. There is some- 
times a Hne of white spots 
on each side of the abdomen 
beneath. 

F\g.m.-Glycosia tricolor, The form is yery de- 

and diagrammatic lateral view. pressed, with the Sides of 

the elytra rather straight 
and narrowing slightly to the extremity. The head is strongly 




130 CETONIIN^. 

punctured, except in the middle, which is a little elevated, and 
the chjpeus is strongly bilobed. The pronotum is coarsely and 
deeply punctured, the sides strongly margined, the hind angles 
prominent and the base narrowly but strongly emarginate in the 
middle. The scutellum is small and not very blunt at the apex. 
The eli/tra are striate-punctate, with the sides very strongly 
sinuated behind the shoulders and the posterior margins a little 
excised near the apical angles, which are acute. The pyijidium is 
slightly pitted, the sides of the metasternum are coarsely strigose, 
and those of the abdomen sparingly punctured. The sternal 
process is vertical in front and the point directed downwards. 

S . The front tibise and the hind tarsi are a little more slender 
and the prothorax broader at the base. 

Lencjtli 17-19 mm. ; breadth 9-10 mm, 

SiKKiM : Ehenok (Bretandeau) ; Bengal: Barrackpur, Chota 
Nagpur ; Ceylon : Wellawaya (Mitschlx). 

Yar, nagpurensis, no v. 

A series of specimens in M. Kene Oberthiir's collection, and 
taken by M. E. P, Cardon during 1896 and 1897 at Nowatoli 
and Palkot, in Chota Xagpur, belong to a well-marked variety, in 
which the pale elytral patch is greatly enlarged, being fully half 
as long as the elytron, and presenting a rounded lobe in front 
and two similarly rounded lobes behind. 

Ti/2^e in the British Museum ; cotypes in coll. E, Oberthlir. 

108. Glycosia biplagiata. 

Glycosia biplagiata, Arrow,* Ami. >§• Maf/. Nat. Hist. (7) xix, 
1907, p. 351, 

Shining black, with the elytra opaque and sooty, except at the 
inner margins, and with a lemon-yellow patch beyond the middle of 
each, broad at the outer margin and pointed at its inner extremitv. 

The form is depressed, broad at the shoulders, with the 
head small, and the elytra straight at the sides and strongly 
narrowing towards the extremity. The Jiead is strongly punc- 
tured, with the chipeus long, narrowing towards the front, where 
it is rather deeply notched. The prothora.v is convex, coarsely 
punctured, with the sides strongly margined and angulated in the 
middle. The scutellum is rather small, pointed, and impunctate. 
The elytra are coarsely striate-punctate, \\ ith the margins strongly 
sinuated behind the shoulders and minutely excised at the ex- 
tremities, and the apical angles acute. The pygidhnn is feebly 
punctured and the metasternum and abdomen coarsely so, except at 
the middle. The sternal process is vertical in front and the point 
directed downwards. The front tibuv are tridentate in tlie female, 
but the uppermost tooth is almost obsolete in the male. In the 
latter the prothorax is broader at the base and the apical angles of 
the elytra are strongly spinose. 



GLTCOSIA. 131 

Length 20 mm. ; hreadih lO'o mm. 
Andaman Is. ; (?) Buema : Kangoon. 
Type in the British Museum. 

A specimen in the Indian Museum is labelled ' Eangoon," 
but perhaps incorrectly. 

109. Glycosia luctifera. 

Glycypliana luctifera, Fail m.,* Ann, Soc. Ent. France, 1878, p. 107, 

pL3,fig.7. 
Glycosia louisae, Fairm.,* Bull. Soc. Ent. Irance, 1888, p. 35. 

Velvety-black, with the head, legs, and lower surface shining 
black, the femora and tibiae fringed with long golden hairs and 
the lower surface very thinly clothed with setae. The lateral 
margins of the prothorax, the mesosternal epimera and two spots 
upon the pjgidium are deep blood-red, and there are markings of 
white or pale yellow, subject to great reduction, but consisting 
typically of two spots on the vertex of the head, a circle of from 
eight to twelve upon the pronotum, two or thi'ee in each posterior 
angle, a longitudinal median line continued upon the scutellum, a 
lateral patch beyond the middle of each elytron, with a minute spot 
close to its inner edge, three spots in a triangle at the apex 
of each and an irregular swarm of minute spots extending to the 
shoulder. There are also two or four pale spots placed trans- 
versely upon the pygidium and two rows on each side of the body 
beneath. 

The body is depressed, rather elongate, and only slightly nar- 
rowed behind. The clypeus is strongly punctured and rather 
deeply notched in front. The pronotum is short, much narrowed 
in front, broad at the base and deeply and narrowly emarginate 
before the scutellum. The elytra are punctate-striate, deeply 
sinuated behind the shoulders and spinose at the apical angles. 
The pycjidium is a little punctured, the metasiemum rugose, and 
the abdomen almost smooth. The sternal process is rounded and 
prominent and directed obliquely forward. The front tibia is 
armed with three sharp teeth. 

<5 . The uppermost tooth of the front tibia is minute and 
distant from the other two, the hind tibia bears a thick fringe at 
the inner edge and the spurs are sharp-pointed. 

Length 19-23 mm.; breadth 10-12*5 mm. 

Bhutan ; Sikkim : Karsiang ; W. China : Yunnan, Su-Tchuen, 
Tsekou. 

Type in coll. E. Oberthiir ; also that of louisce. 

In the type form from Central China the red markings described 
above are absent. The var. louisce possesses both these and the 
pale marks enumerated. In the only two Indian examples I have 
seen the red markings are present, but the white pattern is 
restricted on the upper surface to the posterior half of the 

elytra. 
■^ k2 



132 CETONIIN.i:. 



Genus CETONIA. 



Cetonia, Fab., Syst. Eitt. i, 1775, p. 52; Reitter, Deutsche Ent. 

Zeitschr. 1891, p. 51. 
Cetonia, subgenus Cetonia, Mulsant, Col. de France, Lamell. 1871, 

p. 069. 
Eucetonia, Schoch, Mitth. Schweiz. Ent. Ges. ix, 1894, p. 211. 

Type, Scarahceus av.ratus, L. (the Eose-beetle of Great Britain). 

Range. Europe and Continental Asia. 

Clypeus bilobed, not reflexed in front. Head with two pits 
between the eyes, separated by a narrow carina. Prothorax 
rather triangular, strongly excised before the scutellum. Scutellum 
rather narrow, blunt at the apex. Lateral margins of the elytra 
strongly sinuated and apical angles sharp. Pygidium granulated. 
Sternal process moderately long, shghtly compressed, blunt, and 
directed a little downwards. Front tibite tridentate ; middle and 
hind tibiae fringed along the inner edge, the middle ones armed 
with a strong tooth at the outer edge, the hind ones bluntly digi- 
tated at the extremity. 

S . Spur of the hind tibia slight and sharp. 
$ . Inner spur of the hind tibia stout and broadly truncate. 
Last ventral segment more closely punctured than in tlie S • 



Key to the Species. 

1 (4) Ventral segments not spotted at the 

posterior angles. 

2 (3) Pronotum decorated with two white lines. ifM-sowt, We3tw.,p. 132. 

3 (2) Pronotum without white lines rutilans, Jans., p. 133. 

4(1) Four anterior ventral segments with lateral 

white spots. 

5 (6) Anterior ventral segments almost smooth, tem-pw^r/sjsp.n.jp. 134. 

6 (5) Anterior ventral segments with numerous 

crescentie impressions rhododendri, Gestro, 

[p. 134. 

110. Cetonia bensoni. 

Protpetia bensoni, Westw.,* Trans. Ent. Soc. Land. vol. v, 1849, 
p. 145, pi. 16, tig. 3. 

Bright coppexy or golden-green, with the pronotum, scutellum 
and elytra deep green and opaque, and the head, legs and lower 
surface shining ; decorated with whitish markings, consisting of 
an oblique line on each side of the pronotum, not reaching the 
front or hind margin and sometimes interrupted ; a broken trans- 
verse line upon each elytron adjoining the outer margin con- 
siderably behind the middle, another behind the last, adjoining 
the inner margin, a spot near the apical angle and a few others 
scattered irregularly ; a small spot near each lateral angle of the 
pygidium, and an iticonspicuous line of spots along each side of 
the abdomen beneath. 




CETONIA. 133 

The body is depressed, broader than the other species of this 
genus, and not perceptibly narrowed towards the extremity. The 
surface, except in worn specimens, is clothed above and below 
with yellow hairs or setse, short upon the upper surface and 

absent from the middle of 
the pronotum, metasternum 
and abdomen. The head is 
strongly punctured and deeply 
notched at the front margin. 
The pronotum is very coarsely 
punctured and its sides gently 
curved. The scutellum is long 
and unpunctured. The elytra 
have each two well-marked 
costae ; they are strongly 
punctured between and out- 
Fig. ^\.— Cetonia bcnsoni, and lateral gj^jg ^^^gg^ ^nd rugose at the 
Tiew showing the mesosternal process. ^j^^^ ^^^ ^^-^^^^ ,^^^ ^j^^^ 

are strongly sinuated behind 
the shoulders and do not converge towards the extremities, which 
are broad, with the sutural angles slightly spinose. The pygidium 
is finely granulated, the metasternum rugose at the sides, and 
the abdomen strongly punctured except in the middle. The two 
terminal teeth of the front tibia are very sharp and slender. 

Length 19-21 mm. ; breadth 10-12 mm. 

PimjAB : Campbellpur ; Ui^ited Provinces : Naini Tal, Lan- 
daur (May and June). 

Ty2)e in the Oxford Museum. 

The original discoverer, Benson, reported that this species 
" appears late in the season and frequents the flowers of Syn- 
genesious plants." 

111. Cetonia rutilans. 

Glycyphana rutilans, Janson,* Cist. Ent. ii, 1881, p. 607. 

Coppery-red, with the pronotum, scutellum and elytra opaque 
green, and the head, legs and lower surface shining and clothed 
with yellow hairs ; decorated with a pair of minute white spots 
placed transversely at the middle of the pronotum, a transverse 
white line adjoining the outer margin of each elytron considerably 
behind the middle and another posterior to it adjoining the inner 
margin, with sometimes a few inconspicuous scattered spots 
anteriorly, and a minute spot near each lateral angle of the 
pygidium. The lower surface is immaculate. 

Moderately depressed in shape and not much narrowed behind. 
The clypeus is strongly punctured, broadly emarginate in front and 
not narrowed. The pronotum is strongly but sparingly punc- 
tured, with the sides strongly margined, contracted in front and 
rather feebly angulated in the middle. The scutellum is long and 



134 CETONiiy^. 

narrow. The elytra are strongly punctured, distinctly bicostate 
on the disc, and rugosely punctured at the sides and apex. The 
sides are strongly sinuated behind the shoulders and the apical 
angles are slightly spinose. The piiriidrnm is very finely granu- 
lated and hairy, the meiastermim corrugated and hairy, except 
along the middle line, and each segment of the ahdomen (except 
the last) has a transverse line of punctures along the middle, very 
strong and confluent laterally. 

The abdomen is slightly hollowed in the S , and the inner spur 
of the hind tibia is very blunt in the $ . 

Leiujth 17-21 mm. ; breadth 9-10 mm, 

Nepal ; Sikkim : Darjiling, Karsiaug. 

Type in coll. O. E. Janson. 

112. Cetonia laeviventris, sp. n. 

Metallic green, with the pronotum, scutellum, elytra and pygi- 
dium opaque, and the head, legs and lower surface shining and 
clothed with yellow hairs. There is a minute whitish spot on each 
side of the disc of the prothorax, a transverse lateral line con- 
siderably behind the middle of each elytron, an interior one 
behind it, a spot near the apical angle, four spots in a transverse 
line upon the pygidium, and a short white line at the hind angle 
of each of the four anterior ventral segments. 

The shape is very elongate and depressed. The head is strongly 
punctured and the clypeus broadly notched. The pronotvm is 
very transverse, sparingly punctured, with the sides gently 
rounded and the base strongly sinuated on each side. The elytra 
are moderately punctured, feebly bicostate behind, rugose at the 
sides and apices and strongly sinuated behind the shoulders. 
The pyyidium is rather coarsely granulated, the metasternum 
rugose and hairy at the sides, and the abdomen almost smooth. 

Lenyth 20-22 mm. ; breadth 11-12 nnn. 

Assam: JNlauipur, Naga Hills (TT. Doherty). 

Type in the British Museum. 

This species very closely resembles C. rulilans, Jans., from 
which it is most easily distinguished by its almost unpunctured 
abdonien and the four white spots or lines on each side. It is 
also larger, the prothorax is less elongate, and the pygidium more 
coarsely granulated. 

113. Cetonia rliododendri. 

Cetonia ihododendri, Gestro,* Ann. Mus. Geneva, (2) x, 1891, 

p. 847. 
Cetonia purpurascens, Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. 1897, p. 405. 
Eucetonia assamica, Schoch, Mittli. Schiceiz. Ent. Ges. x, 1898, 

p. 181. 

Coppery-red, with the pronotum, scutellum and elytra deep 
chocolate, velvety and opaque, and the head, legs and lower 



CETONIA. — iETHIESSA. 135 

surface shining and more or less clothed with yellow hairs : 
decorated with very minute whitish spots as follows : — a pair 
placed transversely at the middle of the pronotum and a second 
pair closer together in front ; a spot at the extreme apex of the 
scutellum ; about nine on each elytron, four along the base of tlie 
pygidium, and one in each hind angle of the four anterior ventral 
segments. 

The body is rather narrow and distinctly tapers behind. The 
clypeus is strongly and closely punctured, slightly narrowed in 
front and moderately notched at the apex. The protlioraoo is dis- 
tinctly, but not closely, punctured on the disc and more rugosely 
at the sides, which are gently curved, without a distinct angu- 
lation. The scutellum is unpunctured and not very long. The 
elytra are rather strongly punctured, with the apical part rugose 
and with two distinct costse on the disc of each. The lateral 
margins are strongly sinuated and the apical angles shghtly 
spinose. The pygidium is finely gi-anulated, the metasternum 
closely punctured and hairy, except along the middle line, and 
the abdomen strongly but sparingly punctured. 

$ . The last ventral segment is closely punctured and the inner 
spur of the hind tibia squarely truncated. 

Lenr/th 16-19 mm.; breadth 9-11 mm. 

United Peoyinces : Almora ; Sikkim : Karsiang ; Assam : Jaintia 
Hills, Khasi Hills ; Burma : Shan States, Mt. Mulaiyit ; Siam. 

Type in the Genoa Museum ; that of assamica in coll. Witte 
(Diisseldorf). 

The first described specimen was found upon Rhododendron 
flowers in Burma by Leonardo Fea. 



Genus ^THIESSA. 
^thiessa, Bm-meister, Handb. Ent. iii, 1812, p. 405. 

Type, Cetonia feralis, Erichs. (Algeria), 

Range. The Palaearctic Eegion. 

Form compact and moderately elongate. Clypeus transverse, 
reflexed in front and scarcely notched. Prothorax narrow in 
front, with the base incUned at the sides and abruptly emar- 
ginate in the middle. Scutellum moderately long, bluntly rounded 
at the apex. Elytra sinuated at the sides and acute at the apical 
angles. Propygidium projecting at an angle in the middle. 
Sternal process very short, flat and dilated in front of the middle 
coxae. Eront tibia armed with three teeth ; middle tibia sharply 
spinose at the extremity ; hind tibia not spinose. Tarsi mode- 
rately slender, the basal joint in the hind pair short and produced 
externally into a sharp spine. 

(S . Abdomen excavated beneath. Tarsi longer and stouter. 

The only species which appears to extend into our region is the 
following : — 



136 CETONUN-ai. 

114. ^thiessa "bagdadensis. 

^thiessa bagdadensis, Burm., Handb. Eiit. iii, 1842, p, 414. 
jEthiessa rugipennis, Burm., I. c. p. 417. 

Cetonia squamosa, Fald. (nee G. 4' -^*-)) JNour. Mem. Soc. Lnp. 
Moscnii, iv, 1835, p. 301, pi. 10, fig. 7. 

Steel-blue, shining, with slight white marks, forming traces 
(sometimes absent) of three transverse bars beyond the middle of 
the elytra, a spot on each side of the pygidium, and a narrow line 
on each side of the posterior margin of each of the first four 
abdominal segments. 

The bcidy is moderately elongate. The dypeus is rather long 
and rugosely punctured. The pronotum is strongly and rather 
evenly punctured, with the sides gently bisinuated and the hind 
angles moderately sharp. The scutelliim is smooth, and the elytra 
are coarsely wrinkled transversely and irregularly pitted with very 
large annular punctures ; there is a broad depression at the inner 
posterior half of each elytron. The propyciidium and pygidium 
are finely transversely strigose, the metasternum coarsely punc- 
tured in the middle, rugose at the sides and thinly setose, and the 
abdomen nearly smooth. 

S . The uppermost tooth of the front tibia is distant from the 
other two and very feeble, the abdomen is strongly arched and 
excavated, and the last ventral segment, like the rest, almost 
smooth. 

5 . The clypeus is more rugose, the last ventral segment 
closely punctured, and the pygidium impressed on each side. 

Length 15-18 mm. ; breadth 8"5-9"5 mm. 

Baluchistan : ^N'ushki District ; Afghanistan ; Persia. 



Genus PROT^TIA. 

Protajtia, Burmeister, Handb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 472. 

Cetonia, subg. Protaetia, Larordaire, Gen. des CoUopt. iii, 18oG, 

p. 530. 
Cetonia, subg. Potosia, Muls., Col. de France, 1871, p. 609. — Type, 

Cetonia speciosissima, Scop. 
Oxyperas, T/totns., Le Katuraliste, 1880, p. 278. — Type, Cetonia 

spectabilis, Schaum. 
Eumimimetica, Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr, 1881, p. 264. — 

Type, Cetonia {Anoplochilus) terrosa, G. & P. 
Pseudanthracophora, Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. 1898, p. 407. — 

Type, Cetonia striatipenuis, Kr. ( =C'. terrosa, G. Sc 1*.). 
Pseudaplasta, Kraatz, I. c. p. 93. — Type, P. cinerea, Kr. 
Eucetonia, Kraatz (nee Schoch). 
Pseudanatona, Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. 1895, p. 112. — Type, 

Cetonia cupripes, AVied. 

Type, Cetonia spectahilis, Schaum (Sumatra). 
Range. Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia. 
Porm compact, with the legs generally robust. Clypeus simple, 
more or less reflexed at the front margin and not, or very slightly, 



PEOTiETIA. 137 

emarginate. Prothorax with the base inclined on each side and 
abruptly emarginate in the middle. Scutellum moderately long, 
with the apex blunt and rounded. Elytra sinuated laterally behind 
the shoulders, with the apical angles acute, frequently spinose. 
Front tibia ax*med with two or three short teeth, except in the d" 
of P. albogiUtata. Hind tibia truncated at the end. Sternal 
process short and flattened, widened in front of the middle coxse and 
straight or broadly rounded in front, except in P. confusa. 

Except in P. albogntlata, the sexes are closely similar and the 
abdomen is rai-ely excavated or arched in the male. The spurs 
of the hind tibiae, however, are always shorter and sharper in that 
sex, and the last ventral segment is smoother. In some of the 
species the anterior edge of the clypeus bears two recurved teeth 
which are feebler or quite absent in the female. 

This is a very large and polymorphic genus, which may be 
regarded as the central mass of the subfamily froui which other 
genera diverge iu all directions. Such a niass is found in nearly 
every large group and the difficulty of fixing its limits is invariably 
very great. Tentative efforts to divide it into smaller genera are 
often made, but are generally doomed to failure as the number of 
known species increases. In the present case numerous so-called 
genera have been formed for single species, or upon the strength 
of features peculiar to one sex, and I have found it necessary to 
abandon several of these which have failed to stand the test of 
tabulation. 

In the key which follows, one species, P. alboguttata, Vigors, is 
omitted, because it is difficult to find any features, except colour 
and marking, which are common to the two sexes and which 
would not be liable to mislead if used for the purpose of tabula- 
tion. Such marked dimorphism is entirely abnormal iu the 
present genus, and it would be desirable to form a new genus or 
subgenus for this species but that the female presents no really 
distinctive characters, and indeed is very similar to P. lonrji- 
pennis, etc. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (16) Surface of the body without opaque 

bloom. 

2 (15) Surface of the body metallic. 

3 (10) Thorax (and generally the whole body) 

Avithout pale markings. 

4 (5) Surface not very shining cuprea, F., p. 130. 

5 (4) Surface very shining. 

6 (7) Legs green or blue pretiosa, Nonf.,p. 141, 

7 (6) Legs fiery red. 

8 (9) Elytra without transverse pale markings, atiripes, Hope, p. 141. 

9 (8) Elytra decorated with transverse pale 

markings wow^aMa,Nonf.,p.l42. 

10 (3) Thorax decorattid with pale markings. [p. 143. 

11 (12) Thorax decorated with minute spots . . orientalis, G. &P., 

12 (11) Thoraa: decorated with irregular patches. 



138 cetoniinjE. 

13 (14) Colour brouze aurichalcea, F., p. 143. 

14 (13) Colour blue-black perefjrina, Ilerbst, 

15 (2) Surface of the body dark blue, not [p. 144. 

metallic 2??i/?fli,7V7fl', Jans., p.l45. 

16 (1) Upper surface partly or entirely covered 

with an opaque bloom. 

17 (56) Mesonotum transverse before the coxse. 

18 (37) Upper surface decorated with definite 

spots or not at all. 

19 (30) Front tibia tridentate externally. 

20 (25; Surface of bodv metallic. 

21 (24) Body elongate.' [p. 146. 

22 (23) Prothorax very transverse lont/ipetims, sp. n., 

23 (22) Prothorax not distinctly transverse .... cauaata, sp. n., p. 147. 

24 (21) Body short and massive j)i-unina, sp. n., p. 147. 

25 (20) Surface of body not metallic. 

26 (29) Large, depressed and decorated with 

large spots. 

27 (28) Elytral spots not confined to outer [p. 148. 

margins andainanarum, Jans., 

28 (27) Elytral spots confined to outer margins, ichitehousei, Schaum, 

29 (26) Small, convex, and decorated with [p. 148. 

minute spots cinerea. Kr., p. 149. 

30 (19) Front tibia bi- or uni-dentate externally. 

31(32) Sides of pronotum white-bordered .... cj//j?*i]pes,Wied., p. 150. 

32 (31) Sides of pronotum not bordered. 

33 (36) Clypeus not notched in front. 

34 (35) Upper surface without pale markings . . vianis, Wall., p. 151. 

35 (34) Upper surface decorated with large yel- 

low spots 7V^aZw,Blanch.,p.l52. 

36 (33) Clypeus deeply notched in front bidentipes, Arrow, 

37 (18) Upper surface decorated with an in- [p. 153. 

definite grey or yellow tracery. 

38 (45) Apical angles of elytra spinose. 

39 (42) Upper surface entirely ojiaque. 

40 (41) Scutellum rather long and pointed .... rana, sp. n., p. 153. 

41 (40) Scutellum very short and blunt fusca, Herbst, p. 154. 

42 (39) Upper surface partly shining. 

43 (44) Front tibia tridentate anwmiafa, F., p. 155. 

44 (43) Front tibia bidentate bhiffhami, sp.n., 1^.156. 

45 (38) Apical angles of elytra not spinose. 

46 (51) Mesosterual process setose. 

47 (48) Surface of body black ierrosa,G. & P., p. 157. 

48 (47) Surface of body metallic. 

49 (50) Body bronzy, clothed with fine close 

hair ca??wsa,We9tw., p. 158. 

50 (49) Body fiery-red, clothed with coarse erect [p. 158. 

sette squamipennis, Burm., 

61 (46) Mesosternal process bare. 

52 (55) Elytra rugoscly punctured. [p. 159. 

53 (54) Body and tarsi rather long hieroglyphica, M(Sn., 

54 (53) Body and tarsi short neglecta, Hope, p. 160. 

65 (52) Elytra simply and sparsely punctured . . cariana, Ge.^^tro, p. 161. 
56 (17) Mesosternum produced, narrow (not di- 
lated before the middle coxae) co??/Msa,G.(fcP.,p. 161. 



PEOTiETIA. 139 

lu the Munich Catalogue P. mixta, Y, is quoted as an Indian 
species. I have examined the type of this from the Copenhagen 
Museum and find it to be a species only known to occur in 
Sumatra. The same specimen was the original of Weber's 
description, published earlier than that of Fabricius, and quoted 
by the latter. The Munich Catalogue therefore also errs in 
treating the species as synonymous with our P. fti.sca (mandarina, 
Weber). 

115. Protaetia cuprea. 

Cetonia cuprea, F., St/st. Ent. 1775, p. 48 ; G. ^- P., Monogr. Cet. 

1833, p. 192, pi. 34, tig. 3. 
Cetonia liorentina, Herhst, JVotursi/st. Kiif. iii, 1790, p. 210 ; G. ^' P., 

Mono(jr. 1833, p. 191, pi. 34, fig. 2. 
Cetonia metallica, F., Ent. Syst. i, 2, 1792, p. 128 ; Syst. El. ii, 1801, 

p. 138 ; G. &f P., Monocjr. Cet. 1833, p. 190, pi. 34, fig. 1 ; Reitter, 

Deutsche Ent. Zeitsclir. xxxv, 1891, p. 63. 

Olivaceous-green, brassy or coppery, with the pygidium, lower 
surface and legs lurid green, red or purple, and sometimes with 
the head and the extreme edges of the prothorax and elyti-a tinged 
with the same colour. The prothorax and scutellum are frequently 
rosy or fiery red. The upper surface is smooth, but not highly 
glazed, and the lower surface is very sparsely clothed with 
yellowish hairs. 

The body is moderately stout and not much depressed above. 
The head is strongly and closely punctured and the clypeus 
quadrate, with the front margin strongly reflexed and very lightly 
excised in the middle. The 2^^^onotum is finely (sometimes very 
finely) and rather uniformly punctured, rather convex, strongly 
margined and very gently curved at the sides, and narrowly and 
deeply emarginate in the middle of the base. The scutellum is 
quite smooth and moderately long and pointed. The elytra have 
each a well-marked broad depression adjoining the suture upon 
the posterior half, in which there are fines of horseshoe-shaped 
impressions. In front of the depressions they are only very 
minutely punctured, and at the sides more strongly and closely. 
The lateral margins are gently sinuated behind the shoulders, and 
the apical angles sharp but not spinose. T\iQ pygid'nnn is finely 
transversely corrugated, the metasternum less finely corrugated at 
the sides, and the abdomen almost smooth. The sternal process 
is flat and transversely oval in shape. The front tibia is armed 
with three slight sharp teeth, and the Jiind tibia has a fringe of 
yellow hairs at the inner edge. 

The last ventral segment is finely punctured in the J and 
rugose in the 2 • 

Length 17-25 mm. ; breadth 9-5-13 mm. 

SiND : Karachi ; Peesia ; Stbia ; Asia Mixor ; Balkan 
Peninsula; Italy. 



140 CBTONIIN.I. 

Various accounts have been published by Continental entomo- 
logists of the habits o£ this very common and widely-distributed 
insect, which in Europe is frequently confused with the common 
-Rose-beetle (Cetonia aurata, L.), which it considerably resembles. 
In its adult form it feeds voraciously upon the juices of ripe fruit 
and other sweet liquids, and M. Pabre has watched them absorbing 
for a fortnight without intermission the juice of fruit supplied to 
them. This is during the summer and autumn following their 
emergence. The succeeding winter is passed (in Europe) iu 
quiescence below the surface of the ground, and ovipositiou does 
not take place until the following year. The female deposits her 
eggs in accumulations of decaying leaves or other vegetable matter, 
or by preference in nests of the large AVood-Ants (Formica rufa 
and praUasis), burrowing a short distance below the surface for 
that purpose. The larvse spend two or three years feeding upon 
the vegetable substance which they find at hand. Mr. Weaver is 
repoi'ted, in the Proceedings of tlie Entomological Society, 1851, 
p. 105, to have stated that he saw large quantities of the ants' 
eggs devoured by the larvje, but it is probable that this was only 
due to their being removed from the nest and kept without other 
suitable food. Larvae of various ages are commonly found together, 
the youngest according to Wasmaun (Deutsche Eutomologische 
Zeitschrift, 1887, xxxi, p. 45) generally living in the deeper parts 
of the nest and those more advanced nearer the surface, where the 
cocoon is also found. The latter is similar to a pigeon's egg in 
size and shape, and formed by the agglutination of fragments of 
the food-material, the interior being coated with matter apparently 
exuded from the intestine, producing a perfectly smooth and 
shining surface. The construction of the cocoon appears to 
be the chief function of the legs, progression being accomplished 
by the movements of the dorsal segments. After a period of one, 
two, or three months in the pupal stage the beetle ruptures the 
cocoon and makes its way above ground. The ants seem to 
resent the intrusion of the beetle into their nest, but owing to 
its hard exterior can scarcely injure, although they may hinder, it. 
The larvje, however, are left undisturbed unless they give some 
special offence, and appear also to be to some extent protected by 
the toughness of their skin and tlie stiff bristles with which it is 
studded. 

This larva is preyed upon by the parasitic wasp, ScoJia hifasciata^ 
the female of which seeks it out and, having paralysed it by 
stinging it in the ventral ganglion-mass, places an egg upon it. 
The issuing grub speedily devours the immobile victim, and having 
reduced it to an empty skin, forms its cocoon beside it. 

The life-history of many other species of Cetonun.!: is 
probably similar in the main to that of Proiotia cuprea. 



PROT^TIA. 141 

116. Protaetia pretiosa. 

Cetonia pretiosa, Nonfr., Deutsche Eyit. Zeitschr. 1891 , p. 270. 
Potosia cevlanica, Schoch,* Mitfh. Schiveiz. £nt. Ges. ix, 1894, 
p. 188. 

Entirely deep golden-green or blue-green, with the tarsi gene- 
rally deep blue ; very smooth and shining and without markings 
or clothing, except some pale yellow liairs upon the legs and a 
few very minute setse upon the sides of the metasternum. 

It is a broad, robust and moderately convex species. The Jiead 
is relatively small, scantily punctured, with the clypeus rather 
quadrate, the front margin strongly reflexed and very feebly 
notched. The prothorax is strongly punctured at the sides and 
scantily or not at all in the middle : it is narrow in front and 
strongly and rapidly dilated towards the base, the sides being little 
curved and the hind angles moderately distinct. The basal 
margin is not strongly excised before the saUellum, and the latter 
is rather short and triangular, without punctures except at the 
base. The elytra are minutely and scantily punctured in rows, 
with rather stronger scattered punctures near the apex. The 
pygidium is decorated with transverse striations, the sides of the 
metasternum are very coarsely strigose, and the abdomen is almost 
smooth beneath. The sternal process is short and broad, but 
slightly prominent, the front tibia has three very short teeth and 
the hind tibia has a fringe of short yellow hairs and is rather 
digitate at the end. 

c? . The apical angles of the elytra are sharply produced and 
the pygidium is lightly strigose. 

5 . The puncturation is stronger than in the S , and the 
pygidium and last ventral segment are closely strigose. 

Length 22-27 mm. ; breadth 12'o-15 mm. 

Ceylon ; Tratancore : Trivandrum ; W. Bengal : Chota 
Nagpur ; Lower Burma : Tayokehmaw ; Tenasserim ; Siam ; 
Annam. 

Type in coll. Nonfried : that of ceylanica in the Polytechnikum, 
Ziirich. 

This is probably the species recorded by Berge (Ann. Soc. Ent. 
Belg. 1892, p. 240) from Mandar, Bengal, as Cetonia speciosissima. 

117. Protaetia anripes. 

Cetonia auripes, Hope,* Gray^s Zool. Misc. 1831, p. 24. 
Cetonia ignipes, Burm., Handb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 465. 

Bright metallic green, with the tibiae and tarsi fiery red, very 
smooth and shining above and beneath, and without clothing, 
except slight fringes upon the legs. 

The form is rather short, compact and convex. The head is 
punctured all over, with the front margin regularly rounded and 
slightly reflexed. The prothorax is smooth, except for a few 



142 CETONIIN.i;. 

minute punctures near the margins ; it is very narrow in front 
and broad behind, with the sides nearly straiglit, but feebly angu- 
lated before the middle, and the hind angles ^\•ell marked. The 
scideUam is unpunctured and very blunt, and the eh/tra are very 
shining, with minute scattered punctures near the sides and broad 
sliallow depressions beyond the middle ; the apical angles are 
sharp but scarcely produced. The pyrjidium is punctured all over 
and has a shallow depression on each side. The metasternum is 
smooth in the middle and rugosely punctured at the sides, and 
the abdomen almost smooth. The sternal j'^'ocess is very short and 
broad and the legs are stout, the front tibia being armed with 
three very short but sharp teeth, and all the tarsi shoi-t and thick. 

cJ . The teeth of the front tibia are very feeble and the 
abdomen is a little hollowed beneath. 

Length 19-21 mm. ; breadth 10-12 mm. 

Nepal ; Assam : Sibsagar (Atkriison). 

T;/pe in the British Museum ; that of ignipes in the Geneva 
Museum. 

In the type specimen (but in no other that I have seen) there 
are two very minute white marginal spots behind the shoulder of 
each elytron and one at the posterior margin. 

118. Protaetia montana. 

Cetonia moutana, Nunfr., Berlin. Eat. Zcltschr. xxxvi, 1892, 
p. 371. 

Bright metallic green and very smooth, with the tibiie and tarsi 
fiery red, and the elytra decorated with two narrow transverse 
white stripes beyond the middle. 

The form is very robust and convex. The head is punctured 
all over and the clgpeal margin retlexed and nearly straight in 
front. The j^i'onotian is smooth, except for large scattered punc- 
tures near the front and sides. It is narrow in front and the 
sides and base are strongly siuuated. The scutellum is un- 
punctured and rather long. Tiie chjtra are unjjunctured, with 
the apical angles sharp but not produced, and the pggidium is 
shallowly rugose. The mdastern.um is smooth in the middle, 
coarsely punctured and strigose at the sides and thinly pubescent, 
and the abdomen is unpunctured. The sternal process is verv short 
and broad. The legs are rather short and stout, the froiit tibia 
armed with three short and sharp teeth, and the middle and hind 
tibial provided with rather close fringes at the inner edge. 

cJ . The abdomen is slightly channelled beneath and the teeth 
of the front tibia are very feeble. 

Length '11 mm. ; breadth II-Lj-.j mm. 

SiKKiM {Col. Bingham) ; Bengal : Phoobsering Lebong (Pusa 
Coll.). 

Tgpe in coll. Xoufried. 



PEOT.ETIA. 143 

119. ProtsBtia orientalis. 

Cetonia orientalis, G. S; P., Jlonoffr. Cet. 1833, p. 193, pi. 34, fig. 6 ; 

Blanch., Cat. Col. Mas. Paris, 1850, p. o, note. 
Cetonia serata, JSnchs.,Nov. Act. Acad. Leop. 1834, xvi, Suppl.Tp, 240. 
Cetonia speculifera, Schaiim (nee Swartz), Ann. Soc. Eat. France, 

1849, p. i>77. 

Metallic green, golden-green, coppery or coppery-purple above 
and beneath, with a very narrow white marginal line on each side 
of the prouotum and small scattered white markings, consisting o£ 
from four to seven small spots on each side of the pronotum, 
numerous indefinite spots near the lateral margins of the elytra, 
transverse median, postmedian and apical bars on each elytron, 
three spots (sometimes coalescing) on each side of the pygidium, 
numerous spots at the sides of the sternum, and transverse bars 
at the sides of the ventral segments. 

The body is rather stout, little depressed above and rather 
strongly sculptured, with only a very scanty clothing of minute 
setae at the sides beneath and at the apices of the elytra and 
pygidium. The head is coarsely and closely punctured and the 
chjpeus quadrate, with the front margin stx'ongly elevated and 
distinctly bilobed. The pronotum is coarsely but not closely 
punctured, except near the sides, strongly narrowed in front, 
scarcely angulated at the sides, with the hind augles moderately 
prominent and the base strongly excised in the middle. The 
elytra are irregularly sculptured with large transverse punctures 
or impressions, their lateral margins are moderately sinuated and 
the apical augles acute but not spinose. The pygidium, sides of 
the metasternum, hind coxce, and lateral margins of the ventral 
segments are rugose, and the middle of the metasternum and 
abdomen are smooth. The sternal process is transversely oval. 
The legs are moderately short and stout and the hind tibia has a 
close but short fringe of yellow hairs. 

The front tibia is armed in the $ with three short but sharp 
teeth, but in the 6 the uppermost tooth is very small or quite 
absent and the hind tarsi are perceptibly longer than in the $ . 

Length 19-26 mm. ; breadth 10"5-15 mm. 

Kashmir {teste Blanchard) ; Himalayas {teste Gory & Perch.) ; 
China ; Fokmosa ; Japan. 

120. Protaetia aurichalcea. (Plate I, fig. 7.) 

Cetonia aurichalcea, F., Syst. Ent. 1 77.3, p. 49 : Oliv. Ent. i, 6, 

1789, p. 42, pi. 9, fig. 78. 
Cetonia maculata, F.*, Spec. Lis. i, 1781, p. 58 ; G. 8f P., Monogr. 

Cet. 1833, p. 199, pi. 36, lig. 1 ; Bnrni., Handb. Ent. iii, 1842, 

p. 476. 

Deep bronze and very shining above and beneath, with opaque 
white markings, consisting of a large irregular patcli on each side 
of the pronotum, each generally enclosing a small bare spot, a 



1 44 CEToyii>',i:. 

minute spot close to the front margin of each elytron, a large 
irregular patch about tlie middle of each, adjoiniug the outer 
margin and sending two lobes towards tlie inner margin, a small 
irregular patch in the apical angle and several minute spots 
between the last and the median patch, and an irregular patch (some- 
times broken up) on each side of the pygidium. The sides of the 
sternum are also white and there are two rows of spots along each 
side of the abdomen. 

The shape is short and broad, rather depressed and very little 
narrowed behind. The head is strongly punctured, with the front 
margin rounded, reflexed, and scarcely perceptibly notched. The 
pronotam is strongly punctured, with a smooth line down the 
middle. It is narrow in front and rapidly widens to the base, 
which is strongly emarginate in the middle. The scatellum is 
unpunctured, rather short, and broad at the base. The ehjtra are 
finely and thinly punctured anteriorly, and more strongly and 
rugosely posteriorly. The lateral margins are moderately sinuated 
behind the shoulders and the apical angles are produced. The 
2ii/[/idiu7n is rugose and finely setose, the metasternum smooth in 
the middle and rugose and thinly pubescent at the sides, and the 
abdomen sparsely punctured and pubescent. The frord tibia is 
armed with three rather feeble teeth and the middle and hind 
tibice fringed with yellow hairs. The sternal process is very short 
and broad in front, 

S . The abdomen is well arched and the apical angles of the 
elytra are strongly spinose. 

Length 14-20 mm. ; breadth 8-10-5 mm, 

Bengal : Dacca, Calcutta (October), Chapra ; Madeas : 
Mysore ; Maueitius. 

T)jpe (of C. macidata) in the British Museum : the type of 
aurichalcea formerly in the same collection has now disappeared, 

121. Protaetia peregrina. 

Cetonia peregrina, Herbst, Nattirsf/st. Kiif. iii, 1790, p. 236, pi. 30, 

fig. 4. 
Cetonia difformis, F., Syst. Eletit. ii, 1801, p. 154 ; G. ^- P., Mon. 

Cet. 1833, p. 200, pi. 36, fig. 2. 
Anatona atrocoerulea, Schoc/i,* Mitth. Schweiz. Ent. Gesells. i, 

1897, p. 50 ; Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. 1897, p. 402. 

Blue-black, smooth and very shining above and beneath, with 
an irregular white patch on each side of the prothorax, another 
upon the anterior part of each elytron (extending backwards to a 
little beyond the middle, where it usually sends a branch towards 
the suture), a third in the apical angle, one at each side of the 
pygidium, and a minute spot at the posterior angle of each ventral 
segment. 

The body is very globose and compact. The head is rugosely 
punctured, acutely bidentate in front, with the angles reflexed. 
The pronotum is very finely and sparingly punctured, with the 



PBOTvETIA, 145 

sides geutly curved and the base very feebly einarginate in the 
middle. The sciitellum is short, triangular, moderately blunt and 
xmpunctured. The eli/tm are strongly but sparingly punctured, 
some of the punctures forming longitudinal I'ows. The sutural 
angles are sharp but not at all produced, and the lateral margins 
are geutly sinuated. The pijgidiiun is shining but rather rugose. 
The mesosternal process is very short and broad, with a fringe of 
yellowish hairs beneath ; the metasteraum is coarsely rugose and 
thinly hairy at the sides, and the abdomen is unpunctured. The 
front tibial are tridentate and the liind tibim and tarsi bear a thiu, 
but rather long, fringe of pale hairs. 

S ■ The abdomen is a little arched and entirely smooth and the 
fringe of the hind tarsus is long. 

2 . The last ventral segment is coarsely punctured. 

Length 13-16 mm. ; breadth 7-8'5 ram. 

Bombay : Poena ; Ben^gal : Murshidabad ; Madras : Ganjam, 
Berhampur, Mysore. 

Type not traced ; that of difformis at Copenhagen and of atro- 
co'rulea at the Polytechnikum in Ziirich. 

In the Munich Catalogue the locality Java is given for this 
species but without any authority. 



122. Protaetia impavida. 

Potosia impavida, Janson, Cist. Ent. ii, 1879, p. o38 ; iii, 1884, 

p. 110. 
Cetonia dohrni, Har., C. R. Sac, Ent. Belg. 1880 p. 3. 

Shining blue-black with minute white markings, variable in 
number but usually consisting principally of a median anterior 
spot, three transverse marks near the outer margin, and three 
near the inner margin of each elytron (the latter upon the 
posterior half), a minute spot on each side of the pygidium, and 
a row on each side of the sternum and abdomen. 

The body is stout and rather convex. The head is strongly 
and rather evenly punctured, with the clypeus rather long, reflexe'd 
and feebly bilobed in front. The prothorax is very finely punc- 
tured on the disc and more strongly at the sides, with the hind 
angles rounded and the base strongly emarginate in the middle. 
The scuteUian is not long and is unpunctured except in the 
anterior angles. The elytra are closely set with large crescentic 
punctures except in the region of the scutellum, where the punc- 
tures are fine and sparse. The apical angles are right angles and 
not produced. The pygidium and propygidium are finely rugose, 
and the latter is sharply angular in the middle of the posterior 
margin. The sides of the metasternum are coarsely rugose and 
thinly clothed with short yellow hairs, and the abdomen is almost 
smooth. The sternal process is transverse and feebly produced. 
The front tibia is armed with three acute teeth. 

L 



146 



CETOXIINjI. 



2 ■ The last two ventral segments are finely and closely punc- 
tured and the front tibiae broader than those of the J • 

Length 15-5-21 mm. ; breadth 10-12 mm. 

Punjab : Kulu : Kashmib : Gilgit ; X.W. Feontiee : 
Peshawur. 

Type in coll. O. E. Janson. 




123. Protaetia longipennis, sp. n. 

Copper-coloured, with the lo\\er surface and legs fiery red and 
the upper surface opaque ; decorated m ith white markings con- 
sisting of six or eight minute spots on 
each side of the pronotuni, a small ir- 
regular patch at the outer margin of 
each elytron considerably beyond the 
middle, and minute spots between these 
and at the sides. There are also, a 
small spot on each side of the pygi- 
dium, two or three on each side of the 
sternum, and two rows ou each side of 
the abdomen. 

It is an elongate, depressed species, 
tapering gently from shoulders to apex. 
The Jtead is sparingly punctured, but 
more closely at the sides of the clypeus, 
the front margin of which is very feebly 
excised in the middle. The pronotum 
is also sparingly punctured, except at 
the sides, the lateral margins are feebly 
angulated behind the middle, the posterior angles moderately 
prominent, and the base narrowly emarginate in the middle. 
The scuiellum is rather elongate. The eh/tra are long, moderately 
punctured, and have a broad depression upon the posterior half 
near the sutvu-e. The sides are strongly sinuated and the apical 
auHes not produced. The pyciidium is rugose and clothed with 
short erect setse. The mesostemal j^^'ocess is short and broad, the 
middle of the metasiernum and abdomen smooth, the sides of the 
former rugose, those of the latter coarsely punctured and both 
thinly clothed with short hairs. The front //ia? are sharply tri- 
dentate and the hind tibia/ closely fringed. 

I have seen only the female, in whicii the last two ventral 
seo'ments are strongly punctured and the si)urs of the hind tibia? 
very short and blunt. 

Length 21 mm. ; breadth 10 5 mm. 
BtJKMA. : Karen-ni (Tornatore). 
Type in the Genoa Museum. 

I have seen a single specimen of (his species in the Genoa 
Museum collection and a second in Mr. O. E. Jansou's collection. 



Fig. 32. 
ProtcBtia tongipennis. 



PROTiETIA. 



U7 



124. ProtaBtia caudata, sp. n. 

Coppery-red, with the pronotuui, scutellum and elytra opaque 
and the pygidium, legs and sides of the body beneath clothed witli 
tawny set®. There are live or six very minute pale spots on each 
side of the pronotum, similar scattered spots upon the elytra, 
sometimes rather numerous and sometimes almost absent, one on 
each side of the pygidium, and a row on each side of the body 
beneath. 

The body is rather convex and elongate and the pygidium rather 
narrow and prominent. The clypeus is strongly punctured and 
its front margin slightly reflexed and scarcely notched. The 
pronotum is closely punctured, the scutellum rather narrow and 
rounded at the apex, and the elytra bear strong annular punctures, 
except in the inner anterior part, with a well-marked longitudinal 
costa posteriorly. The outer margins are very deeply sinuated 
behind the shoulders, aud the apical angles sharp but not spinose. 
^he pygidium is closely strigose transversely, and the sides of the 
metasternum and abdomen are coarsely rugose. The sternal process 
is flat, broad and short. Vae front tibia is armed with three sharp 
teeth and the middle and hind tibice are closely fringed with 
yellow hairs at the inner edge. 

I have not seen a male. 

Length 18-21 mm.; breadth 9-11 mm. 

Bhutan : Maria Basti (L. Durel) ; Sikkim : Darjiling, Karsiang 
{R. P. Bretandeau). 

Type in the British Museum ; co-types in coll. E. Oberthiir. 

This species is extremely like P. primina, but narrower, with 
the scutellum blunter and the elytra much more deeply sinuated 
at the sides. 

The type has been kindly presented to the British Museum by 
Monsieur Oberthiir. 

125. Protaetia prunina, sp. n. 

Coppery-red, sometimes with the legs and lower surface darker, 
the upper surface covered with an opaque chocolate-red bloom 
and decorated with small scattered yellowish spots, generally in- 
cluding a double row on each side of the pronotum, one before 
and one behind the middle of the elytral suture on each side, a 
small oblique intermediate streak adjoining the outer margin, two 
or three spots near the apex, and five or more near the shoulder. 
There are also a row of four at the base of the pygidium, several 
on each side of the sternum, and a single or double row on each 
side of the abdomen. 

The form is stout and compact and the legs rather short. Th& 
head is strongly and irregularly punctured, with the anterior 
margin entire and barely reflexed. The pronotum is finely and 
regularly punctured, with the lateral margins bisinuated, the hind 
angles rather prominent and the base deeply excised in the middle. 

ii ^ 



148 CETOXiiN-i:. 

The xcuteUwn is rather narrow aud pointed. The eJ)jtra are finely 
and irregularly punctured, gently sinuated at the sides, with the 
sutural margins elevated behind and acute at the apices. The 
jii/gidium is finely rugosely strigose, the metastenium very coarsely 
punctured at the sides, and the abdomen almost smooth. The 
mesostenud process is rather broad, the /ro)i< tibia armed with three 
short teeth and the middle and liind tibice are fringed with close 
short reddish hairs. The tarsi are short and thick. 

I have seen only female examples. 

Length 22-23 mm. ; breadth 13 mm. 

Burma : Moulmeiu, Tun-za-lin (August). 

Type in the British Museum. 

1 26. Protaetia andamanarum. 

Protictia andamanarum, Ja/ison, Cist. Ent. ii, 1877, p. 145. 

Black, with the vertex of the head, the pronotum, scutellum 
and elytra opaque and sooty, and the elyti'a decorated with ir- 
regular orange-coloured spots, reduced in the male to a few incon- 
spicuous marks at the outer margins, and in the female consisting 
of larger patches at the outer margins, a humeral spot or cluster, 
and two postmedian clusters near the inner margin of each elytron. 

The form is robust aud moderately convex. The chjpeus is 
rather broad, finely punctured, with the margin curved, feebly 
reflexed in front, and scarcely notched. The pronotum is sparsely 
punctured, with the sides sinuated, the posterior angles well- 
marked, and the base deeply and narrowly excised in the middle. 
The sadellum is tapering, not very long nor very blunt. The 
eli/tra are feebly punctured and costate, and not strongly sinuated 
at the sides. The pi/gidiiim is transversely strigose, the sides of 
the metasternum are coarsely punctured, aud the abdomen is almost 
smooth. The mesosternal process is small, moderately transverse 
and rounded in front. Tlie front tibice are three-toothed, the 
hind tibia} moderately fringed, and the tarsi rather short. 

In addition to the difference of pattern distinguishing the 
sexes, the male has the apices of the elyti-a sharply spinose, the 
uppermost tooth of the front tibia nearly atrophied, the abdomen 
a little arched and the spurs of the hind tibia sharp. The female 
has the apical angles of the elytra blunt and the last ventral 
segment closely punctured. 

Length 20-24 mm.; breadth 11-12*5 mm. 

Andaman Is. 

Tiqie in coll. 0. E. Janson. 

1 27. Protietia whitehousei. 

Cetouiu •whitehousei, Scliaum, 2'rans. Ent. Soc. Lond. v, 1848, 
p. 72, pi. 11, tig. 3. 

Head, legs and lower surface black and shining, pronotum, 



PEOTiETIA. 149 

scutellum, elytra and pygidium brick-red and opaque ; decorated 
with bright yellow as follows : — a narrow marginal line at the 
anterior half of the pronotum on each side, a patch upon each 
mesosternal epimeron, one before the middle and one behind the 
middle of the lateral margin of each elytron and one in each 
apical angle, a spot on each side of the pygidium, and large patches 
at the sides of the metasternum and abdomen. 

It is rather narrowly OA^al and depressed in shape. The clypeus 
is finely punctured and feebly eraarginate in front. The prothorax 
is sparingly punctured at the sides, with the margins feebly 
curved and the hind angles well-marked. The scutellum is rather 
narrow and sharply pointed. The elytra are rather flat, punc- 
tured in longitudinal lines, well sinuated at the sides and sharply 
angular at the apices. The injgidiv.m is finely rugose, the sides of 
the metasternum and abdomen are coarsely rugose and clothed with 
yellow hairs, and the middle of the abdomen is finely punctured. 
The mesosternal process is almost circular. The front tibia is 
armed with three slight teeth, and the middle and liind tibice bear 
rather long fringes of pale yellow hairs. The hind tibiae are 
truncate at the end. 

I have not seen a male of this species. 

Length 20 mui. ; breadth 10 mm. 

Ceylon. 

Type in coll. O. E. Jauson. 

Wrong figure-references are given for this insect both by 
Schaura and Gemminser & Harold. 



128. Protastia cinerea. 

Pseudaplasta cinerea, Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. xx, 1898, 
p. 93. 

Black or deep red-brown, with the head, prothorax, scutellum 
nd elytra covered with buff-coloured or greyish opaque matter, 
rather darker on each side of the middle of the pronotum, a,nd 
decorated above w ith minute white spots, viz., one upon each side 
of the disc of the prothorax and from six to eight upon each 
elytron. There are three spots, frequently coalescing, upon each 
side of the pygidium, and the sides of the sternum and abdomen 
are broadly white. 

This is a small species, short, stout and convex. The head is 
rugose and setose, with the clypeus rather long and the margin 
entire and feebly reflexed. The prothorax has the lateral margins 
very obtusely angulated, the hind angles indicated and the base 
very feebly emarginate in the middle. The scutellum is very short 
and its sides nearly straight. The elytra have rows of large 
punctures, the lateral margins are strongly sinuated and the 
apical angles sharp but scarcely produced. The pygidium is 
rugose and the abdomen very sparingly but distinctly punctured 
at the sides. The front tibia is armed with three sharp teeth, 



150 CETONiix-i;. 

and the Jiincl tihicn aud tarsi have eacli a thin fringe of moderately 
long hairs. 

The last ventral segment is smooth in the S and coarsely 
punctured in the $ , aud tlie fringe of the hind tarsus of the J is 
long. 

Length 12-13 mm.; breadth 0-7 mm. 

Madras : Mysore, Bangalore. 

Tiipe in the German Entomological National Museura. 



129. Protaetia cupripes. 

Cetonia cupripes, Wied.* Germars Mar;. Ent. \x, 1821, p. 146. 
Protsetia cupripes, Bxrm., Handh. Ent. iii. 1842, p. 483. 
Cetonia germari, G. &f P.,* Monoijr. Cet. 1833, p. 202, pi. 36, fig. 5. 
Cetonia rufocuprea, G. 4" P. op. cit. p. 205, pi. 37, tip. 4. 
Pseudanatona rufocuprea, Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. Zeitscltr. 1895, 
p. 112. 

Shining coppery-red, with the prouotum, scutellum and elytra 
light chestnut colour and opaque, and decorated with whitish 
markings as follows : — a marginal line (irregular internally) on 
each side of the pronotum, a pair of minute spots at the front 
margin and another pair at the hind margin ; the mesosternal 
epimera ; a minute transverse spot at the outer margin of each 
elytron behind the shoulder, another near the middle of the inner 
margin, and two transverse posterior oands, interrupted and 
zigzagged. There are also irregular and inconstant marldugs 
upon the pygidium and the sides of the sternum and abdominal 
segments. 

This is a small species, compact in shape and with short legs, 
which, together with the lower surface, head, pygidium and sides 
of the pronotum, are clothed with pale yellowish sette. The head 
is coarsely punctured, with the chipeal marf/in strongly reflexed 
aud emarginate in front (very slightly in the $ , aud strongly in 
the c? ). The prothorax is ratlier narrow in front, with the lateral 
margins angulated before the middle and the hind angles mode- 
rately well-marked ; the base is strongly emarginate before the 
scutellum, which is short and blunt. The eh/traare feebly striated, 
their sides strongly sinuated behind the shoulders aud the apical 
angles spinose. The jyi/e/idiinn is setose and transversely strigose, 
the metasterman rather thickly clothed with yellow hairs at the 
sides and smooth in the middle, and the abdomen very scantily 
punctured and setose at the sides. The mesosternal 2^>'ocess is very 
small, ti-ansverse and fringed witli yellow setje. The legs are 
setose, the front tibice bidentate and the Jiind tibice rather thickly 
fringed. 

S . The clypeal margin is rather produced in front and almost 
bidentate, and the abdomen is arched and almost smooth. 

2 . The last ventral segment is rugosely punctured. 



PROT^TIA. 151 

Length 14-16 mm. ; hreadtli 7-7'o mm. 

Madras : Mysore ; Ceylox : Wellawaya {MitscKke). 

Type in the Copenhagen University Museum ; that of germari 
in the Oxford Museum. 

Dr. Ivraatz, in the paper quoted above, has mentioned Cetonia 
cupripes, germari and rufocuprea as three distinct species, but the 
types of the first and second, now before me, are identical and 
undoubtedly belong to the species dealt with under the third name 
by Dr. Kraatz. 



130. Protaetia inanis. 

Cetonia inanis,* Wallace, Trans. Ent. Soc. Load. (3) iv, 1868, p. 580. 
Cetonia inanis, var. cuprea, Gestro, Ann. Mus. Geneva, (2) x, 1891, 
p. 851. 

Uniform coppery or metallic green, with the back of the bead, 
the pronotum, scutellum and elytra opaque. 

This is a large species, short, stout and not much depressed, 
with short legs. The liead is finely and not closely punctured, 
and the clgpeus moderately narrow, rounded in front, with the 
front margin feebly reflexed and not notched. The pronotum is 
finely punctured in the middle and coarsely at the sides, the hind 
angles are moderately indicated and the base strongly emarginate 
in the middle. The scutellum is unpunctured and not long. The 
elytra have iucomplete rows of punctures on the disc and are 
rugose at the sides and apices, with the apical angles sharp. The 
pygidium is finely transversely strigose, the metasternum coarsely 
rugulose at the sides, and the abdomen almost smooth. The sternal 
process is very short and broad. The hind tibice are densely digi- 
tated at the end and shortly fringed at the inner edge, and all the 
tarsi are short and thick. 

J . The front tibia has the upper tooth very feeble, the apical 
angles of the elytra are rather spinose, and the last two ventral 
segments are punctured at the sides. 

5 . The front tibia is feebly bidentate, the apical angles of the 
elytra are sharp, but not spinose, and the last ventral segment is 
closely punctured all over. 

Length 26 mm. ; breadth 15 mm. 

SiKKiM : Darjiling ; Assam : Khasi Hills ; Burma : Karen 
Hills ; Penang ; Nias I. ; Java. 

T//^je in the British Museum. 

Malayan examples of this species appear to be generally green, 
while the known Indian specimens are copper-coloured, and this 
phase is called by Dr. Gestro var. cuprea. Insufficient specimens 
liave been examined, however, to determine to what extent the 
colour is constant. 



152 CETONim^. 

131. ProtsBtia regalis. 

Protsetia regalis, Blanch., Liste Cet. Mus. Paris, 1842, p. 1 ; Bunn., 

Havdb. Ent. iii. 1842, p. 490. 
Cetonia withilli, Bainbr.,* Trans. Ent. Soc. Land. 1842, p. 218. 
Progastor regalis, Thorns., Le Nat. 1880, p. 278. 
Protsetia regalis, var. horni, Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. 1900, 

p. 144. 

Coppery or almost black, with the legs and lower surface shining 
and the upper surface and pj-gidium opaque ; decorated with pale 
yellow spots placed as follows : — a pair placed transversely near 
the middle of the pronotum, one near the middle of each lateral 
margin and one at each hind angle, some or all of these being 
occasionally absent ; one on each elytron a little before the middle 
of the inner margin, another behind it, a third in the apical 
angle, and three at the outer margin alternating with the three 
preceding ; three on each side of the pygidium and a double row 
on each side of the metasternum and abdomen, some of these 
frequently absent. 

This is the largest known species of Frotcetia, stout and convex, 
and with rather short legs. The Jiead 
is rather small, very lightly punctured, 
with the front margin straight and 
narrowly reflexed. The pronotum is 
finely punctured, short, narrow in front 
and broad behind, with the lateral mar- 
gins slightly curved, the hind angles 
moderately distinct, and the basal mar- 
gin strongly excised in the middle. 
The scntelhim is unpunctured, not very 
long nor very blunt at the apex. The 
elytra are finely striate-punctate on the 

„. oo r> ^ .• 7- disc and irregularly punctured exter- 

Fis. 32.— Protatta regalis. ,, i .i ? • , , i 

nally, and then- apical angles are sharp. 

The 2:)ygidkim is finely transversely strigose and the metastenmm 

coarsely strigose at the sides. The mesostemal 2^^'ocess is flat, 

nearly circular in shape and slightly prominent. The front tibia 

is armed with two sharp but short teeth, and the hind tibia is 

digitate at the end and fringed at the inner margin with short 

yellow hairs. 

cJ . The apical angles of the elytra are spinose, and the abdomen 
is moderately punctured beneath. 

$ . The apical angles of the elytra are sharp but not spinose, 
and the abdomen is unpunctured, exeoi)t the last segment, whicli 
is densely punctured. 

Length 26-28 mm.; breadth 1-4-16 mm. 

Bombay ; Ceylon : Kandy. 

Tyjie in the Paris Museum ; that of ivithilli in the Oxford 
Museum. 




PBOTiETIA. 153 

Var. horni, Kr. 

This name has been given to the Ceylonese representatives of 
the species, in which the ground-colour seems to be usually black 
instead of coppery-brown. 

Type in the German Entomological National Museum. 

132. Protastia bidentipes. 

Protfetia bideutipes, Arroiv,* Ann. Nat. Hist. 1007, (7) xix, p. 351. 

Sooty-black or piceous black, with the head, legs and underside 
shining, decorated with yellow spots distributed as follows : — a 
pair upon the vertex of the head, a pair at the middle and three at 
each lateral margin of the pronotum, the two posterior ones some- 
times uniting, three placed in an oblique Hne upon the anterior 
half of each elytron, two adjoining the suture posteriorly and four 
adjoining the lateral margin, and a large patch at each side of the 
pygidium. There are also patches upon the mesosternal epimera, 
and the sides of the sternum and abdomen. 

The head is thickly punctured, with the dypeiis long and deeply 
notched in front. il\\Q protliomx is very transverse, distinctly but 
not densely punctured all over, with the sides strongly angulated 
in the middle and nearly parallel from there to the base, which is 
strongly emarginate before the scutellum. The smtellumhvoXhev 
narrow. The ehitra are parallel-sided, punctate-striate, with the 
sutural angles rather spinose. The mesosternal process is moderately 
prominent, nearly circular and not much dilated at the end. The 
metasternum is rugose at the sides, and the abdomen sparsely 
punctured. The front tihice are bidentate in both sexes. The 
pygidium is pubescent in two female specimens in the British 
Museum collection, but in a male in the Indian Museum, labelled 
(perhaps wrongly) " Eangoon," the setae are scarcely visible. The 
yellow markings in that specimen are also of a deeper colour. 

Length 18 mm. ; breadth 10 mm. 

NicoBAE Is. ; ? Burma : Eangoon. 

Type in the British Museum. 

133. Protsetia rana, sp. n. 

Deep chocolate-colour and velvety above, with a close indefinite 
reticulation of ochreous-yellow upon the head, prothorax, elytra, 
pygidium and the sides" of the body beneath, absent from the 
scutellum and in part from the posterior half of the pronotum, 
upon which there is a small spot at each side of the basal margin. 
The legs and lower surface are shining metallic crimson. 

The form is convex and compact, and the legs short. The upper 
surface is entirely opaque, rather strongly, but not closely or con- 
spicuously, punctured, sparingly set \\\i\\ minute yellow setae, and 
the legs and the sides of the body beneath are clothed with yellow 
hairs. The head is small and the chjpeus rather long and not dilated 



154 



CETOXIIX,!:. 



in frout of the antennal orbits, with the front margin reflexed and 
entire. The jJ^'otJio rax is very much narrowed in front, with the 
posterior angles rounded and the base deeply emarginate in the 
middle. The scutdlum is unpunctured, and rather long and narrow. 
The diitra have each a moderate costa on the posterior half, the 
sides are strongly sinuated and the apical angles spinose. The 
jpygidium is slightly rugose, the sides of the metasternum and 
abdomen coarsely rugose and the middle very feebly punctured 
and shining. The sternal process is small, scarcely produced, and 
transverse. The front tibia is armed with three feeble teeth and 
the liind tibia' have a moderately thick yellow fringe. 

S . The lateral teeth of the front tibia are almost obsolete and 
the last ventral segment is lightly punctured. 

$ . The last A'entral segment is rugosely punctured and the 
hind tarsi are very short. 

Length 17-19 mm,; breadth 9-5-10"5 mm, 

Assam : Shillong, Kliasi Hills. 

2^lipe in the British Museum, 

The only female specimen I have seen is in Mr, O, E. Janson's 
collection. There is a second male specimen in the collection of 
Mr. H, E. Andrewes, to whom the British Museum is indebted 
for the type. 



134. ProtsBtia fusca. 

Cetonia fusca, Jlerbst, Xatursi/st. Kitfer, iii, 1790, p. 257, pi, 32, 

tig, 4 ; Voet, Cat. Col. pi. iv, fig, ."W, 
Cetonia mandarina, Weber (part.), Obs. Ent. 1801, p, 68. 
Protootia maiidarinea, Burvi., Ilaiulb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 481; Schaum, 

Ann. Sac. Ent. Erance, 1849, p. 278, 
Cetonia atomaria, is,* -Sy.s/. Ekmth. ii, 1801, p. l.')3, 
Cetonia fictilis, Neiom.,^ Ent. Maij. v, 1838, p. 169. 

Coppery, with the head, legs and lower surface shining, and 
the pronotum, scutellum, elytra and py- 
gidium opaque chocolate-colour, and finely 
and irregularly s])riukled with yellow 
points, most closely aggregated at the 
sides of tlie pronotum and in two masses 
at the outer edge of each elytron before 
and behind the middle. The head, legs, 
sides of the pronotum, sternunj, abdomen 
and the pygidium are moderately thickly 
clothed with decumbent yellow seta\ 

The form is moderately short and con- 
vex. The chipeus is broad, closely punc- 
tured and very feebly emarginate in the 
middle of the front margin. The 'pro- 
notum beai's scattered punctures, close at the sides and containing 
setffi ; it is rather short, broad behind and deeply emarginate at the 
middle of the hind margin. The scntcUurn is short aiul very bluntly 




Fig. 34. — Frotatiafitsca. 



PROT.'ETIA, 



155 



rounded at the apex. The elytra beai' scattered punctures at 
the sides and apex, and the punctures contain minute setse. 
The margins are gently siuuated behind the shoulders and the 
apical angles are produced into long spines. The middle of the 
meta sternum and abdomen is quite smooth and bare, and the sides 
rugose and setose. The sternal process is very short and broad ; 
and the legs are short, the front tibia armed with three teeth, 
the uppermost very slight, and the hind tibia closely fringed with 
yellow hairs at the inner edge. 

d . The abdomen is well arched, and the hind tibioe have a 
longer and thicker fringe than in the female. 

$ . The last abdominal segment is rugose. 

Length 14-16 mm. ; breadth 7-9 mm. 

Bengal: Calcutta, Chapra ; Assam : Cachar ; Buema : Bhamo, 
Mandalay, Eangoon ; Tenasserim ; Siam ; tS. China ; Malay 
Peninsula; Malay Archipelago ; Polynesia ; N. Queensland ; 
Mauritius. 

Type in the Berlin Museum ; that of mandarina lost ; of 
atomaria in the Copenhagen Museum ; of Jictilis in the British 
Museum. 

The type of P.fusca cannot be identified with absolute certainty. 
Prof. Kolbe, of the Berlin Museum, informs me that a specimen, 
perhaps the type, in that collection belongs to this species, whose 
identity I think may fairly be accepted from Herbst's figure, and 
its better original in Voet's Catalogue. The type of P. mandarina, 
Weber, which should be in the Copenhagen Museum, is lost, but 
a specimen f i*om AVestermann's collection preserved there as repre- 
senting the species belongs to P. acuminata, E., and Weber's 
description appears to me to have been drawn up from that species 
and the present one jointly. 

This is one of the most widely-distributed of all the Cetoniin^. 
Mr. H. ]Sr. Ridley, of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore, tells 
me that its larvae are very injurious to Cannas and other cultivated 
plants, upon whose roots they feed. In Queensland the beetles 
have been found to attack the nests of the stingless bee, Trigona, 
no doubt for the sake of the stored honey. 

135. ProtaBtia acuminata. 

Cetonia acumiuata, F.* Si/st. Ent. 1775, p. 50 ; G. S)- P., Monogr. 

Cet. 1833, p. 203, pi. 37, fi?- 1. 
Protfetiaacmiiinata, Biirm., Handh. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 479 ; Schaum, 

Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1847, p. 277. 
Oetcnia niarmorea, Weber* Ohserv. Ent. 1801, p. 69. 
Cetonia marmorata, F.* Syst. Elcut. ii, 1801, p. 154. 

Deep bronzy-black, with the clypeus, legs, lower surface, the 
scutellum aud the elevated parts of the elytra shining, and the 
rest of the upper surface sooty ; thinly clothed with yellow setse 
at the sides, above and beneath, and speckled above with pale 
yellow, which is absent from the scutellum and the middle of the 



156 CETONIINiE. 

posterior part of the pronotuin, but forms a more or less indefinite 
arcuate transverse band behind the middle of the elytra. The 
sides of the pygidium, metasternum and abdomen are generally 
adorned with patches of the same colour. 

The body is moderately elongate and depressed. The head is 
densely punctured and has a slight posterior longitudinal carina, 
the front margin of the dypeus being reflexed and entire. The 
pronohim is coarsely and thickly punctured, with a smooth middle 
Hue and two densely punctured impressions on each side of it, the 
posterior pair near the basal margin. The latter is deeply, but not 
broadly, emarginate in the middle, and the lateral margins are 
sinuated. The scuteUum is very blunt and only punctured in the 
anterior angles. The elytra are distinctly and irregularly punc- 
tured and each has a strongly marked costa upon its posterior half. 
The sutural margins are strongly raised and the apical angles 
sharply produced. T\\q 'propygidium is pointed and ihe pyrjidhim 
finely rugose. The metasternum is coarsely rugose at the sides and 
the ahdomen almost smooth. The sternal process is very short and 
broad. The front tibia is armed with three very short but sharp 
teeth and the hind tibia has a thin yellow fringe. 

(S . The abdomen, including the last segment, is sparsely punc- 
tured beneath, the spurs of the hind tibiae are short and sharp and 
the teeth of the front tibia very feeble. 

$ . The last ventral segment is very thickly punctured and the 
spurs of the hind tibia are long and blunt. 

Lenyth 14-19 mm.; breadth 7-10*5 mm. 

Burma : N. Khyen Hills, Bhamo ; Andaman Is. ; Nicobae Is. ; 
Malay Peninsula ; Java ; Sumatba ; Boeneo ; etc. 

Typ)e in the British Museum ; type of marmorea in the Copen- 
hagen Museum, and marmorata was described from the same 
specimen. 

This species seems to be particularly abundant in the Andaman 
Is., where, besides the typical form, there is a variety, larger in 
size, in which the pale markings are more evenly distributed and 
the median band less distinct. 



136. Protaetia hinghami, sp. n. 

Dull coppery above and beneath and decorated with an indefinite 
ochreous tracery, including a double series of small spots (about 
six) on each side of the pronotum, four irregular transverse bauds 
upon the elytra and the greater part of the pygidium. 

Moderately elongate and depressed, clothed with fine scattered 
setse above and beneath (which are rather closer at the sides) and 
rather thickly hairy at the sides of the metasternum. The head'xs 
rugosely punctured, w ith the clypeus small, the front margin entire, 
gently curved and reflexed. The pronotuin is vei-y strongly 
j)unctured all over, except upon the posterior half of the middle 
line; the sides are bisinuated, the hind angles well-marked and 



PROT.ETIA. 157 

the base deeply excised in the middle. The scutellam is long, very 
blunt at the apex, and sparingly punctured. The elytra are 
coarsely punctured, rugosely at the sides, deeply striated in the 
posterior depression, moderately sinuated behind the shoulders and 
acutely spinose at the apical angles. The pyfjidium is opaque, 
shghtly rugose and setose, the metasternuni smooth in the middle 
and thickly hairy at the sides, and the abdomen coarsely punctured 
and setose all over. The mesosternal process is very short and 
transverse, and the front tibia is armed with two feeble teeth. 

Length 16-5-18 mm. ; breadth 8*5-9"5 mm, 

Tenasseeim. 

Type in the British Museum. 

I have seen only two specimens, collected by Colonels Bingham 
and Davidson (one of them now in Mr. O. E. Janson's collection). 
The species differs from P. acuminata, F., by its distinctly coppery 
or brassy colour, close puncturation above and below and the 
bideutate front tibise. 



137. Protaetia terrosa. 

Cetonia terrosa, G. l^ P., Monogr. Cet. 1833, p. 264, pi. 51, fig. 1 ; 

Jansoti, Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud. 1901, p. 183. 
Anoplochilus terrosus, Burin., Handh. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 509. 
Eumimimetica terrosa, Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. xxv 1881, 

p. 264. 
Cetonia irrorata, Wallace* Trans. Ent. Soc. Land (3) iv 1868 

p. 588 (n. syn.). ' 

Pseudanthracophora striatipennis, Kraatz* Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. 

1898, p. 407. 

Black and shining above and below, with the sides of the pro- 
notum, the elytra (more thickly at the sides and apices) and the 
sides of the pygidium and sternum irregularly sprinkled with 
white, and with frequently one or two rows of white spots on 
each side of the abdomen. 

The form is shortly oval and rather convex, the mesosternal 
process and the sides of the sternum are clothed with yellow hairs, 
and the legs are short. The head is densely rugose, with the 
clyjieal margin rounded in front, feebly reflexed and armed with 
two short, sharp teeth. The prothorax is strongly and rather 
evenly punctured, rounded at the sides and deeply excised before 
the scutellum. The scutellum is short, broad in front and 
moderately blunt behind, with some punctures in the anterior 
angles. The elytra are coarsely and rugosely punctured in rows, 
with the lateral margins gently sinuated and the apical angles not 
produced. The pygidium and the sides of the metasternum are 
rugose and the abdomen is very smooth. The mesostei^nal process is 
very short and trans\'erse and thickly hairy. The front tibice are 
strongly three-toothed, the hind tibice thinly fringed, and all the 
tarsi short. 



loo CETOXIIX.E. 

The last ventral segment is lightly punctured in the cJ and 
rugose iu the $ . 

Lemjtli 13-16 ram. ; breadth 7-8"5 mm. 

Deccan ; Bombay: Belgaum, Surat ; Kathiawae: Gogo ; 
Central India : Mhow ; Bengal : Chapra. 

Type not traced ; that of irrorata in coll. Janson ; of striatl- 
■pennis in the German Entomological National Museum. 

This species has been taken upon the flowers of cotton. It was 
wrongly attributed to the Philippine Is. by Wallace. 

138. Protastia coenosa. 

Anoplocheila cteiiosa, B'eshc.,*' Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. v, 1849, 

p. UG, pi. IG, tig. 4. 
AnnplocLeila brunneoaenea, Wesfic* Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. v, 

1849, p. 147, pi. 16, tig. 5 (u. syn.). 

Coppery, clothed above and below with yellowish hairs, except at 
the middle of the metasternum and abdomen ; the upper surface 
subopaque, and the elytra and pygidium sprinkled irregularly with 
minute yellow spots, which are closer at the sides and apex of the 
elytra and upon the pygidium. There is also a row of small 
yellow spots on each side of the abdomen. 

The form is shortly oval, and rather globose and convex. The 
Jiead and 2>''otho rax are rugosely punctured and densely pubescent. 
The ch/peus is short, with the margin reflexed and a little notched 
in front. The iironotum is strongly curved at the sides, with the 
hind angles not well-marked and the base moderately emarginate 
in the middle. The scuteUiua is short, broad at the base and 
moderately blunt at the apex. The elijtra have rows of strongly 
impressed annular punctures, the sides are gently sinuatedandthe 
apical angles rather blunt. The pycjidium and the sides of the 
metasternum are rugose and the abdomen almost smooth. The 
mesosternal process is small, fringed at the end and very little 
dilated before the coxae. The front tibice are strongly three- 
toothed and the kind tibice bear a rather long, but not tliick, fringe 
of hairs. The tarsi are very short. 

The last ventral segment of the $ is densely punctured. That 
of the 6 is feebly punctured and tlie clypeal margin is more 
strongly reflexed. 

Lencjth 12-5-15 mm. ; breadth 7-8 mm. 

Punjab : Simla Hills (8700 ft., May). 

Types of ccenosa and brunneocvnea m the Oxford Museum. 

139. Protaetia squainipennis. 

Protii'tia squamipLMinis, L'urm., Ilandb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 478. 
Eucetonia magnitica, Kraatz,* Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. 1898, p. 15 
(n. syn.). 

Brilliant metallic crimson above and beneath, and clothed with 
erect yellow scaly setce, the posterior median part of the pronotura, 



PROT^TIA. 159 

the scutellum and the middle of the metasternum and abdomen 
only being bare or nearly bare. There are also rather thickly 
sprinkled yellow or whitish markings upon the prothorax, elytra 
(where they form a zigzag longitudinal stripe upon each, with 
transverse median and apical offshoots), pygidium and the sides of 
the metasternum, hind coxae and abdomen. 

The form is oval and convex. Tlie head is strongly punctured, 
with a sharp longitudinal median carina behind and the front 
margin of the clupeus bilobed and strongly reflexed. The pro- 
thorax is densely punctured, except along the median line, and 
rather narrow in front, with the sides* strongly sinuated, the 
hinder angles well marked, and the base deeply excised before the 
scutellum. The scutellum is smooth except in the anterior angles. 
The ehjtra are coarsely and irregularly punctured all over, with a 
well-marked costa upon each. The pygidium and the sides of the 
metasternum are rugose and the abdomen is almost smooth. The 
mesosternal 'process is very short, broad and densely setose, and 
the front tibia has two acute teeth and a very minute upper one. 

cJ . The clypeus is more strongly bilobed and reflexed and the 
abdomen a little arched beneath. 

5 . The last ventral segment is coarsely punctured. 

Length 12"5-16 mm. ; breadth 7-9 mm. 

Madras : Bangalore ; Cetlox. 

Type not traced ; that of magnifica in the German Entomo- 
logical National Museum. 

140. Protaetia MeroglypMca. 

Cetonia hieroglyphica, Menetr., Cat. raiso7ine, 1832, p. 189. 

Bronzy and moderately shining, with the legs sometimes 
metallic green, and with minute traces of nebulous grey markings 
above. 

Elongate and rather parallel-sided, with moderately long legs. 
The head is strongly punctured, with the clypeus rather long and 
rectangular, the reflexed front margin nearly straight and feebly 
excised in the middle. The prothorax is coarsely and closely 
punctured except near the scutellum, with a small depression near 
the base on each side, and the sides are strongly bisinuated, the 
hind angles prominent, and the base strongly emarginate in the 
middle. The scutellum is smooth and the elytra are rugosely 
punctured except in the neighbourhood of the scutellum, where 
they are distinctly but not closely punctured. The apical angles 
aresharp but not produced. ll\ie pygidium is closely transversely 
strigose, the metasternum smooth in the middle and coarsely rugose 
and thinly clothed with tawny hairs at the sides, and the abdomen 
is decorated with large crescent-shaped punctures at the sides. 
The sternal process is short, broad and rounded in front, t\\Q front 
tibiae are rather feebly tridentate, and the four posterior tibice 
fringed with yellow hairs. 



160 CETOXlIN-t. 

cJ. The abdoineu is thinly sprinkled with simple punctures 
along the middle. 

$. The abdomen is quite smooth along the middle except the 
last segment, which is thickly punctured. The hind tarsi are 
shorter than those o£ the male. 

Length 22-25 mm. ; breadth 12-5-14-5 mm. 

Punjab : Miirree, Dehra Gazi Khan ; Turkestan ; Caspian 
Sea. 



141. Protaetia neglecta. 

Cetonia neglecta, Ilope^^ Grays Zool. Miscellatit/, 1831, p. 24. 
Cetonia dalman, G. ^- P. {nee C. dalmaimi, Hope), Monoyr. Cet. 

1833, p. 195, pi. 35, tig. 2. 
ProtJBtia puncticollis, Barm., Handb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 470 ; Schaum, 

Ann. Sue. Ent. Franee, 1849, p. 277. 

Bronzy, with the legs and lower surface sometimes metalhc 
green or red, the pronotum, scutelluui and elytra covered with a 
brown-velvety bloom, the pronotum decorated, except along the 
middle hue, with minute and closely-set greyish spots, the elytra 
^vith a fine greyish tracery, which is absent from the region around 
the scutellura. The surface is often denuded of the opaque 
clothing and then becomes entirely bronzy and moderately shining. 

The form is compact and convex. The head is entirely coarsely 
punctured, with the front margin reflexed and minutely excised in 
the middle. T\\e pronotum is coarsely and closely puuctured, with 
a smooth middle hue, on each side of which there are slight de- 
pressions ; the sides are sinuous, the posterior angles moderately 
well marked, and the base deeply excised before the scutellum. 
The scutelhim is unpunctured and rather long. The elytra are very 
strongly and rugosely punctured, except in the region adjacent to 
the scutellum, which is distinctly but not strongly punctured. The 
apical angles are not produced. The j)?/r/u^u(»i is closely granu- 
lated and minutely setose. The sternal j^^'ocess is very short and 
broad, and the metasternum is smooth in the middle, h\it coarsely 
rugose and hairy at the side. The ler/s are rather short, the/>oa^ 
tibia armed with three rather sharp teeth, and the middle and 
liind tibia; fringed with yellow hairs. 

cJ . The abdomen is sparingly punctured and thinly hairy at 
the sides, and the spines of the hind tibia) are short and sharp. 

2 . The abdomen is extremely smooth except the last segment, 
which is strongly punctured. Tlie spurs of the hind tibia? are long 
and blunt. 

Length 20-22 mm. ; breadth 11-12 mm. 

Punjab : Simla Hills, Phagu, Theog, Matiaua (8000-8700 ft., 
April, May, June); United Peovinces : Naini Tal ; Nepal; 
Assam : ISIanipur. 

Type in the British ^Museum ; that of dalman, G. & P., in the 
Oxford Museum. 



PEOT^TIA. 161 

142. ProtaBtia cariana. 

Cetonia cariana, Gestro,* Ann. Mus. Genova, (2) i, 1891, p. 850. 

Bronzy, with the legs and lower surface coppery-red ; the pro- 
thorax, scutellum, elytra and pygidium clothed with a brown, or 
olivaceous, velvety bloom ; the prothorax decorated, except along 
the middle line, with irregularly scattered yellowish spots, and the 
elytra with a fine tracery which is less diffused than in P. neghcta, 
tending to segregate in masses adjoining the inner and outer 
margins. The pygidium is speckled on each side of the middle 
line, and in the male the ventral segments are also speckled 
broadly on each side. 

The form is convex and compact. The clypeus is rather finely 
and evenly punctured, with the front margin feebly reflexed and 
scarcely perceptibly notched. The pronotum is distinctly and 
evenly punctured, except along the middle line, it is narrow in 
front, with the sides feebly augulated in the middle and the base 
deeply emarginate before the scutellum. The scutellum is long, 
narrow and unpunctured. The elytra are rather finely and 
sparingly punctured, with the apical angles not sharp. The 
pygidium is transversely striolated but not rugose, and the meta- 
sternum smooth in the middle, but coarsely striolated and hairy at 
the sides. The sternal process is short and broad. The legs are 
stout, the front tibia armed with three very feeble teeth, and the 
middle and hind tihice fringed with long yellowish hairs. 

(S . In addition to the markings upon the abdomen, mentioned 
above, this sex is distinguishable by the abdomen being feebly 
punctured, the hind tarsi longer, and the spines of the hind tibiae 
shorter and sharper. 

5 , The abdomen is extremely smooth and the last segment not 
thickly punctured as is usual in this group. 

Length 19-25 mm. ; breadth 12-14 mm. 

SiKKiM : Mungphu, Darjiling ; Burma : Karen-ni, Ruby Mines. 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 

This species very closely resembles P. neglecta, Hope, but is dis- 
tinguished by the much less closely punctured upper surface, the 
not rugose pygidium, the longer hind tarsi, feebly toothed front 
tibige, and the sexual peculiarities mentioned above. 

143. Protaetia confusa. 

Cetonia confusa, G. ^- P., Monogr. Cet. 1833, p. 266, pi. 51, fig. 4. 
Protaetia piperina, Westw.,* Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. y, 1849, p. 144, 
pi. 16, fig. 2 (n. syn.). 

Smoky-black, not metallic, with the head, legs and lower surface 
shining, and the prothorax, scutellum, elytra and pygidium opaque ; 
the prothorax, elytra and pygidium decorated wdth a very fine 
whitish network or speckling, and the sides of the body beneath 
with less minute confluent spots. 

M 



162 CETOXIIN'JS. 

The form is rather narrow, moderately depressed, and scarcely 
tapering behind. The head is closely punctured, not carinate uor 
pitted upon the forehead, with the frojit margin of the chjpeus 
feebly reflexed and slightly excised in the middle. The proihorax 
is coarsely punctured, narrow in front, with the sides not much 
curved. The scutellum is long and not very blunt, ^^\^e elytra are 
punctate-striate, with slight costse, the sides are not strongly 
sinuated behind the shoulders and the apical angles are sharp but 
not spinose. Hhe piigidmm is finely rugose, and the sides of the 
metasternum and abdomen are rugosely punctured. The sternal 
process is prominent, narrow, rounded in front but not dilated. 
The front tibia is armed with three sharp teeth and the liind tibia 
closely fringed with yellow hairs at the imier edge. 

(S . The abdomen is feebly channelled along the middle and the 
last segment is very smooth. The fringe upon the hind tibia is 
thick and the terminal spines are short and slender. 

2 . The last ventral segment is finely punctured and the tibial 
spines are broad and blunt. 

Lenf/th 20 mm. ; breadth 9-5 mm. 

United Peotixces : Mussoori. 

Ti/p>e not traced ; that of p^perina in the Oxford Museum. 

In the form of the sternal process P. confusa shows an approach 
to the genus Cetonia, but this part, although not dilated in front, 
is not laterally compressed, aud the head, pygidium and other 
features exclude it from that genus. 

144. Protaetia alboguttata. 

Cetonia alboguttata, Vigors,* Zool. Journ. ii, 1826, p. 238, pi. 9, 

fig-. 3 ; Burm., Ilandb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 493. 
Cetonia saundersi, Bainb.,* Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ]842, p. 219. 

]\Ietallic green, deep blue or blue-black, with the pronotum, 
scutellum and elytra opaque, deep blue, and decorated with very 
conspicuous white spots, generally consisting of a pair upon the 
clypeus, a pair between the eyes, three at each lateral margin of 
the prothorax, two upon the disc and two near the basal emargi- 
narion, three near the inner, and three near the outer, margin of 
each elytron, and one in each apical angle. There are also patches 
on each side of the pygidium and sternum, upon the femora, hind 
coxte and abdomen, which are more developed in the male than in 
the female. 

The form is elongate-oval and moderately convex, aud the legs 
are rather long. The ch/pens is long and well punctured, its 
margins being curved and gently refiexed. The pronotum is 
strongly punctured, narrow in front and bisinuate at each side, 
with the postei'ior angles well marked. The scutellum is rather 
lonf^ and not very blunt at the end. The ehjlra are strongly 
punctured, gently sinuated at the sides, with a sharp cariua upon 
the posterior half of each, and the apical angles are sharp. The 



PKOT.ETIA. OXTCEXONIA. 163 

pygidium is rugose, the metasternum rugose and hairy, except in 
the middle, and the abdomen very lightly punctured. The meso- 
stenial process is vei'y small and slightly transverse, and the middle 
and Jiind tihue have rather close fringes of pale hairs. 

J . The sides of the prothorax are very divergent and rather 
straight, the apices of the elytra rather spinose, the abdomen 
strongly arched and deeply and broadly excavated in the middle, 
with a median line of white spots in the basal part of the 
excavation. The front tibiae and tarsi are rather elongated, and 
the lateral tibial teeth nearly obsolete. The hind tibiae are rather 
attenuated and curved, the fringe is long and thick at the ex- 
tremity, and the spurs are short and sharp. 

$ . The puncturation of the whole upper surface is stronger, 
the sides of the prothorax are more curved, the apical angles of 
the elytra are not produced, the abdomen is convex beneath, with- 
out median spots, and the last segment, and sometimes those 
preceding, are well punctured. The legs are normal, the front 
tibia is armerl with three short but sharp teeth, and the spurs of 
the hind tibiae are long and blunt. 

Length 13-22 mm. ; breadth 6-10 mm. 

Bengal : Pusa, Ranchi ; United Provinces : Dehra Dun ; 
Bombay : Surat, Belgaum ; Madras : Mysore ; Ceylon : Kandy, 
Peradeniya. 

Type in the British Museum ; that of saundersi in the Oxford 
Museum. 

A female of this species in the Oxford Museum is of a golden- 
bronze colour. 

This is the most pecuhar and perhaps the commonest and most 
generally distributed Indian member of the genus. It is remark- 
able for the extreme variability in size, which can scarcely be 
paralleled in the Cetoniin^, and also for the great difference 
between the sexes. Several of the distinctive features of the male 
appear quite foreign to the present genus, but the female is quite 
a normal ProtcHia. 

Mr. jNIaxwell Lefroy records that it is taken at the roots of the 
Pipal Tree (Eurostigmum rcligiosum) and of Panicum spontaneum. 



Genus OXYCETONIA, nov. 
Gametis, Burmeister (part.), Handh. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 358. 

Type, Cetonia versicolor, Y. 

Range. Tropical Asia and Mauritius. 

Torm ovate and moderately compact. Clypeus rather long, 
tapering, cleft at the end and without reflexed margin. Prothorax 
moderately broad at the base and abruptly excised before the 
scutellum. 8cutellum short, broad at the base and moderately 
sharp at the apex. Elytra well sinuated behind the shoulders, 
with the apical angles sharp but not produced. Mesosternal 
process short, rounded in front but scarcely dilated. Pront tibia 

m2 



164 CEToyiiN.!:. 

strongly tridentate. Hind tibia not digitated. Maxilla slender. 
with a long brush of hairs at the end. 

The last ventral segment is punctured in the female and smooth 
in the male, and the spurs of the hind tibia are shorter and 
sharper in the latter. 

This genus formed the first section of Burmeister's genus 
Gametis, but as that name was subsequently restricted by 
Lacordaire to the second section, it has been necessary to devise 
a new one for the present group. It is intermediate between the 
large genera Ghjcyj^hcina and Protcetia, but had not the meso- 
sternal process broadly dilated in front of the middle coxoe as in 
both those genera. The general form and features are those of 
Protcrtia, but the bilobed clypeus without a raised margin connects 
it rather with Ghjciiphana. 

The species of this genus are very abundant where they occur, 
and are remarkable for extreme variability of colour and pattern. 
All of them are spotted with white in a similar manner, but the 
ground-colour is extraordinarily inconstant. 



Keij to the Species. 

1 (2) Lobes of the clypeus very sharp versicolor, F., p. 1C4. 

2 (1) Lobes of the clypeus blunt. 

3 (G) Upper surface not setose : sides of pro- 

notum not densely strigose. 

4 (.5) Pygidium transversely strigose albopundata, F., p. 166. 

5 (4) Pygidium marked with crescentic 

impressions andrewesi, Jans., p. 167. 

6 (3) Upper surface setose : sides of pronotum 

densely strigose jticunda, Fald., p. 168. 

145. Oxycetonia versicolor. 

Cetonia versicolor, F., Syst, Ent. 177o, p. .51 ; Herbst, Fuessly's 
Archie, iv, 1783, p. 18, pi. 19, fig. 28; G. ^- P., Man. Get. 18-33, 
p. 280, pi. 54, fig. 7 ; Schaiwi, Ami. Sac. Ent. France, 1849, 
p. 264. 

Scarabaeus thebanus, Hei-bst, Beschiift. Berl. Ges. Nat. iv, 1779, 
p. 324, pi. 7, fig. 8. 

{Var. Scarabreus cruentus, Pallas, Icones Ins. 1781, p. 21, pi. B, 
fig. A 24. 
Scarabaeus (Cetonia) sanguinolentus, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i, 4, 1789, 
p. 1583. 
{Var. Cetonia variegata, J^., Syst. Ent. 1775, p. 51 ; Oliv., Ent. i. G, 
1789, p. 47, pi. 5, fig. 31 ; Herbst, Fiiessly's Archiv, iv, 1783, 
p. 18, pi. 19, fig. 29. 
Cetonia luctuosa, G. ^- P., Moiioyr. Cet. 1833, p. 283, pi. 55, fig. 2. 

The form is oval and convex and the upper surface devoid of 
hairs or setae. The head is long and rugosely punctured and the 
clypeus very sharply bidentate. The pronotum is strongly and not 
densely punctured, with the sides angulated in the middle, the hind 
angles traceable, and the base sharply excised before the scutellum. 
Jlie sciUellum is triangular and moderately sharp at the apex. 



OXYCETONIA. 



165 



The elytra are strongly puuctate-striate, with the sides strongly 
siniiated behind the shoulders and the apical angles sharp but not 
produced. The i^ygidium is coarsely punctured and setose, the 
metasternum rugose and hairy, and the abdomen sparingly, but 
coarsely, punctured. The mesostemal process is slightly produced, 
and broad but not dilated in front. The front tihice are strongly 
tridentate, and all the femora are fringed with long yellow 
hairs. 

The coloration is very variable, but the ground-colour is black 
and there are usually the following white markings : — a pair of 
minute spots upon the neck behind the eyes, a pair at the middle 
of the pronotum, another at the base (one or both of the latter 
pairs often absent) and a lateral border on each side, a spot at the 
apex of the scutellum, from five to eight spots on each elytron, and 
two (frequently coalescing) on each side of the pygidium. The 
sides of the sternum are broadly white and there are two rows of 
large spots on each side of the abdomen. 

The sexes are almost alike, but the spurs of the hind tibia are 
rather shorter and sharper in the male. 

Length 13-15 mm. ; breadth Q'5-S mm. 

Assam: Silhet; Bhutan; Bengal: Calcutta; N.W. Frontier : 
Baunu ; Central India : Mhow ; Madras : Kanara, Malabar, 
Bangalore ; Ceylon ; Mauritius ; Madagascar ; Bourbon. 

Type not traced ; that of variegata in the Kiel Museum ; that 
of cruenta in the Berlin Royal Museum. 

The following phases may be distinguished. 

Var. a. 

Black, entirely shining, with the prothorax, except a pair of 
large black discoidal spots (coinciding with the minute white 





Fig. 35. 
Oxycetonia versicolor, Tar. a- 



Fig. o6. 
Oxycetonia versicolor, yar. d. 



spots described above), and a large vitta occupying the middle 
of each elytron red, and decorated with white as described. 

Generally distributed except in Ceylon and the Madagascan 
region. 



166 CETONIIN^. 

Var. h. cruenta, Pall. 

Like the preceding, but opaque above. 

Malabar; Ceylon: Mauritius, 

Yar. c. 

"Wholly, or almost wholly, black, with \\ hite markings as described 
above, and shining. 
Bengal ; Mauritius, 

Var, d. variegata, F. {Ivctuosa, G. & P.). 

Larger and broader ; entirely black and opaque, with white 
markings as described. 
Ceylon; Maueitils. 

The range of variation in this species, although exceeded in 
0. jucunda, which follows, is very remarkable, extending not only 
to its coloration and the presence or absence of the velvety 
clothing of the upper surface, but to some extent to its form also, 
the typical phase being usually smaller and more convex than the 
other varieties, especially the var, variegata. The occurrence of 
the latter form in Ceylon and the Madagascan area, and apparently 
nowhere else, is a remarkable fact, presenting an interesting 
problem in geographical distribution. An exactly similar dis- 
tribution is found in the case of Proto'tia aiiricJialcea, F., already 
dealt with. Both species must be regarded as immigrants into 
Mauritius from our region, for the endemic Cetoniine fauna of 
the Madagascan region is a peculiar one, and no representatives 
of it are found in Asia. 

146. Oxycetonia albopiinctata, 

Cetonia idbojmnctata, I\, Ent. Sysi., Si(j>pl. 1798, p. 129: Syst. 

Eleut. ii, 1801, p. 155. 
Cetonia histiio, Olir. (nee Fab.), E^it. i, G, 1789, p. 45, pi. 10, 

Gametis histrio, L'unn., Handb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 364; Schaum, 

Ann. Sue. Ent. France, 1844, p. .373. 
^'ar. (iametis bivittata, Burm., Handb. Ent. iii, 1842, p, 363. 

Black and shining, with the pronotum, scutellum, and elytra 
brick-red and opaque, the circumference of each elytron (inter- 
rupted in front) and a large discoidal spot, and a narrow lateral 
patch upon each side of the pronotum, black. There are also 
white markings, consisting of a narrow line at each lateral margin 
of the prothorax, a minute spot at the apex of the scutellum, one 
on each mesosternal epimeron, four at the outer margin of each 
elytron (the fourth in the apical angle), and a short transverse 
bar, more or less interrupted, crossing the suture before the 
middle, four spots placed transversely upon the pygidium, and 
a single or double series on each side of the body beneath. 

It is moderately elongate, generally a little larger than 0. versi- 
color and jvcunda, and clothed with yellow hairs at the sides 
beneath. The head is long, finely and closely punctured, and 



OXYCETONIA. 167 

bluntly bidentate in front. The pronotum is rather evenly and 
not closely punctured, with the sides gently curved, the hind 
angles completely rounded off, and the base abruptly emarginate. 
The scutellum is bluntly pointed, and the elytra are decorated with 
rows of rather coarse punctures. The pygidium is finely trans- 
versely strigose, the metastemum rugose at the sides, and the 
abdomen scantily punctured. 

S . The spurs of the hind tibise are sharper than in the 5> . 

Le^igili 14-16 mm. ; breadth 7-8 mm. 

United Peotinces : Dehra Dun; Bengal: Pusa ; Assam: 
Silhet; Burma: Momeit. 

Type lost. 

The coloration above described is that of the typical phase. 
The following varieties also occur : — 

Var. a. 

Entirely brick-red, with two large green patches at the middle 
of the pronotum and the white markings as usual. 

Var. b. bivittata, Burm. 

Deep green or black, with longitudinal brick-red vittse, viz., 
a median one upon the pronotum, often continued upon the 
scutellum, a short one in each posterior angle of the pronotum, 
and one extending from shoulder to apex of each elytron, but 
often interrupted in the middle. There are also white markings 
as usual. 

Hab. uncertain. 

Type in Oxford Museum. 

Var. c. 

Entirely black, with the usual white markings. 
Bengal : Pusa, Rungpur ; Assam : Helem. 

The typical phase of this species is deceptively like 0. versicolor, 
var. a, but the lobes of the clypeus are much less sharply pointed 
and the scutellum is not black, as in that species. 

Mr. Maxwell Lefroy reports that tliis beetle feeds upon the 
pollen of cotton-flowers, and is also found upon rice, jute, 
sugar-cane, and other crops. 

147. Oxycetonia andrewesi. 

Glycyphana andrewesi, Janson, Trans. Ent. Soc. Land. 1901, p. 182. 

Deep, rather dull, green above and below, generally opaque on 
the pronotum, scutellum, elytra and pygidium ; the posterior 
angles of the first, and an oblique stripe occupying the whole 
central part of each elytron, dull red (these red marks sometimes 
nearly or entirely absent), and with minute white spots distributed 
as follows (but some of them frequently wanting) : — a pair placed 
transversely at the middle of the pronotum and a second pair 
anterior to it, a spot at the apex of the scutellum, one at the 
middle of each elytron, close to the inner margin, and two others 



168 cetoniiNjB. 

behind it, one just behind the shoulder at the outer margin and 
two posterior to it, two on each side of the pygidiuni, the sides of 
the sternum, and a double row on each side of the abdomen. 

The body is moderately short and depressed. The head is rather 
strongly punctured and the clypeus strongly but bluntly bilobed. 
The 2^''onotum is rather triangular, strongly punctured, with the 
hind angles traceable and the base strongly emarginate in the middle. 
The scutellwn is short, broad at the base and not very blunt at 
the apex. The elytra are coarsely punctate-striate, the pygidium 
decorated with crescentic impressions, the sides of t\i.e nutasternum 
coarsely rugose, and the abdomen coarsely and sparingly punctured. 
The mesosternal process is slightly produced and broad. The legs 
and the sides of the sternum and abdomen are rather thickly 
clothed with tawny hairs. 

6 . The abdomen is feeby arched and the apical angles of the 
elytra are rather spinose. 

Length 15-16 mm ; breadth 8-9 mm. 

Bombay : Kanara ; Madbas : Xilgiri Hills, Shembaganur (near 
Madura). 

Type in coll. Andrewes. 

This species is very closely related to 0. albopunctata, F., but 
the head and the pygidium are rather differently sculptured, and 
the mesosternal process is a little broader. 

148. Oxycetonia jucunda. 

Cetonin iiicuudn, Falderjnunn, Mem. pros, a I' Acad. Sci. St. Petersb. 

ii, 1835, p. 386, pi. 4, lips. 4 & .5. 
Cetonia prasiiia, Hope* Gray's Zool. Misc. 1831, p. 25. 
Var. Cetonia sanguinalis, Hope* I. c. ; G. ^ P., Monogr. Get. p. 286, 

pi. 55, fig. 6. 
Var. Cetonia bealife, G. c^- P., op. cit. p. 282, pi. 54, fig. 8. 
Cetonia obscura, G. 4" P., op. cit. p. 285. 
Cetonia viridiobscura, G. ^- P., op. cit. pi. 55, fig. 5. 
Cetonia goryi, Gxer., Per. Zool. 1840, p. 81; lJelesserf,Souv. Voy.i, 

2, 1843, p. 46 ; Schaum, Atm. Soc. Ent. France, 1844, p. 372. 

Green, olive, red, dark blue or black, opaque above in the fresh 
condition, clothed thinly above aiid thickly 
beneath with tawny hairs and setae, and 
decorated with variable white markings, 
generally consisting of a discoidal spot and 
a marginal line on each side of the pro- 
thorax, a spot at the apex of the scutellum, 
four at the outer margin and one or two 
near the inner margin of each elytron, two 
on each side of the pygidium and a double 
row on each side of the abdomen. Some 
.p. „., of these are frequently absent. 

Ox,icctmiaJHcunda, '-^^6 form is slightly elongate and de- 

typical form. pressed. The head is long, densely and 

finely punctured, and the clypeus very 
bluntly bidentate. The prothora.v is strongly punctured, with 




OXTCETONIA . 1 69 

ihe sides very closely and finely longitudinally strigose, the lateral 
margins strongly curved, the hind angles obliterated, and the base 
gently but abruptly emarginate in the middle. The scutellum is 
moderately long and not very blunt, and the elytra are strongly 
puDctate-striate, with the sides deeply sinuated and the apical 
angles moderately sharp. The ])i/[/kUwn and the sides of the 
inetasternum are rugose, and the abdomen bears only a few coarse 
punctures. The sternal process is slightly produced and rounded 
in front, the front tibia is strongly and sharply tridentate, and 
the hind tibia has a rather long, but not close, fringe of pale 
yellow hairs. 

The sexes are similar, but the male has the spurs of the hind 
tibise shorter and sharper than the female. 

Length 13-17 mm. ; breadth G-9 mm. 

Nepal ; Sikkim : Darjiling ; Assam : Khasi Hills, Manipur ; 
Bengal: Calcutta; Siberia; China; Japan. 

Type not traced; those of prusina and sanguinalis in the 
British Museum. 

The typical form, described above, is very abundant and widely 
distributed, but remarkable varieties more or less localized occur 
in India and the southern part of the enormous area of which the 
species is a native. 

The best marked Indian varieties are the following: — 

Var. a. 

Green, with a blood-red patch at each shoulder and the outer 
apical part of each elytron, and the usual white markings. 
Sikkim : Darjiling. 

Var. sanguinalis, Hope. 

Like the preceding, but with the whole external margins of the 
elytra broadly red. 
Nepal. 

Var. healiae, G. Sf P. 
Usually larger and relatively broader ; black, with the prothorax 




Fig. 38. — Oocycetonia jiicnnda, yar. health. 
red, except a large black patch on each side of the middle, and 



170 CETOxim^. 

each elytron adorned with a large, rather transverse, red patch at 
the middle. The white markings are as usiiah 

Assam : Khasi Hills, Shilloug. 

Through ail its extraordinary changes of colour and form this 
species is recognizable by the setae upon its upper surface and the 
finely strigose lateral boi'ders of the prothorax. 



Genus STALAGMOSOMA. 

Stalagmosoma, Burm., Handh. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 808 : Janson, Notes 

Leyd. Mm. x, 1888, p. 109. 
Stalagniopygus, Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. 1882, p. 66. 

Type, Cetonia alhella, Pallas. 

Range. Western Asia and Xubia. 

Small, ovate, moderately elongate, convex and rather smooth. 
Clypeus a little longer than it is broad, elliptical, with the margin 
gently reflexed, strongly and uniformly curved in front, and not 
contracted in front of the eyes. Prothorax narrow in front, 
with the posterior angles slightly indicated and the base broadly 
emarginate. Scutellum short, not very blunt at the apex. Elytra 
strongly siiuiated at the sides behind the shoulders and very 
sharply pointed at the apical angles. Legs not long; front tibia 
armed with three sharp teeth; middle and hind tibioe acutely- 
digitate at the end and fringed with long hairs at the inner edge. 
Mesosternum straight in front and not at all produced. 

c? . The abdomen is not excavated. The uppermost tooth of 
the front tibia is rather more distant from the second tooth than 
in the female. 

Only one species of this Palsearctic genus crosses the Indian 
frontier. 



149. Stalagmosoma albella. 

Scaraba^us albelhis, Pallas, Heis, i, 2, 1771, Aj)j)., p. 462 ; Icones 

Ins. 1781, p. 17, pi. A, fig. 18. 
Stalagmosoma albella, Burm., Hcmdh. Ent. iii. 1842, pp. 807, 

808; Schumn, Ayvx. Soc. Ent. France, 1849, p. 260. 
Cetonia alterna, G. ^- P., Mcmo(/r. Ent. 1833, p. 211, pi. .38, fig. 5. 
Cetonia koriui, Fald., Nouv. Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. iv, 1835, 

p. 302, pi. 10, tig. 8. 
Cetonia lepida. Fald., Bull. Soc. iJ/osc. ix, 1 836, p. 373, pi. 7, fig. 4. 

Shining black above and below, the legs and anterior part 
of the body beneath clothed with short yello\\ish seta? and 
decorated with white markings, consisting of a broad border on 
each side of the pronotum, six spots on each elytron, viz. two 
placed obliquely at the shoulder, two obliquely behind the middle, 
one at the apical margin and one a little before it, near the 
suture, a patch on each side of the pygidium, and small spots 
at the sides of the hind coxa) and the ventral segments. 



STALAGMOSOM A . — CUILOLOBA . 



171 



The Itead is finely and rugosely punctured and the pronohmi 
rather strongly, but not very closely, punc- 
tured, with the sides regularly rounded 
and the base deeply emarginate in the 
middle. The scuteUum is smooth, broad 
at the base, not long, and rather blunt at 
the apex. The eh/tra are deeply sculp- 
tured, with crescentic impressions in front 
and at the sides and four striae upon the 
inner posterior part of each, and rugose 
at the apices ; their lateral margins are 
sinuated, the sutural margins elevated, 
and the apical angles acute. The ijygidium 
is finely rugose, the metasternwn a little 
punctured in the middle and coarsely 
rugose at the sides, and the abdomen 
almost smooth. 

Length 12-13 mm. ; breadth 6-6"5 mm. 

Punjab : Bannu, Murree ; Turkestan : Peesia ; Aeabia ; 
Egypt. 

Ty2>e in the Berlin Eoyal Museum. 




Fig. 39. 

Stalagmo^oma albella. 



Genus CHILOLOBA. 

Chiloloba, Bitrm., Hanclb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 501 ; Lacord., Gen. Col. 
ill, 1856, p. 530. 

Type, Cetonia acuta, Wied. 

Range. Throughout India. 

Body elongate, highly glazed, but more or less clothed, both 
above and beneath, with yellow hairs. Clypeus produced, narrow, 
with the middle hne carinate, the sides sloping downwards, the 
extremity excised, the angles bent upwards and outwards and 
blunt. Eyes very prominent. Prothorax not very broad behind, 
with the base deeply excised in the middle and slightly oblique at 
the sides. ScuteUum long and narrow, with the sides concave 
and the apex subacute. Elytra deeply sinuated at the sides and 
strongly spinose at the apices. Sternal process flat and transverse. 
Eront tibiae tridentate. Mentum very long and narrow, deeply 
cleft ; palpus with the basal joints small and the terminal joint 
enlarged. Maxilla short and stout, without terminal tuft, both 
inner and outer lobes armed internally with numerous closely-set 
spines. Mandible provided with a rather strong, curved and 
pointed blade, the inner membranous lobe reduced. Labrum 
broadly excised in front, with the edges of the emargination 
incurved. 

S . Abdomen arched and grooved. Eront tarsi considerably 
longer than those of the $ . 

This very peculiar and aberrant genus consists of only a single 
species, which, however is exceedingly abundant. 



172 CETOXllN.F. 

150. Chiloloba acuta. (Plate II, fig. 4.) 

Cetonia acuta, Wied.* Zool. Mag. ii, 1, 1823, p. 87; G. ^- P., 

Momxjr. Cet. 1833, p. 284, pi. .55, fig. 3. 
Cetonia perplexa, G. c^ P.,* I. c. tig. 4. 
Chiloloba acuta, Burm., Handb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 503. 

Bright metallic green, sometimes fiery red or deep blue, very 
smooth and shining, but irregularly punctured, and clothed with 
yellow hairs, which are long, dense and decumbent upon the 
sternum and sides of the abdomen, short and erect upon the rest 
of the body. 

The body is long and a little depressed above and the legs are 
moderately slender. A fine carina extends from the forehfud to 
the extremity of the chjpens, which is excised and its angles 
bluntly hooked, and the head is declivous and finely setose on 
each side, with longer and closer hairs between the eyes. The 
pronotum is closely punctured and setose, except along the middle 
line, but the setae are very short and not conspicuous. The sides 
are gently curved, the hind angles rounded but moderately 
prominent, and the base deeply excised before the scutellum. 
The scutellum and elytra are thinly setose, but the clothing 
becomes much longer and thicker towards the extremity of the 
latter. The outer margins are very strongly sinuated behind the 
shoulders and converge very little from that point, and the inner 
margins are elevated posteriorly and produced into sharp spines 
at the apices. The pi/gidiuni is clothed with long hairs, the 
metastenium smooth in the middle and thickly clothed at the sides, 
and the abdomen scantily clothed except at the edges. The 
two terminal teeth of the front tibia are long and sharp and the 
middle and hind tibia; and tarsi are fringed. 

cJ . The front tarsi are nearly twice as long as those of the 
female. 

Lenr/th 14-18 mm.; breadth 7-8 mm. 

SiKKiM ; United Protijtces : Dehra Dun, Landaur ; Punjab : 
Murree, Kangra Valley ; Centkal India : Mhow ; Bombay : 
Belgaum ; Madras : Bangalore, 3Ialabar. 

Ti/jie in the Copenhagen University Museum ; that of perplexa 
in the Oxford Museum. 

This is one of the most abundant Cetoniix,e throughout India. 
Messrs. H. E. Andrewes and T, E. Bell inform me that in Southern 
India it is found in great numbers upon stems of grass, etc., after 
the autumn rains, and Mr. Maxwell Lefroy states that it is 
injurious to juari (millet) and kutki (a leguminous crop), of 
which it damages the fiowers. The organs of the mouth are 
peculiar in being much stronger and more adapted for biting than 
in normal Cetoxiin.«. 



EPICOMETIS. 173 



Group 5. OxYTHYliEIDES. 

The species which compose this group are ahiiost all of small 
size and even the largest do not exceed the medium size. The 
most constant characteristic feature is the long, narrow, and very 
acutely-pointed scutellum, the sides of which are gently concave. 
The excision of the hind margin of the pronotum, which is 
practically universal in the preceding group, is here quite ex- 
ceptional and it is very commonly replaced by a projecting lobe, 
partly or entirely concealing the scutellum. The clypeus is 
always simply rounded or very gently emarginate in front, and 
the sexes are not distinguished in any of the Indian species by 
marked external differences. 

The group is best represented in Africa, and the genus Clinteria 
is the only truly Oriental one. That genus was associated by 
Lacordaire with Agestrata, etc., in his group Gtmnetides, while 
Epicometis and Leucocelis were placed in the true Cetoniides, but 
the multiplication of known species renders that arrangement 
untenable. 

Table of the Genera. 

1 (4) Pronotum not lobed behind. 

2 (3) Scutellum moderately sharp-pointed, not 

flat , Epicometis, p, 173. 

3 (2) Scutellum extremely shai-p-pointed, quite 

flat OXYTHYREA, p. 175. 

4 (1) Pronotum lobed behind Clinteria, p. 176. 



Genus EPICOMETIS. 

Epicometis, Burm., Handb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 434. 
Tropiuota, Muls., Coleopt. France, Lamell. 1842, p. 575 (preoccupied 
name). 

Type, Scarahaus hirtellus, L. (Europe). 

Range. Europe, N. Africa, W. Asia. 

Form rather short and robust, clothed above and below with 
long hairs. Clypeus strongly and broadly notched in front, leaving 
the angles sharp and a little reflexed. Mandible very small, with 
the chitinous outer lobe triangular. Maxilla stout, terminating in 
a single sharp tooth and a long tuft of hairs ; palpi slender. 
Mentum dilated and strongly bilobed in front ; palpi short and 
stout. Prothorax subcircular, gently excised in front of the 
scutellum. Scutellum moderately broad in front, not very long, 
acute at the apex. Elytra strongly sinuated at the sides, not 
produced at the apical angles. Mesosternal process extremely 



174 CET0N1IX.E. 



short, blunt. Front tibia armed with three acute teeth, the two 
terminal ones very long. Tarsi rather long and slender. 

J . The abdomen is arched and slightly grooved. 

One species only is known in our region. 



151. Epicometis squalida. 

8carabfeus pqualidus, L., Syst. :S(it. V2i\\ ed. 1767, i, 2, p. 556. 
Cetonia ciinita, Charp., Hoi: Ent. 1825, p. 213. 
Epicometis crinita, Bunn., Handb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 436 ; Schaum, 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1849, p. 267. 

Shining black, thickly clothed with yellow hairs, except upon 
the middle of the metasternum and abdomen, the costa; upon the 

pronotum and elytra, and the scu- 
tellum. The elytra are decorated 
with inconspicuous transverse yellow 
markings. 

The head and clypeiis are finely 
granulated and the pronotum rugosely 
punctured, with a narrow smooth 
carina extending froui the front to 
the hind margin. The protTiorax is 
rather narrow, scarcely broader than 
it is long, obtusely angulated at the 
lateral margin, with the hind angles 
feebly indicated and the base broadly 
and gently excised before the scu- 
Fig. ■iO.—Epiamciis squalida. tellum. The scutellum is almost 

smooth, and the elijtra are rugosely 
punctured and striated, each having a smooth sutural costa and a 
lateral one Avhich is divided at the shoulder by a wedge-shaped 
depression. The pugidium is finely rugose and the middle of the 
metustermim and abdomen very smooth and shining. 

cj . The abdomen is excavated in the middle and entirely 
smooth. 

2 . The ventral surface is convex and the last two segments 
are punctured and hairy. 

Lemjth 9-5-13 mm.; breadth 0-8 mm. 
BALCcnisTAN : Quetta ; AV. Asia ; Europe ; N. Africa. 
This well-known and widely-distributed insect is very abundant 
in the Mediterranean region, where it inflicts serious injury upon 
various crops. It is reported to injure peach-blossoms by 
destroying the stamens, and in Greece, Corsica, Algeria, and other 
vine-growing countries, damages the buds of the growing vines 
(^see Mayet, Ann. Soc. Ent. Prance, 1894, p. 5). These buds, 
which contain a quantity of a sweet gummy substance, are perhaps 
only attacked in the absence of ripe fruit or flowers. The larvae 
are said to breed in the manure spread at the roots of the crops. 




UXYTHYEDA. 175 

Genus OXYTHYREA. 

Oxythyrea, Muls.,f Coleopt. de France, Lmnell. 1842, p. 572; Lacord., 

Gen. Col. iii, 1856, p. 531. 
Leucocelis, Bunn., Handb. Eat. iii, 1842, p. 421. — Type, Cetonia 

h(Bmorrhoidalis, F. (S. Africa). 

Type, Scarahceus sticticus, L. (Europe). 

Range. Europe, W. Asia aud Africa. 

Form rather elongate, smooth and shining above. Clypeus 
rather long, feebly emargiuate and reflexed at the apex. Pro- 
thorax rather narrow, with the base scarcely or not at all 
emarginate before the scutellum. Scutellum small and extremely 
acute, with concave sides. Elytra very strongly sinuated at the 
outer margins, with the sutural angles sharp but not produced. 
Legs rather long, with the front tibiae sharply toothed and the 
hind tibiae digitate at the end and moderately fringed at the inner 
edge. Mesosternal process broadly truncate and not produced. 

The great majority of the species are African and only a single 
(Palaearctic) form is known in our region. 

152. Oxythyrea cinctella. 

Cetonia cinctella, Schaum, Analecta Entomolor/ica, 1841, p. 38. 
Cetonia variegata, G. S; P., Monoyr. Cet. 1833, p. 294, pi. 57, fig. 3. 

Shininc black, thinly clothed beneath with short yellowish hairs, 
and ornamented with opaque white markings consisting of a 
marginal band and a small basal spot on 
each side of the pronotum, numerous 
small elongate spots on the elytra, 
coalescing and becoming larger at the 
sides aud apices, and large patches on 
each side of the pygidium, sternum aud 
first four ventral segments. 

The shape is elongate and convex. 
The clypeus is rugosely punctured and 
feebly aud broadly emarginate in front. 
The prothoracc is much narrower than 
the elytra, i-ather evenly punctured, 
with the sides angulated before the 
p. ^j middle, not greatly narrowed in front 

Oxythyrea cinctella. and nearly parallel behind. _ The base is 

gently rounded and almost imperceptibly 
emarginate before the scutellum. The scutellum is very acutely 
pointed and bears a few puuctures. The elytra are deeply striated, 
the pygidium tinely rugose, and the metasternum and abdomen 
sparsely punctured in the middle and more strongly at the sides. 
T\iQ front tibia is armed with two sharp teeth. 
S . The abdomen is slightly channelled. 
Length 9-12-5 mm. ; breadth 5-7 mm. 
Baluchistan : JSJushki District, Quetta. 




I' Mulsant's volume was published in August, and Burmeister's at a later 
date in the same year. Mulsant's name is therefore used for the genus. 



176 CETONIIN-S. 



Genus CLINTERIA. 

Clinterla, Bwm., Handb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 299; Laeord., Gen. Co!. 

iii, 1856, p. 501. 7i 

Tiuclirea, Thorns., Le Naturaliste, 1880, p. 268.— Type, Cetonia 

klugi, Hope (n. syn.). 
Triclirea, Schoch, Cat. Ceton. 1896, p. 30. 

Type, Cetonia r/uttifera, Burm. 

llanye. The Oriental and Ethiopian Eegions. 

Foriu compact, generally rather short. Clypeus quadrate, 
slightly bilobed. Eyes moderately prominent. Base of the 
pronotum drawn out into a blunt-pointed lobe, nearly concealing 
the scutellum ; the sides converging towards the front in a nearly 
continuous curve. Scutellum long and very acutely pointed, the 
extreme apex alone visible. Elytra strongly sinuated at the outer 
margins, with the apical angles not acute. Sternum produced 
between the middle coxae into a longer or shorter pointed process, 
the meso-metasternal suture completely obliterated. Legs not 
long, the front tibia armed with three sharp teeth. Glutinous 
lobe of mandible long and straight. Maxilla unarmed, densely 
hairy. Mentum broad and bilobed. Last joint of all the palpi 
rather large. 

The sexual differences are slight. The front tibiae are generally 
a very little more slender in the male, and the abdomen is longi- 
tudinally channelled beneath except in the first group of species. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (18) Sternal process strongly produced. 

2 (11) Sternal process long. 

3 (4) Sternal process slender imperialis, Payk., p. 177. 

4 (3) Sternal process blunt and conical. 

5 (6) Sternal process laterally com- 

pressed tetraspilota, Hope, p. 178. 

6 (5) Sternal process not laterally com- 

pressed. 

7 (10) Elytra spotted. 

8 (9) Median spots of elytra placed 

obliquely auronotata, Blanch., p. 179. 

9 (8) Median spots of elytra placed trans- 

versely tnincata, Arrow, p. 179, 

10 (7) Elytra longitudinally striped .... belli, Janson, p. 180. 

11 (2) Sternal process not long. 

12 (17) Sternal process horizontal. 

13 (14) Mesosternal epimera yellow .... diicalis, White, p. 180. 

14 (13) Mesosternal epimera black. 

15(16) Body slightly tapering behind .. oberthuri, sy>. n.. ■p. 18}. 

16 (15) Body strongly tapering beliind . . malayemis, Wallace, p. 182. 

17 (12) Sternal process pointing obliquely 

downwards pantherina, Parry, p. 182. 

18 (1) Sternal process little produced. 

19 (32) Upper surface opaque. 

20 (31) SurfacB partly metallic, with 

yellowish umrkiugs. 



CLINTERIA. 177 

21 (28) Elytra decorated with numerous 

irregular markings. 

22 (25) Pronotum bearing spots on each 

side ot the middle. 

23 (24) Lobe of the pronotum not spotted, cldoronota, Blanch., p. 183. 
21 (23) Lobe of the pronotum spotted. . . . spuria, Burm., p, 181. 

25 (22) Pronotum bearing a longitudinal 

median line. 

26 (27) Upper surface not hairy spilota, Hope, p. 181. 

27 (20) Upper surface hairy hoffineisteri, White, p. 185. 

28 (21) Elytra decorated each with 4 or 5 

large marks (occasionally re- 
duced). 

29 (30) Lobe of the pronotum spotted. . . . rvjipennis, Jans., p. 186. 

30 (29) Lobe of the pronotum not spotted. kluf)i, Hope, p. 187. 

31 (20) Surface black, with white markings. oa%2«o5a, Jans., p. 188. 

32 (19) Upper surface very shining. 

33 (34) Apical angles of elytra rounded : 

hind tibia with three sharp 

terminal teeth hearseiana, Westw., p. 188. 

34 (33) Apical angles of elytra sharp : 

hind tibia with one sharp ter- 
minal tooth. 

35 (36) Pronotum white-spotted; sternal 

process pointed li-maculafa, F., p. 189. 

36 (35) Pronotum without spots ; sternal 

process ver}^ blunt. 

37 (38) Elytra not distinctly produced at 

the sutural angles cmrulea, Herbst, p. 190. 

38 (37) Elytra distinctly produced at the 

sutural angles pumila, Swartz, p. 191, 

CUnteria tmdtdata, Schoch, ascrihed by that author to "India 
orientalis," I have found by examination of the type (novv in the 
Zurich Museum) to be a Mexican insect {Gi/tnnetis marr/inicoUis, 
Burm.). 

CUnteria tricolorata, Westw., has already been announced 
(Janson, Cist. Ent. ii. 1877, p 147) to be a South African species. 

153. Clinteria imperialis. 

Cetonia imperialis, Paykull, Schonh. Syn. Ins. i, 3, 1817, A2)p., 

p. 58; Btmn., Handb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 303. 
Var. Clinteria incerta, Parry, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. v, 1848^ p. 81, 

pL 11, tig. 5. 

Black, shining beneath and opaque above, with bright j^ellow 
markings consisting of an oval patch at the anterior half of each 
lateral margin of the pronotum, a spot on each mesosternal 
epimeron, an irregular transverse median patch and an apical 
one on each elytron, reaching the outer hut not the inner margin, 
and a small spot at each lateral edge of the tirst and second ventral 
segments. 

It is a large, moderately broad and compact species. The clypeus 
is closely punctured aud rather strongly bilobed. The 'pronotum 



is convex, thinly punctured, regularly rounded at the sides and 
produced into a rather pointed lobe behind. The elytra are 
rather smooth, with a few rows of fine punctures, the outer 
?nargins are moderately sinuated and the apical angles rounded. 
The pygid'mm is closely strigose transversely, the metasternwn 
deeply grooved along the middle and strongly and rugosely 
punctured at the sides, and the ahdomen strongly and irregularly 
punctured, except in tlie middle. The mesostemal process is long 
and slender, and the front tibia is armed with three very sharp 
teeth. 

J . The abdomen is slightly arched but not excavated. 

The var. incerta differs only in the absence of pale spots from 
the mesosternal epimera. 

Length lG-22 mm. ; breadth 9-12 mm. 

Ceylon : Peradeuiya (March), Puudaluoya (April, May). 



15-i. Clinteria tetraspilota. 

Cetonia tetraspilota, Hope, Trans. Zool. Sac. Lond. i, 1835, p. 98 
(1834) ; Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. v, 1847, p. 35, pi. 4, fig. 8. 

Black and opaque above, with the head, legs and lower surface 
shining, and decorated with pale yellow markings consisting of a 
large patch on each side of the pronotum, occasionally broken into 
tw'o, a large irregular median patch upon each elytron touching 
the outer margin, a second large patch occupying the apical angle, 
and a row of minute spots on each side of the metasternum and 
abdomen. 

The form is flat and moderately elongate. The ht'ad is long, 
closely punctured and a little elevated in the middle, and the 
clypeus is rather deeply notched in front. The pronotuni is short, 
narrow in front and broad behind, distinctly punctured and 
strongly lobed at the base. The elytra are strongly striate- 
punctate, with the outer margins gently sinuated and the apical 
angles rounded. The pyyidium is transversely strigose, the jneta- 
sternum smooth in the middle and coarsely punctured at the sides, 
and the abdomen coarsely punctured at the sides and very feebly 
in the middle. The mesosternal process is long, laterally com- 
pressed, and directed obliquely downward, and the front tibia is 
armed with three acute teeth. 

cJ . The abdomen is not arched or excavated, but the front 
tibia is rather narrower and the hind tarsus a little longer than in 
the $. 

Length 18-20 mm. ; breadth 9-11 mm. 

Bombay : Kanara ; Madras. 

Ty2)e not traced (in '■ coll. Sykes "). 

The yellow markings are subject to considerable variation. The 
median and apical patches of the elytra sometimes coalesce, and 
on the other hand the whole of the markings may be greatly 
reduced. 



CLINTEEIA. 179 

155. Clinteria auronotata. 

Gvmnetis aiivonotata, Blanch., Liste Cet. Mus. Paris, 1842, p. 16. 
Clinteria guttifera, Burm.,* Handb. Enf. iii, 1842, p. 300. 
Clinteria valida, Lansb.,* Xotes Lei/d. Mus. ix, 1887, p. 164. 

Coppery-red, metallic indigo, or nearly black ; opaque above, 
with the head, legs and lower surface shining; decorated with 
yellow, orange or vermilion spots, viz., one or two at the lateral 
margin of the pronotum (often wanting), one upon each meso- 
sterual epimerou, three (or less) upon each elytron (the first near 
the middle, the second at the outer edge a little behiud the first, 
and the third at the apical margin), and one on each side of the 
pygidium. The sides of the sternum and abdomen are similarly 
decorated. 

This is one of the largest species of the genus and is rather 
flattened and very broad across the shoulders. The chfpeus is 
rather long and parallel-sided, not very deeply notched, and closely 
punctured. The pronotum is strongly punctured at the front and 
sides, narrow in front and broad behind, the sides very feebly 
curved, and the basal lobe moderately long. The eh/tra are 
strongly punctured in longitudinal lines and two of the dorsal 
intervals are slightly raised posteriorly. The pygidium is opaque, 
finely rugose and sometimes slightly setose. The metastemum is 
coarsely rugose, except in the middle, and the abdomen very 
sparingly punctured. The sternal process is long, slightly oblique, 
laterally compressed and rounded at the apex. 

S . The two terminal teeth of the front tibia are very sharp 
and the third rather feeble and more distant. The abdomen is 
not channelled. 

2 . The three teeth of the front tibia are nearly equidistant. 

Length 17-20 mm. ; breadth 9-12 mm. 

Bombay : Kanara ; Madras : Nilgiri Hills, Trichinopoli, 
Bangalore, Kodaikanal. 

Type in the Paris Museum ; that of valida in M. Oberthiir's 
collection ; co-types of C. guttifera are contained in the Oxford 
and Geneva Museums. 

The two median spots of each elytron sometimes coalesce, 
forming an oblique irregular baud, and there is sometimes a 
marginal yellow line on each side of the pronotum. 



156. Clinteria truncata. 

Clinteria truncata, Arrow,* Ann. Nat. Hist. (7) xix, 1907, p. oo2. 

Black or very dark coppery, velvety and opaque above, with the 
head, legs and underside shining, and with white or yellow 
markings, consisting of a narrow line on each side of the protborax, 
frequently interrupted or absent, a spot upon the mesosternal 
epimerou, two small spots placed close together behind the middle 
of each elytron and frequently coalescing, a minute external apical 



180 CEToyiix-E. 

fepot. a large patch on each side of the pygidiiim, and a row of spots 
on each side of the sternum and abdomen. 

The head is closely punctured, rather long and deeply notched in 
front. The prothorux is finely punctured, attenuated in front and 
strongly and rather sharply lobed behind. The elytra are rather 
parallel-sided, and little narrowed towards the extremity : they 
are coarsely punctured in rows, with two well-marked costse upon 
each. The sternal process is conical, rather long and acuminate. 

In the 5 there are three sharp, equidistant teeth to the front 
tibia. In the S the uppei'most tooth is distant from the other 
two and much shorter. 

The pale markings are liable to reduction and in one specimen 
in the British Museum have disappeared entirely. 

Lenrjth 15-lS mm. ; hreadth 9-10 mm. 

Madras : Nilgiri Hills, Naduvatani (7000 ft.). 

Type in the British Museum. 

157. Clinteria belli. 

CHnteria belli, Jcmsoti* Trans. Ent. Sue. Lond. 1901, p. 180, 
woodcut. 

Greenish or reddish bronze, with the pronotum, elytra and 
pygidium opaque, and the head, legs and lower surface darker 
and shining : decorated with a pale yellow border on each side of 
the pronotum, an oblique stripe upon each elytron extending the 
greater part of its length and trifld at the posterior end, a patch 
upon each side of the pygidium, and small patches on each side of 
the sternum and abdominal segments. 

The 7iead is closely punctured, gently raised and a little less 
punctured along the middle, and the clypeiis is rather deeply 
notched in front. The pronotum is lightly and sparingly punc- 
tured, with the basal lobe strong and rather sharp. The elytra 
have a sutural row of fine i^unctures and an incomplete inner row, 
and the external and apical margins are irregularly and more 
coarsely punctured. The median part of the iryrfidivm is finely 
transversely striolated, the metastemmn is coarsely punctured, and 
the abdomen very sparsely punctured at the sides. The sternal 
2)roc€ss is an elongate cone directed obliquely downwards. 

(S . The abdomen is faintly channelled along the middle and 
the front tibiae are more slender than those of the female. 

Length 16-17 mm. ; hreadth 9-5 mm. 

Bombay: Kanara (T. R. Bdl). 

Type in Mr. H. E. Andrewes's Collection. 

158. Clinteria ducalis. 

Cliuteriii ducalis, White,* Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1850, p. 15, pi. 41, 

fig. 4. 
Clinteria malavensis, Gestro (nee JJ alhice), Ami. Mus. Geneva, {2) 

vi, 1888, p. 99. 

Sooty black or blackish purple above, with the head, legs and 



CLINTEHIA. 181 

lower surface shining black ; decorated with pale yellow markings 
consisting of two or more minute spots placed transversely across 
the middle of the pronotum, one on each mesosternal epimeron, 
an irregular median patch upon each elytron, reaching the outer 
but not the inner margin, and a transverse patch adjoining the 
apical margin, a minute spot (often absent) on each side of the 
pygidium, and a double series on each side of the abdomen. 

Moderately elongate and not very convex above. The head is 
closely and rather finely punctured and deeply notched in front. 
The protliorax is rather strongly but irregularly punctured and the 
eh/tra are coarsely punctate-striate. The pygidium is sculptured 
with fine transvei'se punctures, the metasternnm finely rugose and 
clothed with tawny hairs, and the abdomen very sparingly punctured. 
The sternal process is short, stout and blunt. 

cJ . The abdomen is faintly channelled beneath and the pro- 
thorax is more tapered anteriorly than in the female, with the 
sides almost straight. 

Length 13-17 mm. ; breadth 7-8 mm. 

Assam: Silhet; Burma: K.^ven-ni {Dohert)j\Vegw. {Atlcinson')-^ 
Tenasserim : Plapu, Moulmeiu (Z. Fea, May 1887). 

Tgi^e in the British Museum. 

159. Clinteria oberthuri, sp. n. 

Deep copper-colour or black, with the pronotum, elytra and 
pygidium opaque and the lower surface very thinly hairy. There 
is a minute pale yellow spot on each side of the middle of the 
pronotum, and each elytron is decorated with a pale yellow median 
patch at the outer margin, \\\i\\ a short lobe directed towards the 
suture, and a lunate apical spot at the posterior margin, not quite 
reaching the suture. There is a minute spot in each lateral angle 
of the pygidium and a single or double row of spots on each side 
of the abdomen beneath. 

The body is moderately elongate and depressed, slightly tapering 
behind. The head is not very long, feebly sinuated at the front 
margin, coarsely and closely punctured, with a rugose pit on each 
side between the eyes. The j)ronotum is thinly punctured, feebly 
curved at the sides, and broadly and bluntly lobed behind. The 
elytra are punctate-striate, strongly sinuated behind the shoulders 
and rounded at the apical angles. The pygidium is closely striated 
transversely, the metastemum coarsely rugose at the sides, and the 
abdomen very coarsely punctured beneath. The sternal process is 
horizontal, conical and bluntly produced, and the front tibia bears 
three acute teeth. 

The sexes are almost identical. 

Length 14-1.5 mm. : breadth 7-o-8"5 mm. 

Sikkim : Karsiang {li. P. Bretandeau). 

Type in the British Museum ; co-types in coll. E. Oberthiir. 

The species is exceedingly like C. dacalis, but the clypeus is a 



182 CEToxiix.?:. 

little broader and shorter, and the thoracic lobe shorter and 
blunter. 



160. Clinteria malayensis. 

Clinteria malavensis, Wallace* Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., (3) iv, 
1868, p. o3l" 

A'elvety black or purplish black, with the clypeus, scutellum, 
legs and lower surface shining black or deep metallic crimson ; 
decorated with two minute yellow spots near tlie front angles of 
the pronotum and two similar ones near the middle, a large patch 
beyond the middle of each elytron at the outer margin and a small 
quadrate or lunular one at the apical margin. There may be in 
addition a minute spot at each basal angle of the pygidium and a 
double series on each side of the abdomen. 

The shape is short, compact and convex. The head is 
moderately punctured and not very deeply notched in front. The 
'pronohim is irregularly punctui*ed and the elytra coarsely punctate- 
striate. The pygulmm is finely transversely strigose, the meta- 
.sternum finely rugose and clothed with tawny hairs, and the 
abdomen sparingly punctured. The sternal 2^''0cess is short, stout 
and blunt. 

I have not seen a male. 

Length I'd mm.; breadth 8 mm. 

Burma : Teinzo ; Pexaxg ; Malacca. 

Tj/jje in the British Museum. 

This species is exceedingly like C. dvcalis, but a little more 
stoutly built, the yellow markings are rather reduced and the 
sculpture of the head and pygidium is not quite the same. 

The type specimen of C. flavonotata, G. & P., the origin of 
•which is uncertain, is -without the apical elytral spots, which are 
present in that of C. malayensis and a similar specimen in the 
Genoa Museum. 

161. Clinteria pantherina. 

Clinteria pantherina, Parry, Trans. Ent. Soc. Land, v, 1848, p. 82, 
pi. 11, lig. 9. 

Deep opaque chocolate colour, brighter and more reddish upon 
the elytra and pygidium, with the clypeus, legs and lower surface 
deep coppery red and shining ; decorated with minute pale spots 
generally distributed as follows : — four placed rectangularly upon 
the anterior half of the pronotum, two upon each mesosternal 
epimeron, a spot common to both elytra immediately behind the 
scutellum and about nine others upon each, viz., one at the anterior 
margin, one at the outer margin just behind the shoulder, a pair 
nlaced transversely behind the middle of the outer margin, a 
pair just before the posterior margin, two near the sutural margin 
behuid the middle, and one or two upon the anterior part of the 



CLIXTERIA. 183 

disc. There are also one or more spots at each lateral margin of 
the pvgidium and a single or double series on each side of the 
sternum and abdomen. 

The form is compact, convex, and slightly tapering from the 
shoulders to the apex. The head is densely punctured and its 
front margin feebly bilobed. ThQ proihomx is moderately strongly 
and uniformly punctured, strongly narrowed in front and furnished 
with a rather narrow lobe behind. The ehjtra are rather coarsely 
punetate-striate, and the pygicUum and the sides of the meta- 
stenium and abdomen are slightly rugose and hairy. The sternal 
j^rocess is short and conical and points obliqui^ly downward. The 
front tibia is rather broad and armed with three sharp teeth. 

d" . The abdomen is not arched or channelled. 

Lentjth 13-14 mm. ; breadth 7-8 mm. 

Cetlon : Peradeniya. 

I'yjje in coll. O. E. Janson. 



162. Clinteria chloronota. 

Clinteria chloronota, Blanch., Cat. Coll. Ent. Paris, 1850, p. 33. 
Var. Clinteria pumila, V. d. Poll (nee Swartz), Notes Leyd. Mus. 
xiii, 1891, p. 184. 

Deep chocolate colour, olive-green or black, opaque above, 
with the head, legs and lower surface shining and metallic and, 
together with the pygidium, more or less clothed with greyish set*. 
The sides of the pronotum are narrowly bordered with white, 
there is a pair of spots at the middle of the disc and sometimes 
an anterior pair placed a little farther apart ; the elytra are 
decorated with a minute common spot immediately behind the 
scutellum and about ten others upon each, the lateral and apical 
ones often larger than the rest and sometimes uniting together. 
The first spot on each elytron is closely adjacent to the thoracic 
lobe. The pygidium has an incomplete white border, which 
frequently breaks up into two antei'ior and two lateral spots, 
there are large patches at the sides of the sternum and usually a 
double row (sometimes coalescing) at the sides of the abdomen. 

It is compact in shape and not much narrowed behind. The 
head is densely punctured, with the chjpens not long and rather 
feebly emarginate in front. The prothorax is narrow, with the 
sides angulated in the middle and distinctly diverging or nearly 
parallel behind ; it is moderately punctured and tlie basal lobe is 
strong. The elytra are strongly punetate-striate, with rather 
blunt apical angles. The pygidium is rugosely punctured, the 
metasiernum is rugose at the sides and very sparingly punctured 
in the middle, and the abdomen almost smooth. The sternal 
process is blunt and very little produced. 

cJ . The abdomen is not hollowed. The front tibia is armed 
witii two apical teeth placed close together and an almost obsolete 
upper one. 



184 CETONIIN^. 

$ . The front tibia is broad and armed with three rather blunt 
teeth. 

Leiigih 12-15 mm. ; hreadth 7*5-9 mm. 

Ceylon: Kandy, Dikoya, Maskeliya, Pattipola {.Tan. -April). 

Tiipe in the Paris Museum. 

Mr. E. E. Greeu states that this species devours the blossoms 
of Crotalaria and prevents the formation of the seed. 

C. chloronota varies very greatly in coloration, form and size. 
The single specimen which Mr. Van de Poll has tentatively 
suggested as C. jaanila, Swartz (a very different insect), is almost 
free from opaque bloom and the pronotum is less closeW punctured 
than usual. 

1G3. Clinteria spuria. 

Cliuteria spuria, Burm., Handb. Ent. v, 1847, p. 5-j5. 

Deep chocolate colour, opaque above, with the head, pygidium 
and lower surface coppery and shining; decorated with yellow 
markings consisting of a narrow marginal line on each side of the 
pronotum, a pair of minute spots in the middle and one upon the 
basal lobe, one upon each mesosternal epimeron, and ujion each 
elytron an anterior spot, a pair placed transversely behind the 
shoulder, a minute one near the middle of the inner margin, 
another behind it, a short transverse mark at the outer margin, 
a spot behind it, and a sinuous mark at the apex. The pygidium 
has a spot on each side and a short longitudinal mark in the middle 
of the base, and the abdomen has a double row of spots on each 
side. 

Rather short and compact in form. The head is finely rugose 
with the front margin feebly excised. The pronotum is moderately 
closely punctured, and is narrow in front, with the sides regularly 
curved and the basal lobe not long. The elijira are coarsely 
punctate-striate, and the apical angles are slightly rounded. The 
pi/gidiian and the sides of the metasiermon are densely rugose, and 
the sides of the abdomen slightly so. The sternal jJ^'OCtss is 
scarcely produced and very blunt. The front tihia is armed with 
three sharp teeth. 

(S . The abdomen is feebly channelled. 

Length 13-14 mm. ; hreadth 7-8 mm. 

Bhutan; Assam: Khasi Hills, Manipur ; Bukma : X. Khyen 
Hills. 

164. Clinteria spilota. 

Cetonia spilota, Hope* Gray's Zool. Misc. 1831, p. 2.5. 
Cetonia continis, id.,* I. c. 

Gj'muetis coiitiuis, G. 4" P-, Monogr. Cet. 18-J3, p. 378, pi. 77, fig. 5. 
Gymuetis viridipe-s. G. Sf P.,* /. c. p. 364, pi. 73, tig. 5 ; Schanm^ 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1849, p. 259. 

Chocolate-red, sometimes with the prothorax and the sutural 



CLIHTERIA. 185 

region of the elytra, sometimes the greater part or the whole of 
the surface, dark green ; the upper surface opaque, with partial 
metallic lustre, the lower surface shining and clothed upon the 
sternum and sides of the abdomen with long yellow hairs. The 
upper surface is decorated with pale yellow markings, consisting 
of a lateral border extending the whole length of each side of the 
pronotum, a narrow median longitudinal line and a small elongate 
spot upon the posterior lobe frequently united with the median line, 
which then extends from the front to the hind margin ; the elytra 
bear variable scattered markings, sometimes consisting of about 
ten spots, sometimes coalescing into indefinite patches, but always 
with an indication of a transverse postmedian fascia upon each. 
The pygidium is marked with three spots, the middle one pro- 
duced towards the apex, and the abdomen has a line of transverse 
spots on each side. 

It is a small elongate species. The head is densely granulated 
and the chjimis feebly notched in front. The jrrotliomx is rather 
narrow, strongly tapered anteriorly and moderately lobed behind ; 
the upper surface is distinctly and rather uniformly punctured. 
The elytra are coarsely striate-punctate, with the sides strongly 
siuuated and the apical angles well marked. The pyijidium is 
finely rugose, and the metastemum and abdomen are rather coarsely 
punctured. The sternal proceas is very short and blunt. 

6 . The abdomen is strongly arched and excavated beneath. 

Length 12-1-1 mm. ; hreadth 6-7 mm. 

Sikkim: Mungphu ; Assam: Karsiang (5000 ft.) ; United 
Pkovinces : Landaur, Mussoori ; Punjab : Simla (7000 ft., May) ; 
Bengal : Eajpur. 

Type in the British Museum ; types of confims and viridipes in 
the Oxford Museum. 

Found on flowers of white stonecrop by ^Ir. X. Anuandale at 
.Simla and upon thistles by Capt. Boys, according to Dr. Schaum. 



165. Clinteria hoffnieisteri. 

Clinteria hoffmeisteri, White* Ann. Xat. Hist, xx, 1847, p. 311 ; 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1856, p. 15, pi. 41, tig. 5. 

Obscurely coppery, opaque above, with the head, pygidium, legs 
and lower surface shining, and clothed above and below, except at 
the middle of the metasternum and abdomen, with rather long 
yellowish hairs. The outer half of each elytron is brick-red, and 
the upper surface is also decorated with pale yellow markings as 
follows: — the lateral margins of the prothorax and a narrow 
median line, which is continued upon the exposed apex of the 
scutellum, an outer marginal stripe on the elytron, which is con- 
tinued, more or less interruptedly, just within the sutural margin 
from the apex to about the middle, and an oblique discoidal stripe 
upon each elytron at the junction of the light and dark parts, 
continuous with the prothoracic border and not quite attaining 



186 



C£TOMI>'.¥. 



the posterior margin. The pygidiuin is decorated also with a 
median and two lateral spots, which are sometimes confluent. 

This is a broad, robust and convex species. The head is finely 
rugose, with the clypeal margins reflexed and strongly rounded, 
but very feebly excised in front. The 2>^'onotum is closely punc- 
tured, rather narrow, contracted in front and broadly lobed 
behind. The elytra are punctate-striate, with the sides strongly 
sinuated behind the shoulders and the apical angles slightly 
rounded. The pyrfidium is finely rugose, the metastermnn and 
abdomen very spariugly punctured in the middle and densely hairy 
at the sides. The sternal process is extremely short aud blunt, and 
th.e front tibia armed with three sharp teeth. 

d" . The abdomen is broadly channelled along the middle. 

I have not seen the female. 

Length 14-15 mm. : breadth 7'5 mm. 

Bengal. 

Typie in the British Museum. 

This species is wrongly attributed to Java in the Munich 
Catalogue, Mr. Janson has received examples from India. 



IGG. Clinteria rufipeiinis. 

Cliuteria rufipeiinis, Janson* Tlie Entumuloyid, xxii, 1889, p. 100. 

Deep chocolate-red, opaque above, with the elytra brighter, and 
decorated with bright yellow markings consisting of a very broad 
lateral band on each side of the pronotum, indented in the middle, 
and a spot at the apex of the basal lobe, 
the mesosternal epimera, an anterior 
discoidal spot upon each elytron, a median 
spot nearer the suture, a lateral one a 
little posterior to the last and two apical 
ones, a large patch on each side of the 
pygidium and the sides of the sternum 
and abdomen. The lower surface is 
shining black, the legs and sternal pro- 
cess are red, and the head and scutellum 
coppery. 

Oval in shape, aud moderately broad 
and convex. The head is rugosely punc- 
tured and deeply notched in front. The 
j_tronotu)n is rather narrow in front, gently 
rounded at the sides and strongly lobed 
behind. The elytra have impressed lines of circular punctures, 
the sides are strongly sinuated behind the shoulders, and the 
apical angles are slightly rounded. The pygidium is rugose along 
the middle line and thinly pubescent, the vietasterni'in is smooth 
in the middle, and the abdomen very sparingly and minutely punc- 
tured. The sternal 2>i'0C(ss is very short and conical. 




Fig. 42. 

Clinteria riijipoiniri. 



CLINTERIA. 187 

d" . The abdomen is strongly arched and grooved. 
Length 14 mm. ; breadth 7 mm. 
Ceylon : Colombo. 
Type in coll. O. E. Janson. 

167. Clinteria klugi. 

Cetonia klugi, Hope,* Grays Zool. Misc. 1831, p. 2o. 

Gymnetisi 12-giittata, Blanch., Liste Cet. Mus. Paris, 1842, p. 16. 

Cliuteria hilaris, Burm., Ilandb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 303. 

Clinteria Havopicta, Blanch., Cat. Col. Mus. Paris, 1850, p. 37. 

Var. Clinteria decora, Janson,^ Cist. Ent. ii. 1881, p. 603. 

Var. Gymnetis niodesta, Blanch.,* Liste Cet. Mus. Paris, 1842, 

p. 16 ; Cat. Col. Mus. Paris, 18o0, p. 37. 
Tiuclirea hilari.s, Thomson, Le Naturaliste, 18S0, p. 268. 

Black or deep reddish chocolate, opaque, with the bead, legs 
and lower surface sliining ; decorated with deep yellow or orange 
markings, consisting of a broad marginal baud upon the pronotum, 
arising in the front angles and a little incurved near the hind 
angles, but frequently more or less abbreviated and sometimes 
absent, a large spot on each mesosternal epimeron, an irregular 
transverse median band on each elytron, sometimes broken into 
two spots, a spot anterior to this, and two apical spots, a patch 
on each side of the pygidium, and the sides of the sternum and 
abdomen. 

The form is moderately elongate and depressed. The head is 
finely and rugosely punctured and rather deeply incised in front. 
The prothora.v is regularly curved at the sides, strongly narrowed 
in front and moderately lobed behind. The elijtra have rather 
strongly and closely punctured strise, they are gently sinuated at 
the sides and almost rectangular at the apical angles. The 
_l>ygidium is finely strigose, the metasternum is coarsely punctured 
at the sides, and each ventral ser/rncnt has a transverse line of large 
punctures. The sternal process is short and conical. 

cf . The abdomen is strongly arched and channelled beneath. 

Length 13-17 mm. ; breadth 6"5-9 mm. 

Bombay : Jgatpuri, Kanara ; Wesieex Bengal : Sultanpur, 
Paresnath, 4000-4400 it., April. 

Type in the British Museum ; types oi Jlavopicta and modesta in 
the Paris Museum, that of decora in coll. O. E. Janson. 

C. Idugi is a very variable species in size, relative proportions, 
degree of convexity, and pattern. The yellow markings vary 
considerably in tint and may become broken up, reduced, or partly 
(perhaps entirely) absent, and in certain specimens those near the 
elytral suture even show a tendency to coalesce in a longitudinal 
direction. The following are well-marked varieties : — 

Yar. felix, nov. This is a well-marked local colour-variety in 
which the bright pigment has reached the fullest development. The 
lateral yellow patches upon the pronotum cover the whole surface 
except a nearly straight median stripe ; the median and posterior 



188 CETONllN.E. 

patches of the elytra are all united, forniiug a broad C-shaj)ed 
mark upon each, and the remaining anterior spot is almost united 
to the last. Three similar specimens taken many years ago by 
Col. Buckley are in the British Museum. They were captured in 
North India but the exact locality has not been recorded. 

Var. decora, Janson. This is smaller and narrower than the 
typical form, the elytra are more strongly sculptured, the yellow 
border to the prothorax is narrow and the elytral markings more 
or less reduced. 

A'ar. modesta, Blanch. This is a large variety in m hich the yellow 
markings have undergone considerable reduction. 

1G8. Clinteria caliginosa. 

Cliiiteria caliginosa, Jamon, The Entoimihyist, xxii, 1880, p. 101. 

Black, opaque above, with the head, scutellum, legs and lower 
surface shining ; decorated with white markings consisting of a 
narrow marginal line on each side of the prouotum, extending the 
whole length but sometimes interrupted in the middle, a pair of 
spots close together and frequently coalescing at the middle of 
each elyti'on, two adjoining the outer margin posteriorly and one 
a little before the apical angle. 'J'here is a large spot on each side 
of the pygidium and the side pieces of the metasternum generally 
bear a similar spot. 

The fori)i is rather broad, depressed above and scarcely narrowed 
behind. The head is rugosely punctured, and the margins of the 
cliipeus rather strongly retiexed and deeply notched in front. The 
pronotuTii is strongly punctured, the sides regularly curved and 
strongly contracted in front and the base not strongly lobed. 
The eliftra are deeply punctate-striate, with two of tlie dorsal 
intervals raised, the sides are moderately sinuated and the apical 
angles broadly rounded. The pj/i/idhim is finely strigose and the 
sides of the metastenium and abdomen are moderately punctured. 
The sieriud process is very short, but compressed and rather 
sharply pointed. 

J . The abdomen is arched and the uppermost tooth of the 
front tibia is rather distant from the other two and obtuse. 

LoHjth 12 mm.; hreadtJi 7'5 mm. 

Madkas: Trichinopoli, Trivandrum, Kodaikanal. 

Ti/jie in coll. O. E. Janson. 



IGO. Clinteria hearseiana. 

('li)iterirt iioarseiaua, U'ci^fw.,* YVa/.s. L'ltt. Soc. Loud, v, 1849, 
p. 14!>, pi. 1(), fig. S. 

Shining black above and below, often with the pronotum 
coppery and the elytra slightly metallic. The legs are reddish, 
and there are white markings consisting of an irregular lateral 



CLINTERIA. 180 

line and a basal spot on each side of the pronotum and a spot at 
the apex of the basal lobe, the raesosternal epiiiiera, and upon 
each elytron a median anterior spot, one about the middle near 
the suture, one before the apical angle and two adjohiing the 
outer margin behind the middle ; a large spot on each side of the 
pygidium, the sides of the metasternum and a double row of spots 
ou each side of the abdomen are also white. 

The species is very smooth, rather convex, oval and slightly 
elongate. The head is closely and finely punctured, and the 
dypeus is dilated at the sides and rather narrow and sharply 
bilobed in front. The pronotum is finely and sparsely punctured, 
somewhat narrow in front, strongly rounded at the sides, and 
furnished with a rather pointed basal lobe. The eh/tra have deeply 
impressed rows of strong punctures, the sides are gently sinuated 
behind the shoulders and the apical angles rounded. The 
pygidium is finely rugose in the middle, the metasternum coarsely 
punctured at the sides, and the ahdomen finely and thinly punctured. 
The sternal process is short but pointed. The ler/s are rather 
Blender, the front tibia armed with three sharp teeth, the hind tibia 
produced into three sharp points at the extremity. 
r^ . The abdomen is broadly channelled beneath. 

Length 1-1 mm. ; breadth 8 mm. 

W. Bengal : Paresnath (4000-4400 ft., May). 

Type in the Oxford Museum. 

Mr. Annandale tells me that he found this insect in enormous 
numbers upon a flowering shrub in the above locality. 



170. Clinteria 14-maciilata. 

Cetonia 14-maculata, F., Ent. Sysf. i, 2, 1792, p. loO. 

Cetonia coeriilea, Kanneyieter (uec Herbst), Notes Leyd. Mus. 

xiii, 1891, p. 183. 
Cetonia coerulea, var. megaspilota, Kanneyieter,* Notes Leyd. 

Mus. xiii, 1891, p. 183. 

Shining deep metallic green or blue, decorated above with white 
spots, as follows : — a minute one behind each front angle of the 
pronotum, a larger one before each hind angle (one or both 
frequently absent), one on each mesosternal epimeron, one imme- 
diately behind the thoracic lobe and common to both elytra, and 
about seven to eleven others upon each elytron, the principal being, 
one behind the front margin, three adjoining the outer margin, and 
three near the inner margin, alternating with the last, the third 
occupying the apical angle. The pygidium has a large white patch 
on each side, and the sides of the sternum and abdomen are partly 
or entirely barred with white. 

The form is oval and rather convex. The head is densely punc- 
tured, and the dypeus long, narrowed in front and rather deeply 
notched. The pronotum is finely punctured, narrowed in front 
and provided with a rather strong and pointed lobe behind. The 



190 CETOXllX.t. 

elytra have incomplete rows of very coarse puuctures, the sides 
are strongly sinuated hehind the shoulders, and the apical angles 
are sharp. There is a slight depression in the soutellar region. 
1\\Q pllilidlum is finely rugose and thinly clothed with tawny setae, 
and the metastenmm and ahdomen are smooth in the middle and 
iiiiely punctured at the sides. The sternal process is feehle but 
rather sharply pointed. The Icfjs are rather short, the front tibia 
is tridentate, and the extremity of the hind tibia is produced 
beneath into a single tooth. 

c? . The abdomen is slightly channelled and the front tibia 
rather slender, with the third tooth almost obsolete. 

Length 14-10 mm.; breadth 7*5-9 mm. 

Ckylon : Colombo, Trincomali. 

Ttipe not traced (in coll. Lee); that of var. rnegaspilvta in coll. 
O. E. Janson. 

The var. mcfjaspilota , Kanueg., is distinguished only by the 
rather large size of the white spots. A series of specimens received 
by Mr. E. E. Green from Ti-incomali belong to this form. 

171. Clinteria ccerulea. (Plate I, fig. 8.) 

Cetoui.a coevulea, Herhst, Fuessh/'s Archiv, iv, 1783, p. 19, pi. 19. 

tip-. ;50 ; Xatursijst. Kiif. iii, 1790, p. 2U, pi. 30, tig. 2 ; Oliv., Ent. 

i, 6, 1789, p. 47, pi. 5, tig. 31 a. 
Gymnetis ccerulea, G. S; P.. Monogr. Get. 1833, p. 378, pi. 77, tig. 4. 
Clinteria ccerulea, Bnrm., Handh. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 305. 

Shining blue-black, with the prothorax golden-red, its margins and 
the head metallic-green, and with five to seven small white spots 
upon each elytron, including one just behind the front margin, a 
second directly behind that, two near the sutural margin and two 
at the lateral margin upon the posterior half. The pygidium has 
a large irregular patch on each side, and the sides of the sternum, 
hind coxa) and abdomen are more or less spotted with white. 

The shape is oval and rather convex. The head, is densely 
punctured and the chjpeus long and moderately notched in front. 
The iironotum is very finely aud sparingly punctured, very convex, 
narrowed in front and strongly lobed behind. The eh/fra have 
rows of very coarse puuctures, the sides are strongly sinuated and 
the apical angles sharp. There is a slight depression in the 
scutellar region. The jiggidium is finely rugose aud clothed with 
tawny setae, and the mctastcrniim and abdomen ai*e smooth in the 
middle and moderately punctured at the sides. The sternal pro- 
cess is very short and a little compi-essed laterally. The legs are 
rather short, ihe front tibia is tridentate, and the extremity of the 
hind tibia is produced beneath into a single tooth. 

cT . The front tibia is more slender than that of the female and 
the upptn-most tooth is almost obsolete. 

Lngth 14-1 mm.; breadth 7"5-9 mm. 

Madras : Coimbatore. 



CLINTERIA. 191 

172. Clinteria pumila. 

Cetonia pumila, Sicartz* Schiinh. Si/n. Ins. i, 3, 1817, App., p. 47. 
Clinteria pumila, Burm., Handh. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 30G. 

Black, very smooth aud shining, the elytra sprinkled with small 
white spots, viz., upon each, three near the sutural margin ex- 
tending from the middle to the apical angle, two placed rather 
obliquely in the anterior part, live or six placed irregulax-ly along 
the lateral margin and one sublateral one behind the middle. The 
sides of the lirst three ventral segments bear transverse white 
marks at the posterior margins, and the pygidium and sides of the 
body are thinly clothed with short tawny hairs. 

The species is small and rather narrow in form. The head is 
densely and rugosely punctured and the dijpeus rather feebly 
emarginate in front. The ]yroHotum is very lightly ])unctured upou 
the disc and rather strongly at the front and sides. The hind 
angles are completely rounded and the posterior lobe is rather 
obtuse. The elijtra are strongly aud coarsely punctured in 
irregular rows, the lateral margins strongly sinuated behind the 
shouldei's and the apical angles produced. T]\e pygidium is rather 
linely strigose, the metasternum coarsely rugose, and the abdomen 
roughly punctured at the sides. The mesosternal irrocess is dis- 
tinctly prominent and a little compressed at the end. The front 
tibia bears three teeth, the uppermost short and obtuse, and the 
hind tibia is produced beneath into a single tooth. 

Length 12 mm. ; breadth 7 mm. 

Bengal (?) ; Ceylon: Hambautota (November — T. B. Fletcher). 

Type in the Stockholm Museum. 

This description is made from the type specimen, which is in 
bad condition, but I believe is specifically distinct from the two 
preceding. The spots upon the elytra are as in C. l-i-mamlata, 
but there are none upon the pronotum or pygidium ; the clypeus 
is only slightly notched at the margin and the elytra are markedly 
produced at the apical angles. It is very different from the 
variety of C. chloronota described by Mr. Van de Poll as probably 
C. pumila (Notes Leyd. Mus. xiii, 1891, p. 184). 

Mr. Bainbrigge Fletcher has brought two specimens (which 
also are not very well preserved) from Ceylon. These agree with 
the type, except that in one the pygidium bears two minute white 
spots on each side and the elytra bear a common spot adjacent to 
the scntellum. 

Group 6. LOMAPTERIDES. 

This group consists of the large genus Lomaptera, peculiar to 
New Guinea and the neighbouring islands, together with a few 
smaller Oriental genera. The species are of rather large size, flat, 
elongate, and remarkably smooth and shining, without any super- 
imposed ornamentation and almost devoid of hairs. The clypeus is 
deeply excised in front and the pronotum is produced into a strong 



192 CEToyiix.i:. 

lobe above the scutelluni, which is very long, narrow and sharply 
pointed. 

The Indian species are very few and belong to the two genera 
shown below, 

TahU of the Genera. 

1 (2) Clypeus spinose at the sides Agestrata, p. 192. 

2 (1) Clypeus deeply cleft Thavmastopeus, p. 194. 



Genus AGESTRATA. 

Ao^estrata, E^chscholfz, Zool. Atlas, i, 1829, p. 1.3 ; Bitrm., Handb, 
"^Ent. 'in, 1842, p. ;iOG ; G. ^- P., Monogi: Cet. 1833, p. 304 ; 
Lacord., Gen. Col. iii, 18o6, p. 501. 

Tetragouus, G. 4" P-, t- c p. 42. (No type.) 

Type, Afjfstrata Ivzonka, Eschs. (Philippine Is.). 

Range. Tropical Asia. 

Body very elongate and parallel-sided, extremely smooth and 
shining. Clypeus flat and rather narrow, with the sides elevated 
and the front margin very broadly excised, leaving the angles 
acutely projecting. Eyes large and prominent. Club of the 
antenna long. Pronotum flat, with the front angles indistinct, 
the hind angles rounded aiid the base strongly lobed above the 
scutellum. Scutellum long, narrow and very acute at the apex, 
which projects beyond the thoracic lobe. Elytra very smooth, 
gently sinuated beliind the shoulders. Pygidium short and broad, 
with a transverse carina producing a ventral face. Mesosternal 
process forming a short blunt tubercle : the meso-metasternal 
suture very distinct. Front tibia armed with three sharp teeth, 
rather distant from each other. Four posterior tibiae without 
internal fringes or external spines, but produced into several sharp 
spines at the extremity. ]\Iandible with the exterior lobe slight 
and not long, the interior flange ratlier broad and strong. Maxilla 
stout, witli the lobes short and thickly hairy. Mentum very 
deeply cleft. 

The abdomen and legs are alike iu the two sexes, but the club 
of the antenna is longer in the male and the sides of the prothorax 
are more divergent behind. 

There is only one exceedingly variable species known in our 
region. 



173. Agestrata orichalcea. (Fig. 2, p. 5.) 

Scarabaeus orichalceus, Linn., Amwu. Acad, vii, 1769, p. 507 ; 

Schaum, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1849, p. 259. 
Cetouia cliiuensis», Fab.,* !Syst. Ent. 1775, p. 42. 
Scaiab;x!us oblongus, Broun, lUustr. of Zool. 1770, p. 122, pi. 49, 

tiir. 4. 



AGESTKATA. 



193 



Agestrata chinensis, G. Sf P., Monocjr. Cet. 1833, p, 305, pi. 59, 
fig. 2 ; Bunn., Handb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 309. 

{Var. Cetonia nigrita, Fah., Syst. Eyit. 1775, p. 43. 
Agestrata gagates, Hope, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1841, p. 33. 
Agestrata withilli, Hope, I. c. 

Var. Agestrata samsou, Sharp, Ent. Moii. Mar/, xi, 1874, p. 35 
(n. syn.). 

Metallic blue, green, purplish or black, with the coxae, femora, 
mesosternal epimera, pygidium and sides of the sternum and 
abdomen orange-red, and sometimes an inconspicuous narrow 
patch of the same colour at the lateral edge of the prothorax. 

The body is very long and narrow and rather flat. The chjpeus 
is narrow and rather straight-sided, lightly punctured, but rather 
more strongly in front. The p^'onotum is very finely coriaceous, 
with minute punctures which are most distinct at the sides. The 
lateral margins are finely raised, the posterior angles well marked 
but rounded, and the basal lobe rather pointed but not long. The 
eh/tra are very long, smooth, scarcely perceptibly punctured, 
except at the sides, and rather rugose at the extremity. The 
outer margins are ratlier feebly sinuated behind the shoulders, the 
inner margins (at least at the posterior half) strongly raised, and 
the apical margins a little excised beside the apical angle, which, 
is produced. T\\e pyuidium is very short, broad and transversely 
carinated, with its surface strigose. The lower surface of the 
body is very smooth, but the sides of .the metasternum are very 
finely and densely punctured. 

The club of the antenna is longer than the footstalk in both 
sexes and considerably longer in the male, although varying greatly. 
In the latter sex the sides of the pronotum are more divergent 
behind, the last abdominal segment is deeply emargiuate in the 
middle and the ventral part of the pygidium correspondingly 
lobed. 

Length 36-46 mm.; breadth 15-22 mm. 

Ceylok; Madras: Travancore; Bombay; Assam: Silhet ; 
Tekasserim ; Andaman Is. ; Malay Peninsula ; Sumatra ; 
Borneo ; China ; etc. 

Type not traced ; type of clilnensis in the British Museum, 
those of gagates and withilli in the Oxford Museum ; the type of 
nigrita was originally in the British Museum, but cannot now be 
found; that of samson in coll. Oberthiir. 

This common insect is remarkably inconstant in size, colour, 
sculpture, etc., and tends to produce local races. The var. samson 
is a large form with the marginal line of the pronotum incomplete, 
the clypeus as broad as it is long, with the sides gently curved, 
and the pygidium smooth in the middle. It is doubtful if these 
features are more than individual aberrations. 

The beetle is commonly found in the neighbourhood of Screw- 
pines {Pandanus) and Mr. H. N. Eidley tells me he has never 
seen them elsewhere than upon or flying round these. He has 
found them very destructive to ornamental Fandanus shrubs 

o 



194 cETo^-II^M. 

growing in tubs at Singapore, the woody stems being tunnelled 
through just below the poiut of origin of the branches, causing 
them to die off. In one of the cavities so formed, JNIr. Eidley 
found a cocoon coutaiuing a specimen of A<jestmta orichalcea, so 
that the responsibility of its larva seems to be established. The 
larvae were found by the late Col. C. T. Bingham at Pandanus 
roots in Tenasserim and recently emergetl beetles were crawling 
upon the aerial roots. One of the larvie wns the prey of a larva 
of the great parasitic "Wasp, Scolia {Triscolia) riihiginosa, Fab., and 
it may be assumed that this species is the exclusive food of that 
parasite. 

Genus THAUMASTOPEUS. 

Thainuastopeos, Kraatz, Deiditche Ent. Zeitachr. 1883, p. 28, 
Thaumastopeus, Kraatz, D. E. Z. xxix, 1885, p. 350 (emend.). 
Thaumastopfeus, Heller, D. E. Z. 1899, p. 353. 

Type, Loma'ptera moJiniJcei, Thoms. (Java). 

Ran[ie. Tropical Asia. 

Elongate and very tlat, smooth, shining and naked. Clypeus 
long and very deeply cleft, with sharp angles. Pronotum rather 
broad, with the posterior margin transverse at the sides and in 
the middle produced into a strong lobe, almost concealing the 
scutellum ; the posterior angles sharp and a little produced, 
covering the raesosternal epimera. Scutellum long and very acute 
at the apex, with the sides concave. Elytra scarcely sinuated 
laterally, with the outer margins rather abruptly deflexed all round 
except at the apical angles. Pygidium short and broad, tumid, 
and inflexed beneath. Sternal process long and slender, the 
meso-nietasternal suture entirely obliterated. Legs moderately 
long, the front tibia armed with three sharp teeth, the middle and 
hind tibiae acutely digitate at the extremities. Outer lobe of 
mandible short, not stronjr. Maxilla rather long, densely hairy. 
Mentum not long, strongly bilobed, the lobes very divergent. 

Kei) to the Species. 

1 (6) Mesostenial process not tuborculate at 

the base. 

2 (5) Pygidium moderately striated. 

3 (4) Pronotum strig-ose at the sides pidli/s, liillb., p. 195. 

4 (3) Pronotum pmictured at the sides .... nicobaricus, Jans., p. 196. 

5 (2) Pygidium extremely densely and 

' deeply striated ceylonicus,\A. Poll, p. 196. 

6 (1) Mesosternal process tuberculate at the 

base pi(f/nator, Hell., p. 197. 

Lomaptera luctuosa, Thorns., described as au Indian species, I 
have found by examination of the type, lent me by M. Eenc 
Oherthiir, to be a species from Timor, 'rhaumastopcxis timoriensis, 
AVall. 



TIIAUMASTOPEUS. 195 

174. Thaumastopeus pullus. 

Cetonia nigrita, Frohlich (nee Fab.), Naturf. Gesells. Halle, xxvi, 

1792, p. 110; xxix, 1802, p. 114, pi. 3, fig-. 5; Heller, Deutsche 

Ent. Zeitschr. 1899, p. 3oo. 
Cetonia pulla, Billhery, Schoiih. Si/n. Insect, i, 3, 1817, Apjh, p. 46; 

Schaum, Ami. Soc. Eat. France, 1849, p. 2(31. 
Cetonia antliracina, Wied.,"^ Zool. Ma;/, ii, 1, 1823, p. 83. 
Lomaptera viridiasnea, G. 8)- P.,* Monotjr. Cet. 1833, p. 309, pi. 60, 

fig. o. 
Taumastopeiis simillimus, Schoch,* Mi/t/t. Schweiz. ent. Ges. x, 

1898, p. 157. 
Lomaptera ebena, Burni., Handb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 815. 

Shining black, more or less tinged with blue, metallic green or 
copper. 

Very elongate, flat above, straight-sided and slightly tapering 
from shoulders to apex. The clypeus is strongly rounded at the 
sides, contracted before the eyes, deeply cleft, and rugosely punc- 
tured on each side of the middle. The pronotum is unpunctured, 
except at the sides, which are more or less closely striated in an 
oblique direction ; the lateral edges are strongly margined, 
angulate at the middle and sinuated behind, the posterior angles 
are sharp and the basal lobe long and bluntly pointed, with a 
slight longitudinal impression at the extreme tip. The elytra are 
quite smooth at the inner part, rather finely rugose at the sides 
and apices, and sometimes have incomplete longitudinal lines of 
punctures at the outer part of the disc. The sutural margins are 
elevated at the posterior part and the apical margins separately 
rounded. The pugidiimi is moderately finely and transversely 
strigose but not opaque, and feebly impressed in the middle, and 
the metasternum and abdomen are very smooth in the middle and 
rather thinly punctured at the sides. The stenud process is slender 
and curved. 

The two sexes are almost indistinguishable, but the male has a 
slight vestige of a ventral groove, the hind tarsi are a little longer 
relatively than those of the female, and the tibial spurs a little 
sharper. 

Length 18-2S mm. ; breadth 8'5-14 mm. 

PcNJAB : Kangra Valley; "W. Beistgal : Chapra, Nowatoli, 
Palkot ; Assam : Naga Hills, Manipur ; Bhutan : Maria Basti ; 
SiKKiM : Karsiang, Darjiling ; Tenassekim ; Andaman Is. ; 
Ceylon ; Malay Peninsula ; Java ; etc. 

The types of Billberg and Frohlich cannot be traced, that of 
anthracina is in the Copenhagen Museum, that of viriduenea in 
the Oxford Museum, that of simillimus in the Zurich Poly- 
teknicura. 

In spite of its abundance and familiarity I have not been able to 
obtain any information as to the habits or life-history of this 
insect. As is commonly the case with animals which are abundant 
and distributed over a very wide extent of country it is exceedingly 
inconstant in its external features and it is difficult, and perhaps 

o2 



196 CEToyiix.E. 

impossible, to define its specific limits satisfactorily. Such commou 
and far-ranging forms tend in particular localities, where they have 
become to any extent cut off from the main body, to produce 
geographical races, more or less definitely characterised according 
to the degree of isolation. The determination whether in such 
cases a particular form should be called a species or a variety is an 
arbitrary one and differences of opinion are to be expected. In 
the present case several such forms may perhaps be distinguished 
within the Indian area, but larger and more thoroughly repre- 
sentative collections must be brought together before they can be 
properly studied. Although I have examined some hundreds of 
specimens they represent only a very minute portion of the total 
area of distribution. It is perhaps worthy of notice that in the 
Northern part of that area the elytra have generally distinct rows 
of punctures upon the disc, while in the Southern part these are 
absent (var. viridia'aeus). In some specimens the corrugations at 
the sides of the pronotum become almost resolved into detached 
punctures as in the form next described, but as I have seen no 
completely transitional examples I have treated the latter as a 
distinct species. 

175. Thaumastopeiis nicobaricus. 

Lomaptera nicobarica, Janson, Cist. Ent. ii, 1877, p. 249. 

Black or very deep blue-black and extremely smooth and shining. 
The form is very much like that of T. imllus, but is a little broader, 
more rounded at the sides and more convex above. T\\q jyronotum 
is distinctly convex, less narrowed in front, and coarsely and not 
very closely punctured at the sides, without trace of striation. 
The elytra are rather shorter, less straight-sided, less flattened 
above and without any lines of punctures. In other respects this 
is exactly like the preceding species. 

Leivjtli 23-27 mm. ; breadth 12-15 mm. 

NlCOBAU Is. 

Type in coll. Janson. 

176. Thaumastopeiis ceylonicus. 

Thaumastopeus ceyloiiicus, i\ d. Poll* Notes Lojd. Mi/s. xiii, 1801, 
p. 185. 

Black, very smooth, shining and naked, elongate but not very 
narrow. The pronotum is not very convex, coarsely, not strigosely, 
punctured at the sides, with the lateral margins distinctly angu- 
lated in the middle, and the posterior lobe not very narrow and 
without a longitudinal impression at the apex. The eh/tra bear 
several well-marked rows of coarse irregular punctures and are 
transversely strigose at the sides and apices. The piigidium bears 
two slight conical prominences and is very finely, deeply and 
densely strigose, rendering it opaque. The metastemmn and 



TIIAUMASTOPEUS. 



197 



(ihdomen are very smooth in the middle and very strongly and 
irregularly punctured at the sides. 

S . The upper and lower surfaces are much less strongly sculp- 
tured and the hind tarsi longer. The abdomen is not impressed 
beneath. 

Lewjth 26-29 mm.; hreadtli 12-14 mm. 

Ceylon : Colombo, Belihul Oya (/. Z. Kannegieter). 

Type in coll. O. E. Janson. 

Only a single male and three female examples of this species 
are known. It bears the closest resemblance to T. pullus, but can 
be readily distinguished by a careful comparison. It is broader 
and much more strongly sculptured and the striation of the 
pygidium is so dense as to produce a sooty unreflecting surface. 
The lobe of the pronotum is rather less narrow and without a 
longitudinal impression at its extremity. A further distinction 
may be found in the different form of the genitalia of the male. 



177. Thamnastopeus pugnator. 

Thaumastopaeus pugnator, Heller, Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. 1899, 

p. 362. 
Lomaptera striata, Wallace (part.), Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) ir, 

1868, p. 535. 

Bright metallic green above and below, and very smooth and 
shining. It is large, moderately elongate, depressed above and 

straight-sided. The ch/ijeus is 
very coarsely punctured, with the 
margins raised, and the vertex is 
smooth in the middle. The ^j>'0- 
notum is rather coriaceous and 
extremely finely punctured, except 
in the region of the front angles, 
where the punctures are very 
coarse. The sides are contracted 
in front, where they are consider- 
ably depressed, obtusely angulated 
at the middle, and produced out- 
wards at the hind angles, which 
are sharp. The basal lobe is 
minutely rounded at its apex. 
The eh/tra have a few very minute 
and inconspicuous punctures, 
which are a little more apparent at the sides, and the apical and 
posterior lateral margins are feebly rugose ; the outer edges are 
scarcely sinuated and the apices are excised near the angles, which 
are spinose. The j^yciidium is strigose, the metastemum coarsely 
transversely punctured at the sides, and each ventral segment has 
a median line of setigerous punctures, except the last, which is 
entirely punctured. The mesosiernal process is strong, curved and 




Fig. 43. — Thaumastopeus pugnatiir 
(natural size), and detail of 
sternal process in profile. 



198 CETONIIK.1-. 

rather sharp, and bears at its base a strong conical, rather com- 
pressed, elevation. The front tibia is armed with three stout 
and sharp teeth. 

I have only seen a single female specimen which is in the 
British Museum. 

Length 32 mm. ; breadth 15'5 mm. 

EuBMA ; Pen-axg and Sumatka {teste Dr. Heller). 

Type in Dresden Museum. 



Division I.— Section 2. CEEMASTOCHILIIS'A. 

This group is very closely related to the previous division of 
the Cetoniini, but in response to a different manner of life its 
members have to a great extent lost the characteristic aspect of 
the Subfamily. They are very various in form but generally 
sombre-coloured and possessing well-marked pecuharities in their 
mouth structure. They are not, like the great majority of the 
insects previously dealt with, flower frequenters and suctorial, but 
in general are nocturnal and occur under stones and in similar 
situations, many of them being inmates of the nests of Ants or 
Termites. The actual nature of their food is unknown but it is 
evidently of a solid nature, the organs of the mouth being adapted 
for biting and without brushes of soft hairs. 

The mandibles are no longer thin and blunt externally but 
strongly chitiuised, with the extremities strong, sharp and directed 
towards each other, and the internal membranes are much reduced. 
The maxiilie end in two or three strong sharp teeth and are clothed 
only with stiff bristles : the palpi have the basal joints very small 
and the terminal one rather large. The mentum is broad and 
rather smooth, not at all or but little emarginate at the front 
margin and generally tumid beneath, its palpus having the basal 
joints minute and the terminal one rather large. The basal joint 
of the antenna is generally enlarged. The mesosternal epimera 
are enlarged and reach the dorsal surface : and the scutellum is 
extremely sharp at the apex with its sides concave. The outer 
margins of the elytra are generally strongly sinuated behind the 
shoulders. The last pair of spiracles is frequently situated upon 
tubercular prominences, and sometimes the preceding one or two 
pairs also. The mesosternal process is absent or rudimentary. 
The front tibia) are usually bidentate, and the front tarsi in the 
most characteristic genera are inserted so far back as to appear 
when seen from above to consist of only three or four joints. 

The male is furnished with long branched antlers in O'oliathopsis 
and with pads of hair upon the hind tibiae in certain species of 
Coenochilus. In most, the abdomen is arched or excavated beneath 
in this sex. 

In spite of tlieir typically dull colouring, bright coloured species 
are found in the genus Macro7na,and ISjiUopJiori's has white patches 



PLATTSODES. 199 

which reproduce the markings of species of Proicetla. Again, 
while some liave the legs long, there are others in which the tarsi 
are contracted to such an extent as to consist of only four visible 
joints (genus Callinomes). 

Owing to their aberrant structure these forms are generally 
regarded as constituting a group of higher rank than the groups 
of Ceto:^iini, but the iuquilines of Ants and Termites in very 
diffei-ent tribes of beetles are subject to certain profound modi- 
fications which tend to obscure their real affinities and suggest 
relationships which are only apparent. It is possible that the homo- 
geneity of the Cbemastochilina may to some extent be due to 
convergence brought about by similarity of environment. AVest- 
wood considered the group to be most nearly related to DipJognatha 
and Protcptia, and Macroma as forming a link with those genera ; 
but in my opinion the point of contact is to be found rather with 
the OxYTHYREiuES, through such genera as Spilophorus and 
Cymopliorus, and Macroma is rather an isolated form. 



Table of tJie Genera. 

1 (6) Base of pronotum sharply excised 

before the scutellum. , 

2 (5) Terminal sph-acles slightly elevated, 

not spiuose. 

3 (4) Pygidium protuberant Platysodrs, p. 199. 

4 (3) Pygidium vertical Spilophorus, p. 201. 

o (2) Termiual spiracles sharply spinose. . . . Cymophorus, p. 203. 

6 [\) Base of pronotum not sharply excised 

before the scutellum. 

7 (14) Body not very compact : prothorax not 

very broad at base. 

8 (13) Tarsi 5-jointed. 

9 (12) Bodv clothed with variegated tomen- 

tum. [p. 204. 

10 (11 ) Head flat Pabapilixurgus. 

11 (10) Head concave behind ( S horned) Goliathopsis, p. 205. 

12 (9) Bodv naked, black or very dark red . . Ccexochilus, p. 206. 

13 (8) Tarsi 4-jointed Callinomes, p. 215. 

14 (7) Body verv compact: prothorax very 

Inroad at base '. Macroma, p. 217. 



Genus PLATYSODES. 
Platysodes, Westw., Tim. Ent. O.ron. 1874, p. 23. 

Type, Platysodes verloreni, Westw. (Java). 

Eange. Java and Assam, 

Very flat above, moderately elongate and very smooth, bare 
and shining above and beneath. Head broad and clypeus short, 
with a straight, reflexed front margin. Prothorax very transverse, 
with the base excised in the middle. Elytra rather broad at the 
shoulders, slightly sinuated between them and narrow at the 



200 



ci,ioyuyjE. 



extremities. Pygidiuin prominent, sharply carinate all round, 
with the upper and lower faces nearly flat. La.-^t pair of spiracles 
prominent. Prosternum with a strong vertical process in front 
of the coxae ; metasternum forming a narrow carina hetween the 
middle coxae but not produced forward. Front tibia rather short, 
armed with two slight external teeth, not closely approximate : 
four posterior tibiae acutely digitate at the extremity and each 
armed with a strong spine at the middle of the outer edge. Tarsi 
not long, nor closely articulated. Basal joint of antenna not 
very large. Mentum large, rather smooth and nearly flat. 
The following species is only the second assigned to the genus. 



178. Platysodes jansoni, sp. n. 

Jet-black, very smooth and shining. The body is flat and long, 
tapering slightly behind. The Jiead is broad, with the eyes not 
very large or prominent, aud the chipeus short, rounded at the 
sides and straight at the front margin, which is distinctly reflexed. 
There are two shallow, punctured depressions 
between the antennal orbits. The pronotum 
is half as broad again as it is long, strongly 
rounded at the sides, with the posterior 
angles obliterated and the base distinctly 
excised before the scutellum. The elytra 
are rather broader at the shoulders than the 
prothorax, gently sinuated at the lateral 
margins and roundly narrowed to their 
extremities. There is a narrow depression 
at the anterior part of the suture, the latter 
is bordered on each side by a deep stria, 
and there is a very strong lateral furrow on 
each elytron, not reaching the front or 
hind margin. The intervening space is 
smooth and bears only a few very minute 
punctures. The pyijidium is almost semi- 
circular in shape and has a strong carina all round, which divides 
it into nearly equal dorsal and ventral faces. These are thinly and 
rather minutely punctured and the dorsal surface is opaque and 
gently carinate longitudinally in the middle. The meiastermim 
and abdomen are smooth in the middle and feebly rugose at the 
sides. 

The unique specimen described appears to be a male. 
Len</t?i 24 mm. ; breadth 95 mm. 
Assam : Khasi Hills. 
Type in coll. Jansou. 




Fig. 44. 

Platysodes jansoiu. 



SPILOPHORUS. 201 



Genus SPILOPHORUS. 

Spilophorus, Lacord, Gen. Col iii, 1856, p. 545 ; IVcstw.., Thes. Ent. 

O.von. 1874, p. 28. 
Centrognathus, Burm. (nee Guerin), Handb. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 652. 
Pseudospilophorus, Kraatz, Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr, 1899, p. 68. — 

Type Cremastochilus maculatus, G. & P. 

Type, Spilophorus pJagosus, Westw. (Africa). 

Range. Africa and India. 

Form rather depressed, broad and parallel-sided, with short 
legs. Clypeus short and broad ; the eyes prominent. Prothorax 
broadly transverse, contracted in front and strongly emarginate 
in front of the scutellum. Scutellum large, not long but very 
acute. Elytra strongly sinuated behind the shoulders. Meso- 
sternum not produced. Front tibia feebly bidentate; middle and 
hind tibiiB strongly toothed at the middle of the outer margin 
and digitate at the end. All the tarsi short and compact. Mentum 
broad in front and feebly emarginate. Maxillary lobes forming 
two very strong teeth. Mandible with a strong hooked tooth at 
the end. Last pair of abdominal spiracles elevated. 

6 . The abdomen is hollowed beneath. 

According to Mr. Peringuey, Spilophorus lives in South Africa 
in the nests of Passerine birds, where both the larva and adult 
feed upon the nest-material or excrement. The black and white 
colouring of all the species appears to be a protective assimilation 
to such an environment, but if the same habit prevails in India it 
is not invariable, for one of the two species has been found in an 
Ants' nest. 

Kegarding the two Indian species (hitherto treated as one) as 
constituting the type of Westwood's genus, Dr. Kraatz made a 
new genus for the African forms. This is based on very slight 
grounds, and since the anatomical details described and figured by 
\Vestwood are those of the African and not the Indian species, I 
consider it incorrect to treat the latter as his type. The confusion 
of the two Indian species is a further objection to this. 

Key to the Species. 

Iliud angles of the prothorax not distinct. . 7naculatus,G. & P., p. 202. 
Hind angles of the prothorax sharp cretosus, Hope, p. 201. 

179. Spilophorus cretosus. 

Cetonia cretosa, Hope, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. i, 1835, p. 98. 
Spilophorus maculatus, Kraatz (nee G. &f 1'.), Deutsche Ent. 
Zeitschr. 1899, p. 02. 

Black and shining above and beneath, with white markings 
distributed as follows : — a large patch on each side of the pronotum, 
wider in the anterior part, where it usually encloses a minute black 
spot, and a minute spot near the base on each side, a humeral 




202 CETOxiix.f:. 

spot, a large ragged patch at the middle of the outer margin of 
each elytron, several minute spots near the suture and an irregular 
apical mark, and large irregular patches on each side of the 
pygidium, sternum and abdomen. 

The head is closely punctured and the 
pronotum .rather finely and spai'ingly, 
with the sides strongly conAergent in 
front and nearly parallel behind, the 
hind angles sharp and slightly produced 
backwards, the base being broadly and 
deeply excised in the middle. The scv- 
tellum bears a few punctures at the sides. 
The elytra are a little depressed behind 
the scutellum and bear a few very large 
aud irregular punctures. The pifr/idimn 
Fig. 45. — SpilopJiorua has a sharp median carina and is coarselv 
creiosHS a Hind ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ -^t^j^ rj^^^ ^j^^g ^'j 

angle or prothorax. ^ , , , 177 1 

the metasternum aud abdomen are coarsely 

punctured. 

Length 15-17 mm. ; breadth 8-10 mm. 

Bengal: Maldah, Berhampur; Bombay: Malegaon ; Cetlox : 
Western Pro v. (Colombo Mus.). 

Tyj^e unknown — formerly in coll. Sykes. 

Three specimens of this species were found in the nest of a 
black ant (Cremastoyasier) at jNIalegaon, according to Mr. 11. 
Maxwell Lefrov. 



180. Spilophorus maculatus. 

Cremastochilus maculatus, G. cS- P.*, Monor/r. Ccf. 1833, p. 119, 
pi. 16, fig. 8; Wesfw., Thc^. Ent. O.von. 1874, p. 20. 

Spilopliorus bangalorensis, Kraotz* Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. 1890, 
p. ()•>. 

Shining black above and beneath, and decorated with white 
markings as in S. cretosus, Hope. 

The form is narrower than that of the preceding species. The 
7iead is closely punctured and the pronotnm very coarsely but not 
closely so. Tlie lateral margins of the latter are curved and 
slightly angulated in the middle and the hind augles are very 
blunt. The sciifiUum bears a few punctures at the sides, and the 
elytra are very coarsely and irregularly pitted and a little depressed 
behind the scutellum. The pyrjidium has a slight median carina 
and is coarsely punctured. The metasternum and abdomen are 
strongly but sparsely punctured all over. 

Lenyth 13 mm. ; breadth 7 mm. 

Mai)R.\s : Bangalore. 

Type in the Oxford Museum : that of banyahrensis in the 
German Entomological National Museum. 



CTMOPHORUS. 203 

Genus CYMOPHORUS. 

Cvmophorus, Kirhj, Zool. Journ. iii, 1827, \). 271 ; IJ'estw., Thes. 

'Ent. O.von. 1874, p. 16. 
Ptychophorus, Schaum, Germars Zeitschr.iVi, 1841, p. 271; Lacord,, 
Gen. Col. iii, 1856, p. 544. 

Type, Cipnophorus vndatus, Kirby (S. Africa). 

Eange. Africa, India, Indo-China. 

Small, compact, elongate, and more or less clothed with hairs or 
setae. Clypeus short and broad, with the front margin straight 
and reflexed. Eyes very prominent. Basal joint of antenna not 
large. Prothorax transverse, broadly emarginate before the 
sciitellum. Last pair of spiracles very prominent, spinose. Meso- 
sternum very narro\\' between the middle coxae and scarcely pro- 
duced, forming a right-angled lamina. Legs of moderate length, 
the front tibia rather slender and armed with two equal blunt 
teeth placed close together at the extremity. Tarsi 5-jointed 
and slender. 

The species here described is the first discovered in non- 
African localities. The chief home of the genus is tSoutheru Africa, 
where the species are rather numerous. 

181. Cymophorus pulcliellus, sp. n. (Plate II, fig. 5.) 

Shining black, with two large bright red patches upon each 
elytron, placed one before the middle and the other behind it, 
approximately quadrate in shape and touching the outer margins, 
where they are united by a narrow band. 

The body is long, narrow and parallel-sided, clothed with short, 
coarse, silvery set^e upon the head, the front and sides of the 
pronotum, the shoulders, the p^'gidium and the lower surface 
(except along the middle). The head is entirely rugose and the 
pronotum strongly and coarsely punctured — less closely upon the 
posterior half. It is distinctly broader than it is long, the sides 
are strongly contracted towards the front and slightly towards 
the hind margin, which is approximately straight, with the angles 
distinct but obtuse and the middle broadly excised. There is a 
large deep pit close to the hind margin on each side. The scutellum 
is very smooth, and the ehjtra are strongly punctured at the front, 
lateral and hind margins, and have besides a few irregular longi- 
tudinal rows of punctures. There is a punctured pit near each 
shoulder, a longitudinal depression, containing several fine striae, 
near the sutural margin, and a transverse impression at the middle 
of each elytron occupying the space between the two red patches. 
The sides of the elytra are prominent at the shoulders, strongly 
sinuated behind them and rounded at the extremity. The 
pygidium is large, triangular, and rather closely hairy. The 
middle of the metastemum and abdomen are smooth and shining, 
and the sides hairy. The last two ventral segments are bent 
downwards. The front tibia is bent outwards at the extremity 
and terminates in two very closely approximate teeth. 



204 CBTOXIIN-E. 

S . The abdomen is narrowly channelled beneath and the hind 
tibia bears a rather long fringe of hairs within. 

2 • The outer spur of the middle tibia and both spurs of the 
hind tibia are long and strongly curved, but not very sharp. The 
hind tarsus is shorter than that of the male. 

Length 9 mm. ; breadth 4 mm. 

"VV. Bengal : Chota Nagpur (7^. P. Cordon), Chandanagar. 

Ti/pe (S in the British Museum ; $ in coll. Janson ; co-types in 
coll. Oberthiir. 



Genus PARAPILINURGUS, nov. 

Type, Parapilinurgas variegatus, sp. n. 

Range. That of the species following. 

Body rather short, with the elytra much broader than the 
prothorax, and the whole body clothed witli opaque earthy matter. 
Head small, with prominent eyes, and clypeus broad, with the 
anterior margin \ery strongly reflexed. Prothorax rather small, 
strongly narrowed in front and regulai'ly rounded at the sides and 
base. Elytra rather parallel-sided, strongly sinuated behind the 
shoulders. Pygidium nearly vertical, scarcely convex. Terminal 
spiracles scarcely elevated. Mesosternum narrow and not 
prominent between the coxae. Legs slender, the front tibiae 
minutely and sharply bidentate, the middle and hind tibiae sharply 
digitate at the end and armed with a strong spine at the middle 
of the outer edge. Tarsi five-jointed. Basal joint of antenna not 
much enlarged, club rather large. Mentum tumid beneath, with 
the anterior part flattened and the front margin broad aud feebly 
notched in the middle. Maxilla short and stout, with its outer 
lobe forming a strong, but not acute, tooth. Last joint of all the 
palpi long. Mandible armed with a short triangular tooth. 

This new genus is very near the African FUhinrgus, from which 
it differs by its peculiar shape, narrow in front aud broad behind, 
the very slight antecoxal process of the prosternum, scarcely 
elevated terminal spiracles and not-concave mentum. 



182. Parapilinurgus variegatus, sp. n. 

Black, clothed above and beneath with a brown earthy matter, 
irregularly speckled with pale markings, among which a slight 
transverse angulate mark is distinguishable behind the middle of 
each elytron. The surface is coarsely, shallowly and rugosely 
punctured. 

The form is short, with the elytra broad and flattened and 
the prothorax narrow. The head is rugose aiid tlie clypeal margin 
entire and very strongly reflexed. The 2»'onot urn is much narrower 
than the elytra, about as long as it is broad, not very convex, 
strongly narrowed anteriorly, with the front angles acute, the 



PARAPILINURGtJS. — GOLIATHOPSIS. 205 

sides and base being strongly and continuously rounded. The 
elytra are broad at the shoulders, with the sides strongly sinuated 
and almost parallel from the sinuation to the extremity. 




Fig. 4G. — Parcqnlinurgus variegatus. 

Length 14'5 mm. ; breadth 7*5 mm. 

BuEMA : Karen Hills ; ToNKiJf : Dong Van. 

Type in the British Museum. 

A single specimen was found by the late W. Doherty in Burma, 
and a specimen in M. Bene Oberthiir's collection was taken by 
Capt. Gadel in Tonkin. 

Genus GOLIATHOPSIS. 

Goliathopsis, Janson, Cist. U?it. ii, 1881, p. 609. 

Type, Pilimirgus despectus, Westw. 

liange. Burma, Siam and Tonkin. 

Bather short in form, with the shoulders prominent, and not 
appreciably narrowing behind, clothed above and beneath with an 
opaque bloom ortomentum. Clypeus semicircular, with the margin 
recurved. Prothorax strongly transverse, «'ith the basal mai'gin 
uniformly rounded, not produced or excised in the middle. Scu- 
tellum short, broad in front and extremely acute at the apex. 
Elytra deeply excised externally. Pygidium vertical. Last pair 
of spiracles prominent. Middle coxae contiguous. Legs mode- 
rately long ; front tibiae sharply bidentate ; four posterior tibiae 
acutely digitate at the ends ; tarsi slender. Mandible stout, with 
the terminal tooth sharp and nearly straight, and the internal 
membrane well developed. Maxilla short, armed with three blunt 
teeth. Mentum very tumid beneath, with the front margin 
straight. 

c? . Head furnished with a pair of branched horns arising from 
above the eyes. Pirst four ventral segments contracted in the 
middle, and the last two enlarged and smooth. 

Two species of this remarkable genus have been discovered, the 
typical one occurring within our boundaries. 



206 CETOXIIX.E. 



183. Goliathopsis despectus. (Plate II, figs. 2 & 3.) 

Pilinurgus despectus, Westw.*, Thes. Ent. Oxo7i. 1874, p. 32, 

pi. ix, fig. 3. 
(S . Goliatliopiis cervus, Jayisrm,* Cist. Ent. vol. ii, 1881, p. 610, 

pi. 11, ff. 4 & o (n. syn.). 
Goliathopsis capreolus, Gestro* A?i)i. Mus. Genoca, (2) vi, 1888, 

p. 118, fig. (n. sjii.). 

Black, Avith a velvety clothing, olive-brown above and yellowish- 
grey beneath, decorated with a pale median Hne upon the pro- 
notuni and scutellum, and two small lateral spots, an intermediate 
putural one and an apical patch upon each elytron. The head, 
prothorax and abdomen are moderately, and the elytra very 
sparsely, clothed with minute erect setas. 

The head is a little hollowed above, and the chjpeus smooth and 
black. The prothorax is strongly carved at the sides and gently 
rounded at the base, with the hind angles scarcely perceptible. 
The eliitra are fiat, slightly and rather irregularly punctured, and 
separately rounded at the extz-emity. The pugidium is very 
coarsely punctured, slightly depressed on each side, bare at the 
apex, and the metasternian and sides of the abdomen beneath are 
also very coarsely punctured. 

S . The cephalic horns are parallel or slightly divergent, curving 
upwards and forwards, blunt at the end, with a short exterior branch 
beyond the middle. 

§ . The horns are represented by slight prominences above 
the eyes. 

LeiKjth 12 mm.; breadth 6 mm. 

Tenasserim : Moulmein (L. i^(3«) ; Siam. 

Type in the British Museum ; type of cervus in coll. O. E. 
Janson, and of capreolus in the Genoa Museum. 

This species was found by Pea in May 1SS7, upon flowering 
bushes. 



Genus CCENOCHILUS. 

Coenochilus, -Sr^awMJ, Germar's Zeitschrift, 1841, p. 268; Westic, Thes. 
Ent. O.von. 1874, p. 34 ; Lacord., Gen. Col. iii, 1856, p. 547. 

Type, Cetonla maiira, F. (\V. Africa). 

Ranr/e. The Oriental and Ethiopian Regions. 

Very elongate and more or less narrow- waisted, the prothorax 
not being closely articulated to the mesothorax. Clypeus broadly 
dilated in front, with rounded angles. Pronotum subcircular or 
hexagonal, without sharp angles, and generally about as long as it 
is broad. Elytra unevenly costate or striate, with the lateral 
margins strongly excised behind the shoulders. Pygidium gene- 
rally prominent and convex. Prosternum armed with a rather 



CCENOCIIILUS. 207 

slender autecoial process. Mesosternum not produced. Last 
pair of spiracles, and sometimes one or two pairs immediately 
preceding, situated upon i)rominent tubercles. Pront tibia armed 
with two teeth placed close together at the extremity. Tarsi 
slender (except in C. mrtipes and Utjn-obanicus, in which they are 
thick and compact), five-jointed, with the basal joint short. In 
the front legs the first "two joints are concealed, as seen from 
above, by the anterior prolongation of the tibia. Basal joint of 
antenna very large and triangular, the footstalk very short and 
compact. Mandibles moderately strong and sharp. Maxillary 
lobes forming two collateral pairs of extremely sharp and slender 
teeth. Mentum vertical in front and very broad, completely 
concealing the labial palpi. 

o . The abdomen is arched and sometimes deeply excavated. 
In certain species there are also brush-bearing appendages at the 
inside of each of the hind tibiae. 

Mr. T. R. D. Bell has found specimens of this genus in the 
arboreal nests of a species of Aut. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (14) Xot,orlittle,coiistrictedatthe waist; 

last spiracle alone prominent. 
•2 (13) Front tibia moderately slender, bi- 

dentate. 

3 (12) Upper surface shining, not closely 

sculptured. 

4 (11) Dorsal part of elytra smooth. 
.5 (10) Prouotum strongly punctured. 

6 (7) Head closely punctured with a sharp 

tubercle between the eyes (/j-acilipes, Moser, p. 208. 

7 (6) Head coarsely rugose, with a trans- 

verse ridge between the eyes. 

8 (9) Pronotum widest behind the middle, brunneus, Saund., p. 208. 

9 (8) Pronotum widest before the middle , solidus, sp. n., p. 209. 

10 (5) Prouotum very finely punctured .... nitidus, s^. n., t^. 210. 

11 (4) Dorsal part of elytra in part finely 

rugose acidipes, sp. n., p. 210. 

12 (3) Upper surface closely sculptured ... . pyyidialis, i&n^Qn, -^.211. 

13 (2) Front tibia very stout, with a 3rd 

tooth near the base tmheciila, Schaum,p. 212. 

14 (1) Much constricted at the waist ; two 

or three spiracles prominent on 
each side. 

15 (18) Legs moderately long, 

16 (17) Metasternum rugose campbelli, Saund., p. 212. 

17 (IC) Metasternum with horseshoe-shaped [p. 213. 

impressions taprohankns, "Westw., 

18 (15) Legs very short and stout curdpes, Westw., p. 213. 

"Pilinurrjiis" J ev eill e i, ±sonh'ied, is evidently a species of the 
genus CcenochUus, but I am not able to identify it. 



208 CETONIINiE. 

184. Ccenochilus gracilipes. 

Coenocliiius gracilipes, Moser, Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. 1910, p. 300. 

Black and shii)ing, with the sides of the metasternuin and the 
pygidiuin and sides of the abdomen beneath more thinly clothed 
with tawny hair. 

It is a small and only moderately elongate species, with the 
prothorax rather small and the shoulders very prominent. The 
head is closely and coarsely punctured, with the chjpev.s dilated to 
the front margin and feebly bilobed, and the vertex less coarsely 
punctured and bearing a slight but sharp median tubercle between 
the eyes. The pronotum is small, transverse, strongly and uni- 
formly punctured, with the sides strongly but bluntly aiigulated 
at the nnddle, the hind angles rather sharp and prominent, and 
the base broad and nearly straight. There is an impressed median 
line npon the posterior half, and a small basal pit near each hind 
angle. The scuteUum bears a few punctures. The elytra bear 
each three smooth longitudinal costae, a little punctured towards 
the posterior end ; the intervals bear rows of crescentic punc- 
tures, which become simple and irregularly scattered towards the 
base. The sides and apices are strigose. The shoulders are very 
prominent and there is a profound marginal sinuation behind each. 
The 2Vjgidium is strongly and deeply punctured and clothed with 
tawny hair. The lower surface is smooth along the middle line, 
punctured and hairy at the sides, those of the nietasternum rather 
closely. The terminal spiracles are very prominent and sharp. 
The legs are rather slender, but the front tibia) are moderately 
broad, armed with two sharp teeth at the extremity and a vestige 
of an upper one near the middle. 

S . The abdomen is longitudinally channelled beneath. 

Length 12 mm. ; breadth 5 mm. 

Assam: Naga Hills (Coll. Godivin-Austen), K\ia.9\ H'dh (3Ioser 
Coll.). 

Type in coll. Moser. 

This description is drawn up from a single male specimen, 
badly preserved, in the Calcutta Museum. In this example the 
abdomen and pygidium are reddish. The species is closely related 
to C. striatus, Westw., from Hong Kong, in which the sides of 
the body have an opaque grey bloom beneath, instead of being 
clothed with hair. 

185. Ccenochilus brunneus. 

Ccenochilus brunneus, Saitnders* Trons. Ent. Soc. Land, iii, 1842, 
p. 235, pi. xiii, tig. 2 ; d , Westw., Thes. Ent. O.von. 1874, p. 45, 
pi. xiii, tig. 3. 

Black or reddish black, smooth and shining, with the nieta- 
sternum and pygidium clothed with very short silky yellowish 



C(ENOCHILUS. 209 

hairs, and the legs slender. The head is moderately punctured, 
with the eyes large and prominent and the front margin of the 
clypeus broad and feebly excised. The pronotum is subcircular, 
with the angles obliterated and the sides strongly and evenly 
curved, but more strongly approximating in front. The disc is 
convex, with scattered punctures, which are stronger and denser 
in the anterior part, a fine impressed longitudinal line in the 
middle and a large impression at each side of the base. The 
scutellum is finely, rather rugosely, punctured. The elytra are not 
very long, broad at the base and narrowing towards the apex ; 
they are scarcely punctured, except at the base, but there are four 
broad and deep longitudinal sulci upon each, the outermost finelv 
rugose in its posterior part. The pygklium is finely punctured 
and pubescent, and the last spiracle on each side is elevated. 
The abdomen is smooth in the middle. The legs are long and 
the front tibice rather sharply bidentate. 

<S . The abdomen is strongly arched and deeply and broadly 
excavated in the middle. The apical half of the hind tibia is fur- 
nished inside with a ridge bearing close-set yellowish setae. 

Length 15 mm. ; breadth 6 mm. 

W. Bengal : Chota Nagpur, Nowatoli ; Bombay : Belgaum ; 
Mysore : Shimoga. 

2^i/pe 2 ill coll. E. Oberthiir ; the d , first described by "West- 
wood, is in the Oxford Museum. 

The name given to this species is unfortunate, for normal 
specimens are jet-black. 

186, Ccenochilus solidus, sp. n. 

Black and shining, with the metasternum thickly clothed with 
a velvety yellow pubescence, and the head, pygidium and sides of 
the abdomen more finely and inconspicuously clothed. The body 
is robustly built, elongate and parallel-sided, with the tibiae not 
long but the tarsi slender. The Jiead is coarsely rugose and the 
pronotum strongly punctured all over, but more strongly and 
closely upon the anterior half. It is subcircular, with the base 
very short, the hind angles completely obliterated and the sides 
not regularly curved, but rather abruptly widened before the 
middle. There is a median longitudinal channel from before the 
middle to the base and a deep impression at each end of the base. 
The sciUellum is rather finely strigose. The elytra are not sloping 
at the shoulders nor tapered to the extremities, but are strongh' 
sinuated at the outer margins, deeply striated, distinctly but thinly- 
punctured on the dorsal part, and finely and closely rugose at the 
sides and apices and in the third stria. The pygidium is finely 
striated concentrically and the abdomen transversely strigose. 

J . The abdomen is deeply excavated in the middle, the front 
tibiae bluntly bidentate at the end, and the hind tibiae feebly dilated 
and fringed at the inner edge of the posterior half. 

p 




210 CETOXIIN.I;. 

2 . The front tibia is short aud broad and armed with two 
very stout but blunt teeth. 

Length 19 mm. ; breadth 8 mm. 

Bhutan : Pedong. 

Type ( 2 ) in the British Museum ; S in coll. E. Oberthiir. 

This species has been presented to the Museum by M. Oberthiir. 



187. CcenocMlus nitidus, sp. n. 

Black, smooth and very shining, \x'\t\\ the metasternum thickly 

clothed with short silky yellow pubescence and the legs long and 

slender. The head is rugose, with the front 

margin broad and feebly emarginate, and the 

eyes large and prominent. The pronotum is 

hexagonal, with the angles very blunt and the 

base very slightly emarginate. It is convex, 

lightly and irregularly punctured, witli a slight 

impressed median line, obliterated in front and 

deeper behind the middle, and a deep pit at 

each basal angle. The scutellum is finely and 

irregularly punctured, and tlie elytra are long, 

■p. .- broad at the base and tapering slightly towards 

Canochihia nitidus ^^^^ extremities. They are punctured strongly 

male. at the base and finely at the sides, and each has 

four strong sulci. The pygidium is finely rugose ; 

the abdomen smooth in the middle and finely strigose at the sides, 

and the last pair of spiracles is elevated. The front tibia; are 

bluntly bidentate. 

S . The abdomen is strongly arched and broadly aud deeply 
excavated beneath, and the hind tibia has a thick pad of short 
3'ellowish setae upon the apical half of its inner edge. 
Length 17 mm. ; breadth 7*5 mm. 
Bombay : Kanara. 

Type in the British Museum ; co-type in Coll. H. E. Andrewes. 
I have only seen, in addition to the type, a single specimen 
taken in Kanara by Mr. H. E. Andrewes. 



188. CcenocMlus acutipes, sp. n. 

Black and very shining, with the metasternum clothed with fine 
yellow hairs, and the legs slender. The head is coarsely rugose, the 
front margin is broad and feebly emarginate, and there are two 
very shallow pits between the eyes. The pronotum is subcircular, 
a little attenuated in front and not very broad at the base, with a 
well-marked narrow median groove and two deep pits at the basal 
margin. It is strongly punctured at the front and sides and 
finely behind and in the middle. The scutelhim is moderately 
punctured. The elytra are rather prominent at the shoulders. 



CffiNOCHILUS. 211 

strongly sinuated behind them and tapered slightly to the ex- 
tremities ; they are lightly punctured in front and each has 
three broad longitudinal sulci (the innermost divided in front) 
which, as well as the posterior part of the outer margins and the 
apices, are finely rugose ; the remaining parts of the elytra are 
very smooth and shining. The pygidium is feebly rugose and 
setose, with the apical part rather abruptly inturned and carinate 
longitudinally, and with a slight impression just before the carina. 
The front tihice are strongly bidentate and the upper tooth is acute. 
The four posterior tihice have each a sharp tooth beyond the middle 
of the outer edge. The middle of the abdomen is smooth and the 
sides slightly rugose and setose. 

The unique type specimen, presented to the British Museum by 
Mr. H. Maxwell Lefroy, is a female. 

Length 19 mm. ; breadth 8 mm. 

Bombay : Igatpuri. 

Type in the British Museum. 



189. Ccenochilus pygidialis. 

Ccenocliilus pygidialis, Janson,* Irans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1901, 
p. 185. 

Black, rather closely and uniformly clothed with reddish setae 
beneath, and closely sculptured and not shining above. The body 
is of rather compact form, but the legs are moderately long. The 
clypeus is very deeply and coarsely rugose, and broad and gently 
emarginate in front. The eyes are large and prominent. The 
pronotum is strongly and closely punctured, very convex and sub- 
circular, and a little attenuated in front. There is a lightly impressed 
longitudinal groove and the base is almost straight in the middle, 
with a marginal groove which is enlarged on each side. The 
scutellum and elytra are everywhere finely rugose and the latter 
have each three broad longitudinal furrows. The pygidium is very 
prominent, with a strong nearly sti'aight transverse carina in the 
middle ; the surface above the carina is nearly flat and finely 
rugose, and that below it convex, shining, sparingly punctured 
and lightly carinate longitudinally. The front tibia is mode- 
rately stout and ends in two very bluntly rounded teeth placed 
close together. The terminal spii-acles are only very feebly 
elevated. 

The unique type is a female, and the peculiar form of the 
pygidium is probably characteristic of that sex. 

Length 17 mm. ; breadth 7 mm. 

Bombay : Belgaum. 

Type in coll. O. E. Janson. 



p:^ 



212 CETOXIIX.E. 



190. Coenochilus trabecula. 



Coenochilus trabecula, Schamn, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1844, p. 397 ; 

Westtc, Thes. Ent. Oxon. 1874, p. 44, pi. xiii, fig. 10. 
Cremastochilus senegalensis, G. Sf P., Monogr. Cet. 1833, p. 114, 

pi. XV, lig. 7. 

Black and shining, with very scanty minute setae upon the upper 
surface and short yellowish hairs upon the pygidiuin and lower 
surface. The form is elongate, moderately compact and a little 
depressed above, with not very slender legs. The head is broad, 
nearly straight in front, with ])rominent eyes, and coarsely granu- 
lated. The prothomx is subcircular, rather long, narrowed in 
front, feebly angulated at the sides, with the base narrow but 
considerably wider than the apex. The dorsal surface is convex, 
strongly and closely punctured, and longitudinally grooved in the 
middle. The scutellum is finely punctured, and the elytra are 
coarsely and indefinitely punctured and strongly sulcate ; they 
are not very prominent at the shoulders but taper a little towards 
their extremities. The pygidhim is finely rugose and pubescent 
except at the apex, where it is nearly smooth and slightly carinate 
longitudinally. The front tihia is short and broad, with two very 
large blunt terminal teeth and a smaller very obtuse one near the 
base. The four posterior tihice have each a strong tooth beyond the 
middle of the outer edge, and the tarsi are moderately long. 

cJ . The abdomen is arclied but not excavated and the spurs of 
the hind tibiae are short and sharp. 

2 . The spurs of the hind tibiae are broad and blunt. 

Lenrith 12-14'5 mm. ; breadth o-5'5 mm. 

Bombay ; Madras : Malabar, Bangalore, Nilgiri Hills, Pon- 
dichery. 

I have examined the insect attributed to this species by 
Mr. Janson in Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1901, p. 184, and find that 
it is really a specimen of C. hrunneus, Saund. 



191. Ccenocliiltis campbelli. 

Coenocliilus campbelli, Saund.,* Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond, iii, 1842, 
p. 234, pi. xiii, tig. 1 ; Westiv., Thes. Ent. Oxon. 1874, p. 44, 
pi. xiii, fig. 5. 

Coeuochilus platvrrhinus, Schatun, A7tn. Soc. Ent. France, 1844, 
p. 419. 

Black, moderately shining and closely punctured above, the 
punctures bearing minute greyish setae, the lower surface finely 
strigose, and the legs long and slender. The head is rugose, broad, 
and nearly straight at the front margin, and the eyes are not 
prominent. The pronotum is convex, densely punctured, feebly 
grooved along the middle, hexagonal in shape, but with the lateral 
angles placed considerably before the middle, and with a faint pit 
in each hind angle. The scutellum and elytra are rather less densely 



COINOCHILUS. 213 

punctured and the latter rather parallel-sided, each having three 
costse. The j^ygidium is finely rugose and the last three spiracles 
on each side of the abdomen are elevated. The front tibia ter- 
minates in two feeble and blunt teeth. 

(S . The abdomen is strongly arched, but scarcely excavated. 

Length 16-20 mm. ; breadth 6-8 mm. 

Bengal: Maldah. 

Type in coll. R, Oberthiu*. 

192. Ccenochilus taprobanicus. 

Cceiiocbilus taprobanicus, Westw.* Thes. JEnt. Oxon. 1874, p. 46, 
pi. xii, fig. 8. 

Black, coarsely rugose above and below and thinly clothed with 
minute setse. It is large, elongate and convex, with long but 
stout legs and thick, closely articulated tarsi. The Jtead is coarsely 
rugose, with the front margin broad and trisiuuate, and the eyes 
not very prominent. The pr-onotum is subhexagoual, with the 
sides angulated before the middle and the base narrow ; it is 
convex, coarsely and rugosely punctured, and feebly sulcate longi- 
tudinally behind the middle. The scutellum and elytra are coarsely 
punctured, the punctures being more or less crescent-shaped and 
partially confluent. The elytra are long, not prominent at the 
shoulders nor markedly tapering behind, and broadly sulcate above. 
The joygidium is tumid and rather finely rugose, the metasfernum 
closely covered with horseshoe-shaped punctures, and the abdomen 
with transverse wrinkles. The front tibia is moderately slender, 
with two stout teeth close together at the extremity, and the four 
posterior tibice have each a small spine considerably behind the 
middle. The basal joint of the antenna is very large and triangular. 
The last pair of spiracles is strongly elevated and the two preceding 
pairs slightly. 

S . The abdomen is slightly arched beneath and the spurs of 
the hind tibia are sharp. 

$ . The spurs of the hind tibia are very short and bi'oad. 

Length 17-20 mm. ; breadth 6-7*5 mm. 

Ceylon : Peradeniya {E. E. Green) ; Madras : Shembaganur, 
near Madura. 

'Type in the British Museum. 

193. Ccenochilus curtipes. 

Ccenochilus curtipes, Westw.,* Thes. Ent. Oxon. 1874, p. 47, pi. xiii, 
fig. 6. 

Black or pitchy-black, thickly punctured above and below, each 
puncture bearing a minute yellowish seta, the legs short and thick 
and the tarsi strongly contracted, with very short, nearly straight 
and scarcely divergent claws. The clypeus is very broad and tri- 
sinuate in front, and the eyes not at all prominent. The Jiead 




214 CETONiix.i:. 

and pronotum are densely punctux-ed, and the latter is hexagonal 
in shape, narrow at the base, convex and 
narrowly grooved along the niiddle. The 
scvtellum and elytra are ratlier less densel}' 
punctured, and tlie latter are ver}' sloping 
but not prominent at the shoulders and 
not tapering ; they have each three longi- 
tudinal costae. The pyfjidium is tumid and 
very finely and densely rugose, the meta- 
sternum is thickly covered with large horse- 
shoe-shaped punctures and the abdomen 
with fine transverse wrinkles. The last 
pair of spiracles is strougl}" elevated and 
-pj ^ the two preceding pairs slightly. The 

Ccenochilus curtipes. front tibia has two very feeble teeth at 
the extremity, and the posterior tibice are 
without spines but setoss like the rest of the body. 

S . The abdomen is arched but not excavated and the spurs of 
the hind tibiae are very short. 

5 . The outer spur of the hind tibia is very short, broad and 
almost quadrate. 

Lein/th 20 mm. ; breadth 7*5 mm. 

Assam ; Bukma. 

Tyj^c in the Oxford Museum. 

I have not been able to recognise the following species, and a 
translation of the original description is therefore appended : — 

194. CoenocMlus leveillei. 

Pilinurgus leveillei, Nonfried, Berlin. Ent. Zeitschr. xxxvi, 189i', 
p. 372. 

" Long and narrow, rather convex, finely punctured, brown, 
shining, naked, beneath similarly coloured but not shining. 

" Chjpeus somewhat dilated before the antennae, witii th.e angles 
rounded, nearly straight in front, closely and coarsely punctured. 
Pronotum nearly circular, very convex, closely but finely pitted, 
shining ; mesosternal epimera strigose. Scutellum large, triangular, 
coarsely punctured. Elytra convex, flat on tho disc, at the base 
broader than the thorax, narrowed behind the vshoulders, then 
parallel- sided, rounded at the extremities, punctured near the 
suture, strigose near the sides, smooth and naked. Pyyidium 
nearly vertical, convex, brownish-black, naked. Lower surface 
strigose ; legs short, front tibiae narrow at the base, becoming 
broader towards the end, sharply bidentate, hind tibiao with a short 
spine on the outer edge. 

" Length 16 mm." 

Madras : Dindigul. 



CALLINOMES. 215 



Genus CALLINOMES. 

Callinomes, Westw., Thes. Ent. Oxov., 1874, p. 26 ; Heller, Notes 
Leycl. Mus. xix, 1897, p. 177. 

Type, Callinomes voUenJiovii, Westw. (Java). 

Mange. The Oriental Region. 

Very elongate, with the prothorax subcircular. Head strongly 
convex, with the eyes small and the organs of the mouth completely 
shut in by the mentum. Basal joint of the antenna very large, 
forming a plate exactly fitting the space between the mentum, 
front coxa and episternum, and enclosing the remainder of the 
antenna when at rest. Mentum very large, flat and smooth, 
occupying the whole lower surface of the head and projecting 
backwards between the coxae. Mesosternum very narrow and 
not prominent between the middle coxse. Legs moderately long, 
the front tibia armed externally with two minute and rather distant 
teeth. Tarsi 4-jointed, very short and compact, with minute 
claws. Terminal spiracles elevated. 

J . The abdomen is a little excavated beneath and the front 
tibia bears a long apical process beneath. 

This genus shows all the peculiar features of the Ceemasto- 
CHiLiNA at their greatest development. The remarkable box- like 
structure formed by the enlarged mentum and basal joint of the 
antenna, which completely shut in the delicate head-appendages, 
the thickening of the tarsi and reduced number of their joints, are 
parts of a protective adaptation similar to that found in beetles 
of many different families which inhabit the nests of Ants or 
Termites. 

KeT/ to the Sjiecies. 

Very large ; red and black bicolor, Nonfr., p. 215. 

Very small ; wholly black pusiUus, sp. n., p. 216. 

195. Callinomes bicolor. 

Ccenochilus bicolor, Nonfried, Bei'lin. Ent. Zeitschv. xxxviii, 1893, 

p. 836. 
Callinomes fairmairei, Heller, Notes Leyd. Mus. xix, 1897, p. 177 

(n. syn.). 

Black, with the upper surface of the head and prothorax and 
the basal quarter of the elytra (except the humeral callus) brick- 
red, a narrow stripe of the same colour extending backwards to 
beyond the middle near the outer margin of each elytron. The 
upper surface is opaque and the lower surface, with the pygidium 
and legs, shining black. 

It is a large elongate species, rather fiat above. The Jiead and 
pronotum are rather finely punctured, the sides of the clypeus 
nearly vertical, and the front margin nearly straight and scarcely 
reflexed. The protlwrax is almost circular, a little broader than 



216 



CETONIIN^. 



long, with the front margin straight and the posterior margin 
regularly rounded. The scutellum is strongly punctured and the 
elytra sparingly and irregularly punctured, without striae or costae ; 
they are considerably broader across the shoulders than the pro- 
thorax, very feebly sinuated at the sides and a little narrowed to 
the extremities. The pygkl'mm is small, coarsely and thickly 
])unctured and a little depressed iu the middle. The metasternum 
is rather strongly punctured, the abdomen feebly rugose and the 
terminal spiracle on each side strongly elevated. The tihkn are 
rather long and a little incurved, and all the tarsi extremely short 
and compact. 

I have not seen the male. 

Length 25 mm. ; breadth 10 mm. 

Assam : Manipur. 

Type in coll. Nonfried ; that of fairmairei in the Dresden 
Museum. 




196. Callinomes pusillus, sp. n. 

Black, smooth and not very shining, coarsely and moderately 
closely punctured above and beneath. 

The body is long and narrow and rather depressed. The head 

is closely punctured, Avith the 
eyes very small and inconspicuous, 
the front margin of the clypeus 
slightly excised and reflexed, and 
the mentum and the basal joint 
of the antenna very large, feebly 
punctured and shining. The 
pronoturn is strongly punctured, 
not very convex, rather broader 
than long and a little narrower 
than the elytra. Its posterior 
half is semicircular and the an- 
terior half slightly narrowed to 
the front, with the sides nearly 
straight. The ■scutellum bears a 
few large punctures and the elytra are thickly and closely punc- 
tured, the punctures being elongate and showing a tendency to 
form longitudinal rows ; the sides are reflexed but not sinuated. 
The pyyidiimi is broad and convex and, like the metasternum and 
abdomen, is coarsely pitted. The last pair of spiracles is very 
slightly elevated. The legs are very short, the front tibia' feebly 
bident'ate, and the middle and Jdnd tibia' each bear a sharp spine 
at the middle of the outer edge. All the tarsi are very short, but 
the articulations are distinct. 

cJ . The abdomen is shallowly grooved beneath and the front 
tibia bears a hook-like ventral process at its extremity. 
Length lO-lO'O mm. ; breadth 4 mm. 



Fig. 49. 
Callinomes pudllus, and fore leg 
male, seen from beneath. 



MACEOMA. 217 

SiKKiM : Mungphu ; Assam : Silhet, Patkai Mts. 
Type in the British Museum. 

The British Museum contains a single specimen from each oi' 
the above locaHties. 



Genus MACROMA. 

Macroma, G. ^- P., Monogr. Cet. 1833, p. 35 ; Westw., Thes. Ent. 
Oxon. 1874, p. 8 ; Lacord., Gen. Col. iii, 1856, p. 543. 

Type, Macroma cognata, Schaum (S. Africa). 

Range. Africa and Tropical Asia. 

Body more or less boat-shaped, very compact, convex above, and 
extremely smooth and shining above and below. Legs, like the 
rest of the body, almost devoid of hairs, the front tibiae bidentate 
and all the tarsi very short, with extremely close-fitting joints, of 
which the basal one is almost concealed. Clypeus simple and 
moderately long, gently curved in front, without reflexed margin, 
and curving downwards at the sides. Mandible loug and very 
sharp at the extremity. Lobes of the maxilla forming two long 
sharp teeth. Mentum either (1) broad, flat and slightly emarginate 
in front, or (2) very protuberant beneath, the front edge forming 
a flat vertical surface, straight, or slightly prominent in the middle 
of the upper edge. Prothorax narrow in front, not margined at 
the sides, and straight at the basal edge or angularly prominent 
in the middle. Scutellum small and very acute. Elytra without 
stride or costfe, very deeply cut away at the sides behind the 
shoulders, with the apical margins separated. There is a fine 
sinuated or jagged raised line crossing the elytron transversely a 
little before the end. The pygidium has a very sharp posterior 
edge, is not pointed at the end, and its dorsal surface is longitudi- 
nally carinate at the middle. Fifth ventral segment broad. 
Sternal process very slightly prominent, flat and a little dilated in 
front of the middle coxae. 

S • Abdomen strongly arched and longitudinally channelled 
beneath. Hind tarsi longer than in the female. 



Keg to the Species. 

1 (2) Mentum vertically flattened javanica, G. & P., p. 218. 

2 (1) Mentum horizontally flattened. 

3 (6) Scutellar region not depressed. 

4 (5) Elytra black melanopus, Schaum, p. 219. 

5 (4) Elytra yellow and black lanthorrhina, Hope, p. 219. 

6 (3) Scutellar region much depressed. 

7 (8) Prothorax black insignis, Gestro, p. 220. 

8 (7) Prothorax red superba, V. d. Poll, p. 221. 



218 CETONIIXJE. 

197. Macroma javanica. 

Macroma javanica, G. ^- P., Monoyr. Cet. 1833, p. 148, pi. xxiii, 
fig. 5 ; Westic, Tkes. Ent. O.con. 1874, p. 1.'3, pi. vi, fior. 9. 

Macroma nigripennis, Svhaum, Oermar^s Zcilsc/ir. iii, 1841, p. 279; 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1844, pi. x (xi) fig. 7; JVestw., Thes. Ent. 
0x071. 1874, p. 12, pi. vi, fig. 7 (n. syn.). 

Macroma maculicollis, IJ'estw., I. c. p. 13, j)l. vi, fig. 10. 

Black, with the head, pronotum and front legs partially or 
entirely orange ; the scutellum, side pieces of the metasternum 
and sides of the hind coxae generally bright yellow, and the 
sides of the third and fourth abdominal segments deep red. 
The pronotum has commonly a black median line and a large 
black patch on each side, the latter frequently reduced to two 
spots. 

The form is moderately long. The Jiead is coriaceous, the 
clypeus nearly straight in front, and the mentum vertical in front 
and rather deeper than it is broad. The jJt'otho rax is rather short, 
not much narro^^■ed in front, w ith the sides well punctured and 
the basal margin gently rounded. The eh/tra are distinctly and 
irregularly punctured, with their sutural margins a little depressed 
in front and elevated behind, the posterior end being finely rugose. 
The piKjidium is very lightly strigose, with a median longitudinal 
carina and a blunt tubercle on each side of it. The sternal jyrocess 
is very short and rather broadly dilated, the sides of the meta- 
uternum are sparingly punctured, and the abdomen is nearly 
smooth. 

S . The abdomen is very strongly arched and channelled 
beneath. 

Lencjtli 16-20 mm. ; breadth 9-10 mm. 

SiKKiM : Mungphu ; Assam : Khasi Hills ; Burma : Bhamo ; 
SiAM ; Cambodia : Malay Peninsula ; China ; Java ; etc. 

Type not traced ; that of nir/ripennis in the Berlin Museum. 

Yar. cingalensis, nov. 

Entirely black, except the clypeus, parts of the front legs, the 
side-pieces of the metasternum and the sides of the hind coxk and 
third and fourth abdominal segments. 

Ceylon. 

This species, though very variable in colouring, is otherwise 
constant. The prothorax appears in every stage between uniform 
red and uniform black. The name Macroma javanica was given 
to a dark form in which only the head and a narrow lateral border 
to the pronotum are black. The darkest variety appears to be 
peculiar to Ceylon, from which island I have seen no representative 
of any other form. This variety is mentioned by Mr. Van der 
Poll (Notes from the Leyden Museum, xvii, 1895, p. 132). A 



MACEOMA. 21U 

specimen was found in a red ants' nest at Sigirva, Ceylon, by 
Mr. R. C. Punnett. It is remarkable that this very widely-distributed 
species should be found only in the north-east and extreme south 
of our region. 



198. Macroma melanopus. 

Macroma nigripennis, Hope (nee Schmnn), Trans. Ent. Soc. m, 

1841, p. 65. 
Macroma melanopus, Schmmi* Verz. Lamell. Melit. 1848, p. (>0 ; 

Westio., Thes. Ent. Oxon. 1874, p. 12, pi. vi, fig. 8. 

Black, with the clypeus and an angular prolongation between 
the eyes, the lateral and hind margins of the pronotum (except a 
small black spot in the middle of each lateral border), the sides of 
the metasternum and hind coxse, and the antenual club yellow. 

The shape is very convex and moderately elongate. The liead 
is coriaceous, with the front of the clypeus rounded and the 
mentum horizoutal. The pronotum is rather sparingly and finely 
punctured, rather transverse, with the sides strongly bisinuated 
and the basal margin slightly angulated in the middle. The elytra 
are uniformly convex and finely and irregularly punctured, except 
at the extremities, which are strigose. The pygidium is smooth, 
w ith a sharp median carina and a rounded boss on each side. The 
sternal process is very short, the metasternum slightly strigose and 
pubescent at the sides, and the abdomen almost smooth. 

cJ. The abdomen is strongly arched and deeply grooved, and 
the two penultimate segments are closely punctured and hairy in 
the middle. 

Length 19 mm. ; breadth 10*5 mm. 

Assam : Khasi Hills, Manipur, Sylhet, Jaintia Hills ; Bukma : 
N. Khyen Hills ; Siam. 

Type in the Oxford Museum ; co-type in the British Museum. 

199. Macroma xanthorrhina. (Plate II, fig. 1.) 

Campsiura xanthorrhina, Hope,* Gray^s Zool. Misc. 1831, p. 25 ; 

Westiv., Thes. Ent. Oxon. 1874, p. 11, pi. vi, tig. 6. 
Macroma bicolor, G. ^V P., Monogr. (Jet. 1833, p. 149, pi. xxiii, 
tig. G; Burm. Handh. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 643. 

Black, with the clypeus and an angular prolongation between 
the eyes, the lateral margins of the pronotum (except a small 
median black spot on each side), and the elytra (except narrow 
sutural and lateral margins and a broad posterior margin) yellow. 
There is a slight expansion of the black lateral margin just beyond 
the middle, a black patch sometimes appears upon the suture 
opposite this, and in some specimens a transverse band is formed 
by their fusion. 



220 CETONIIN^. 

The form is rather slender. The head is coriaceous, with its 
front margin rounded and very gently curved upwards, and the 
mentum horizontal. The pronotum is distinctly, but sparingly and 
irregularly, punctured, rather narrow in front, with the lateral 
margins strongly bisinuate and the basal margin nearly straight 
but slightly augulated in the middle. The elytra are extremely 
sparingly punctured, with the suture a little depressed in front 
and elevated behind : the apical part is finely strigose and limited 
in front by a sinuated carina. The py<iidium is shining and nearly 
smooth, with a median longitudinal carina and a blunt tubercle on 
each side. The sternal process is small, very feebly produced and 
dilated, the sides of the metasternum are finely strigose and hairy, 
and the abdomen is feebly rugose at the sides. 

The front tibiae are sharply bidentate in the female, but the 
upper tooth is absent in the male, in which also the hind tibia is 
sUghtly curved and drawn out into a single sharp spine. The 
abdomen is deeply channelled in this sex. 

Length 20-22 mm. ; breadth 10-11 mm. 

Nepal ; Sikkim : Darjiling ; Assam : Manipur ; Burma : N. 
Khyen Hills. 

type in the British Museum. 



200. Macroma insignis. 

Macroma insip-uis, Gestro* Ann. Mus. Genova, (2) x, 1891, p. 852, 
pi. ii, lig. 10. 

Shining black above and beneath, with the antenme and the 
head, except at the sides behind the eyes, bright orange. 

Elongate, broad at the slioulders and very tapering, depressed 
in the scutellar region and very smooth. The clypeus is coriaceous, 
parallel-sided and nearly straight in front, and the mentum hori- 
zontal. The pronotum is vei'y feebly punctured at the sides, narrow 
in front and broad behind, with the sides nearly straight, the hind 
angles almost acute and the base trisinuate. The elytra are almost 
smooth, with a sharp jagged carina before the apex. The pyyidium 
is finely strigose, with an impression at the apex, a sharp median 
carina and a spinose elevation on each side. The sternal process is 
very broad and flat, the sides of the metastermnn are finely strigose, 
and the abdomen is almost smooth. The fifth ventral segment is 
very broad, thinly punctured posteriorly and slightly deflected. 
The external edge of the hind tibia is produced and bifid at the 
end and the tarsi are short and thick. 

Only female specimens seem yet to have been found. 

Length 28 mm.; breadth 15*o mm. 

Burma : Karen-ni, Geku Distr. {L. Fea). 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 



MACEOMA. 221 



201. Macroma superba. 

Macroma superba, T'an de Poll, Notes Leyden Mus. xi, 1889, 
p. 143 ; Gestro, Ann. Mus. Genova, (2) x, 1891, p. 853, pi. ii, 

fig. 11. 
Macroma gloriosa, Westuj. (nee Mohnike), Thes. Ent. Oxon. 1874, 

p. 14, pi. vii, fig. 1. 

Shining black, with the head and prothorax crimson, the latter 
decorated with three small black spots placed in a triangle on 
each side and the front and hind margins very narrowly black. 

Rather short, broad at the shoulders, with the upper surface 
very convex and strongly depressed in the region of the scutellum. 
The Jiead is coriaceous, with the clypeus rather transverse, parallel- 
sided and almost straight in front, and the mentum horizontal. 
The pronotum is punctured at the sides, narrow in front and broad 
behind, with the posterior angles well-marked and the base very 
obtusely angulated in the middle. The scutellum is acute at the 
apex, but not produced as in M. melanopus, nigripennis, &e., and 
the elytra are almost impunctate, with the apical area hmited by 
a zigzag carina in front and feebly strigose ; the anterior half of 
the suture is depressed and the posterior half elevated. The 
pygidium is rugose, slightly bilobed at the apex, with a sharp 
median carina and an elevation on each side produced backwards 
as a sharp spine. The lower, like the upper surface, is almost 
smooth, and the fifth ventral segment is twice the width of those 
preceding it and bent downwards at an angle to them. The 
sternal process is very broad. The external face of the hind tibia 
is produced and bifid and the hind tarsus is short and thick. 

The male is apparently unknown. 

Length 25 mm. ; hreadth 14 mm. 

Burma : Karen Hills ; Siam {Mouhot). 

Type in coll. O. E. Janson. 

The late Col. Bingham found this beautiful insect upon the 
flowers of the Ironwood Tree (Xylia dolahriformis) in the Karen 
Hills. 



222 CETONIIX^. 



Division II. VALGINI. 

This is a very well-defined group, one of the chief characteristics 
of which is the diminutive size of its members. Many are very 
small indeed, and the largest are little larger than the smallest 
species found in the other groups of the CEXoyiix^. Another 
conspicuous feature is the almost universal clothing of scales, 
which are sometimes fiat and close, sometimes long and erect. 
The head is long and narrow and capable of being folded closely 
beneath the sternum, being then concealed from above by the 
prominent front part of the pronotum. The latter is generally 
distinctly narrower than the width of the body across the shoulders, 
with the base rounded and not emarginate in the middle. The 
scutellum is small, its sides convex and its apex not very acute. 
The elytra ai'e generally short and broad, not at all cut away at 
the sides, rounded at the extremities and leaving exposed the 
pygidium and propygidium, which are broad and prominent, the 
last pair df spiracles in most genera being borne upon very pro- 
minent tubercles at the sides of the latter segment. The front 
tibia is toothed along the entire outer edge, bearing generally 
five, but sometimes only three teeth. The front coxae are very 
prominent and contiguous and the middle and hind coxae widely 
separated. The mesosternum is not produced. The tarsi, with 
few exceptions, are very long and slender. The anterior abdo- 
minal segments are short and the fifth segment relatively very 
wide. The antennae and the organs of the mouth do not differ 
from those of the Cetoniini. 

The sexual differences are very various. In certain forms the 
extremity of the abdomen is produced in the female into a long 
and slender style or ovipositor. 

A European species, Vah/us hemipterus, is the only representa- 
tive of the group of which the habits are known. M. Fallou 
(Bull. Soc. Eut. France, 18S0 and 1888) records that he found 
this in all stages in the buried part of stakes of Acacia and other 
wood, which they in time completely destroyed, e\'en when charred 
or tarred before use. The eggs appear to be deposited at the 
lowest part and the larvae work upwards through the wood to near 
the surface of the ground. 

The great majority of the Valgini inhabit the Oriental 
Eegion. 

Table of the Genera. 

1 (10) Pygidium very convex, much broader 

than long: *$ without caudal ap- 
pendage. 

2 (9) Front tibia armed with three teeth. 

,3 (6) rrouotum having two sharp median 
carinre. 

4 (5) Tarsi slender Oreodkkus, p. 223. 

5 (4) Tarsi very short and thick Podovalgus, p. 229. 



OllEODEEUS. 223 

6 (3) Pronotum not distinctly cariuate. 

7 (8) Terminal spiracles not prominent : 

body not tufted Idiovalgus, p. 230, 

8 (7) Terminal spiracles prominent : pro- 

notum and pi-opygidium tufted. . . . Xexoreoderus, p. 232. 

9(2) Front tibia armed with five teeth .. Dasyvalgus, p. 233. 
10 (1) Pygidium flat, about as long as it is 

broad : $ with caudal appendage . . Charitovalgus, p. 246. 

Genus OREODERUS. 

Oreoderus, Burm., Handb. Ent, iii. 1842, p. 726; Kolbe, Stettin. 
Ent. Zeit. 1904, p. 25. 

Type, Valgus argillaceus, Hope. 

Range. ludia, Burma, Siam, and the Malayan Kegion. 

Body of variable shape, but frequently long and narrow, clothed 
with short flat scales, the legs not long, the front tibia armed 
with three very strong teeth occupying the whole outer edge, the 
first joint of the hind tarsus shorter than the succeeding one. 
Clypeus moderately long, contracted in front of the eyes, broadly 
rounded in front, with the angles detlexed, sometimes sharp but 
not conspicuous. First joint of the antenna large, produced beyond 
the point of articulation of the second joint. Prothorax rather 
narrow, the episterna produced freely forward and forming witli 
the front coxsd a deep cavity for the reception of the head. 
Pronotum bearing two strong ridges, prominent and generally 
united in front. The propygidium and pygidium are broad and 
exposed, the terminal spiracles scarcely elevated, except in 
0. momeitensis. The fifth ventral segment is twice the length of 
the anterior segments. 

The sexual differences are various and often very great. Usually 
the female is relatively narrower than the male, but in 0. gravis 
it is broader. The propygidium is frequently horizontal and more 
or less produced in the female and there is sometimes a colour 
difference. The hind tarsi of the male are longer. 

Keg to the Species. 

1 (2) Pronotum bearing two hooked tubercles [p. 224. 

in front argillaceus, Hope, 

2 (1) Pronotum bearing a rounded lobe in 

front. _ [p. 224. 

3 (4) Terminal spiracles sharply elevated . . momeitensis, sp. n., 

4 (3) Terminal spiracles scarcely elevated. 

o (10) Thoracic carinas not continued back- 
wards beyond the middle. 
6(9) Bodylong; elytra not tuberculate behind. [p. 225. 

7 (8) Posterior angles of thorax very blunt. . hhutanus, sp, n., 

8 (7) Posterior angles of thorax sharp rzifulus, Gestro, p. 225. 

9 (6) Body short ; elytra tuberculate behind . brevipennis, Gestro, 

10 (5) Thoracic carinfe extending backwards [p. 226. 

beyond the middle. 

11 (16) Elytra not tuberculate behind. 



224 cetoniikj?;. 

12 (15) Propyf^idium notched in the middle or 

nearly strai<rht. [p. 226. 

13 (14) Prothorax dilated at the base waterhousei, Gestro, 

14 (13) Prothorax not dilated at the base .... maculiiKnnis, Gestro, 

[p. 227. 
16 (12) Propygidium prominent in the middle . humeralis, Gestro, 

16 (11) Elytra tuberculate behind fjravis, sp. n., p. 228. 

202. Oreoderus argillaceus. 

Valgus argillaceus, Hope* Ann. Nat. Hist. \iu, 1842, p. 302 
(1841). 

Dark brown, clothed with not very large or close-lying greyish 
scales above, and with larger and denser scales beneath. 

The body is long and narrow. The 
chjpeus is rounded in front and strongly 
contracted in front of the eyes ; the basal 
joint of the antenna is large. The prono- 
tum is long, with a median furrow bordered 
on each side by a straight carina, which is 
produced in front into a strong tubercle 
directed forwards and upwards, and bearing 
two other smaller erect tubercles placed at 
equal distances posteriorly. The sides are 
strongly curved and each bears three equi- 
distant tubercles, the two posterior ones 
, minute, and there is another tubercle placed 

^^g- ^^-^i^JZ o'^ each side of the disc before the middle. 

The base is strongly rounded and the hind 
anglesare very slightly prominent. The scutelhan is long and narrow . 
The elytra are narrowed from base to apex and striated, the scales 
being arranged in well-marked bands. The hind margin of the 
propygidinm is nearly straight. 

I have discovered no external sexual difference. 
Lengtli 8-9 mm. ; breadth 3-5-4 mm. 
Madras : Mysore, Nilgiri Hills (//. L. Andrewes). 
Type in the Oxford Museum. 

203. Oreoderus momeitensis, sp. n. 

Dark brown, clothed with greyish scales, usually with lighter 
scales forming a small transverse bar crossing the elytral suture 
at the middle. 

The body is depressed and moderately elongate. The prothorax 
IS narrow, with the sides curviUnear and very feebly diverging to 
the base, which is very convex, with the angles obtuse. There is 
a sharply-elevated looped carina, which extends beyond the middle, 
and an obli(]ue outer carina on each side before the middle. The 
scutelhan is rather long and narrow. The elytra are separately 
rounded behind and the lateral costae are not tuberculate at the 




OEEODERUS. 225 

end. The pro^fijgidium is straight at the posterior margin and 
the terminal spiracles are sharply prominent. 

Length 7"5-8o mm. ; breadth 4-4"5 mm. 

Upper Burma : Momeit, 1800 ft. ( W. Dohertij). 

Type in the British Museum ; cotypes in coll. K. Oberthiir. 

This species has been kindly presented by M. Rene Oberthiir to 
the British Museum. 

204. Oreoderus bhutanus, sp. n. 

Dark brown, clothed densely with scales, which are brown or 
buff above and greyish beneath, the elytra usually decorated with 
a pale spot in the middle of each. 

The body is very elongate and depressed. The 2^>'othora,v is 
long, rather parallel-sided, with a prominent loop in front, and 
distinctly dilated at the posterior angles, each lateral margin 
having two distinct indentations. The dorsal carinas do not reach 
the middle and there is a slight oblique carina on each side before 
the middle. The scutelliim is long, narrow and rather acute at 
the apex. The eh/tra are long and the lateral costse not tubercu- 
late at the posterior end. The pro2'>ygidium is produced into a 
short lobe and notched in the middle, and the pygidlum is not 
large. 

c? . In addition to the pale spot, the front, hind and sutural 
margins of the elytra are sometimes lighter in colour, and also 
the margins of tlie propygidium. The hind tarsi are longer than 
the tibijB. 

2 . The colour of the upper surface is always dark brown. The 
body is narrower, the propygidium longer and nearly horizontal, 
and the hind tarsi are not longer than the tibiae. 

Length 8-9 mm. ; breadth 3*5-4"5 mm. 

Bhutan : Maria Basti {L. Durel). 

Type in the British Museum ; cotypes in coll. E. Oberthiir. 

The British Museum is indebted to M. Rene Oberthiir for this 
species. 

205. Oreoderus rufulus. 

Oreoderus rufulus, Gestro,* Ann. Mus. Genova, (2) x, 1891, p. 867. 

Black, brown or chestnut-red, clothed with scales which on the 
upper surface are dark chocolate or reddish, with a small pale spot 
at the middle of eacii elytron, and on the lower surface and the 
lower part of the pygidium silvery grey. 

The p>)'Othorax is moderately long, with the sides nearly parallel 
behind and the hind angles rather sharp. Tlie scutelliim is rather 
long and narrow. The elytra are moderately long and the lateral 
costa is not tufted nor very prominent at its hinder end. The 
apices of the elytra are simply rounded, and the propygidium is 
not indented at the middle of the hind margin. 

c5' . The pronotum bears in front a looped carina, the ends of 

Q 



226 CEToxiiy.E. 

which convei'i^e inpa-kedly behind and vanish before the middle, 
and in addition a short obhque carina on each side, which reaches 
the lateral margin anteriorly and vanishes a little behind the inner 
carina?. The pale elytral spot is very oblique, narrow and in- 
conspicuous. The abdomen is slightly hollowed at the base 
heneath, and the hind tibiae are strongly dilated at the end. 

2 . The body is more elongate and parallel- sided, and entirely 
clothed with pinkish silvery scales, amongst which the pale elytral 
spot is very inconspicuous. The propygidium is very wide, 
hoi'izontal and broadly prominent in the middle. The abdomen 
is convex, the hind tibifie not dilated at the end, and the tarsi 
short. 

Length 9o-ll mm.; breadth b-b mm. 

Burma : Karen Hills {L. Feci). 

T>ipe in the Genoa Museum. 

Tlae species was described by Dr. Gestro from pale-coloured 
(perhaps rather immature) male specimens. A siugle female 
found at the same time as the series of ten males appears to me 
almost certainly to belong to the species. 

206. Oreoderus brevipennis. 

Oreoderus brevipenuis, Gestro,* Ann. Mus. Genova, (2) x, 1891, 
p. 868. 

Dai'k bi'own, clothed with reddish-brown scales above and 
lighter scales beneath, the elytral suture and a narrow transverse 
mark on each being also pale. 

The form is short and broad. The protliorax is leather quadrate, 
with the anterior part prominent in the middle, the posterior 
angles very blunt and the base not dilated. The discoidal cariuse 
form a loop in front, they do not strongly converge behind and 
are interrupted before the middle, reappearing behind the middle 
and again before the base. The lateral carinic are strong but do 
not reach the margins. The scutellum is broad at the base and 
strongly triangular. The elytra are broad and the lateral costa 
is prominent at the posterior end. The propyyidium is gently 
excised at the middle of the hind margin. The hind tibia and the 
first joint of the hind tarsus are dilated at the end. 

cJ . The prothorax is shorter and more quadrate than that of 
the female, and is slightly emarginate before the scutellum. The 
hind extremity of the elytral costa bears a tuft of hairs. 

Lenr/th 9 mm. ; breadth b mm. 

Burma : Karen Hills, Mandalay. 

Type in the Genoa Museum ; cotype in the British Museum. 

207. Oreoderus waterhousei. 

Ureoderu.s waterhousei, Gestro,* Ann. Mus. Genova, (2) x, 1891, 
p. 86-"). 

Hark brown or chestnut, clothed above with greyish brown 



OREODERUS. 227 

scales, with a whitish spot iu the middle o£ each elytron, and 
beneath with silvery grey scales. 

The protlioi-ax is bell-shaped, with the hind angles obtuse and 
the base regularly rounded. There is a carinate loop in front, 
which widens rather rapidly in its anterior part, its limbs being 
continued backwards beyond the middle of the pronotum, and a 
very short oblique carina on each side. The scutelhmi is long 
and narrow. The elytra are rather short and the lateral costa on 
each side is not tufted nor strongly marked at the end. 

(S . There is a dark patch on each side of the basal part of the 
pronotum, and the centi-al part of each elytron, except the pale 
spot, is also dark. The abdomen is slightly hollowed at the base 
beneath, and the hind tibia is scarcely dilated at the end. 

2 . The body is more elongate, the scales more uniformly pale, 
and there is a pinkish area at the base of the elytra. The pro- 
pygidium is broad and horizontal, with the middle part rather 
prominent and minutely notched. The tarsi are shorter and the 
abdomen more convex than in the male. 

Length 9-11 mm. ; breadth 5 mm. 

Burma : Karen Hills, Palon (L. Fea). 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 

208. Oreoderus maciilipennis. 

Oreoderus macuhpeunis, Gestro,^ A^in. Mus. Gcnova, (2) x, 1891, 
p. 869. 

Dark brown or chestnut, clothed with greyish brown scales 
above and pale greyish ones beneath. 

The irrothorax is rather narrow, with a deep median furrow and 
a strongly-marked impression on each side. There is a carinate 
dorsal loop which is broad iu front, strongly contracted before 
the middle and evanescent beyond it. The lateral margins are 
indented in the middle and not divergent at the base, the posterior 
angles are obtuse and the basal margin distinctly angulate in the 
middle. The scutellum is narrow and sharply pointed. The 
elytra are rather parallel-sided and without apical projections. 
The hind margin of the p7'oj)ygidiiim is nearly straight and 
minutely notched in the middle. 

cJ . The central part of each elytron is chocolate- colour, crossed 
at the middle by a short bar of nearly white scales. The abdomen 
is sHghtly arched and the hind tarsi are a little longer than those 
of the female. 

5 . The body is more elongate and the scales of the upper 
surface are almost uniformly gi"ey, but there is a short longitudinal 
reddish humeral patch upon each elytron. 

Length 8 mm. ; breadth 4 mm. 

Burma: Bhamo {L. Fea). 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 

Three specimens in the Genoa Museum were taken by Fea on 
different occasions. The type is a male, but I have every reason 
to believe, on structural grounds, that I have rightly associated the 
two sexes. 

q2 



228 CETONIIX^. 

209. Oreoderus humeralis. 

Oreoderus humeralis, Gestro,* Ann, Mus. Genova, (2) x, 1891, 
p. 804. 

Dark brown or chestnut, clothed with brownish or brownish 
grey scales above, and \\\t\\ lighter ones beneath. 

The prothora.v is bell-shaped, prominent in front, with the sides 
sinuated and divergent at the posterior angles, which are obtuse, 
and the base very obtusely angiilate in the middle. There is a 
discoidal loop, the limbs of which closely approach one another 
before tlie middle of the pi'onotum and are produced distinctly 
behind the middle, and an oblique lateral carina on each side not 
reaching the margin. The scutellum is rather narrow, with tlie 
sides divergent and rather straiglit, and the apex sharp. The 
elytra are striated and the lateral costoe are not very prominent 
behind. 1\\q propy(jidium is produced in the middle. 

S • The central part of each elytron is chocolate-coloured with 
a pale transverse mark at the middle. The abdomen is slightly 
hollowed at the base, and the middle and liind tarsi are distinctly 
longer than those of the female. 

2 . The body is more elongate and clothed with greyish scales, 
those on the hinder part of the pronotum and the elytra being 
brown, and the latter having each a conspicuous elongate red 
patch at the shoulder. The propygidium is large and horizontal, 
and produced into a sharp angle in the middle. 

Lem/th 8-9 mm. : breadth 3"5-4 mm. 

Burma : Bhamo (L. Fea). 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 

This species was described from female specimens, to which 
alone the name is appropriate. 

210. Oreoderus gravis, sp. n. 

Chocolate-colour, rather densely clothed with round scales, 
except upon the scutellum which is smooth and shining, those of 
the lower surface, pro])ygidium and pygidium being large and 
grey, while those of the head, pronotum and elytra are smaller 
and darker, but relieved with paler scales at the base, apex, 
sutural margins and middle of the elytra. 

It is a large, broad species. The dypeus is not long, well 
rounded in front and armed with a minute bitid process at the 
middle of the front margin. The prothorax is relatively small 
and narrow, witli the sides rounded in front and nearly parallel 
behind, the base rounded and the disc bearing a carinate loop, a 
little constricted before the middle and produced beyond it, aiul a 
very short oblique carina on each side. The scutellum is ratlier 
broad. The elytra are broader conjointly than their length, with 
their lateral cosije sharply prominent at the end. The legs are 
not long, the two terminal teeth of the front tibia are very large 
and sharp, and the third tooth is very short. 



OREODERUS. PODOTALGUS. 



229 



S . The propygidium is gently excised in the middle of the 
hind margin and the hind tarsi are distinctly longer than those of 
the female. 

2 . The body is relatively broader and the prothorax is more 
abruptly narrowed in front. Each elytron has a thick longitu- 
dinal brush of erect dark hairs within and behind the shoulder. 




Fig. 51. — Orcoderiis (/ravis, male and female. 

The propygidium is horizontal and produced back\^ards, with two 
sharp points near the middle of the hind margin. 

Length 10-11 mm. ; hreadtli 5-6 mm. 

Madras : Nilgiri Hills, Travancore, Permaid. 

Type in the British Museum ; cotypes in the Oxford Museum 
and Mr. H. E. Andrewes' collection. 



Genus PODOVALaUS, nov. 

Type, Fodovalgus r/nseus, sp. n. 

Range. That of the type. 

Body elongate, depressed above and clothed with scales. Legs 
short ; the front tibiae acutely tridentate, the teeth rather close 
together and the uppermost one placed at about the middle of the 
outer edge ; all the tarsi very short, thick and compact, and the 
claws short and apposed. Clypeus long, parallel-sided and emar- 
ginate at the end, with the angles reflexed and blunt. Prothorax 
not dilated beyond the middle, with a nearly complete longitudinal 
median furrow, bordered by two prominent, nearly parallel earinse. 
Scutellum moderately long. Terminal spiracles borne by pro- 
minent tubercles situated at the hind margin of the propygidium. 
Eifth ventral segment as long as the three preceding together. 

The sexes are alike, but the abdomen of the male is very slightly 
arched beneath. 

Only the following new species is known. It seems probable 
from its peculiar structure and aspect that it is an inhabitant of 
ants' nests, although no record of its capture is available. 




230 CEToyiix.E. 

211. Podovalgiis griseus, sp. n. 

Black or pitchy brown, clothed above and beneath, but not 
densely, with flat greyish scales. 

The chjpeus is quadrate, broad in front, where it is notched at 
an obtuse angle, the corners being strongly 
reflexed and strongly bent outwards. The 
l^rotliorax is elongate, broad in front, with 
the median part ])rominent, the sides sinu- 
ated and rather converging behind, the 
base being broadly rounded. The longi- 
tudinal carinjB extend almost the entire 
length of the pronotum, and there are two 
large tubercles on each side situated at 
the corners of a transverse parallelogram. 
The scufelhnn is triangular. The eh/t'ra 
are deeply striated and the interstices 
clothed with rows of uniform grey scales. 
Fig. 52.— Podovalqus There is a slight elevation before the 
griseus. middle of each elytron near the suture. 

The propyijidium and pygidiuvi are uni- 
formly, but not densely, clothed with grey scales, and the former 
is convex with its hind margin nearly straight. The legs are 
moderately stout and all the tarsi thick and very compact, the 
basal joint of the hind tarsus broad and transverse. 

(S . The fifth ventral segment is a little shorter tlian in the 
female, and the abdomen slightly arched. 
Lenr/th 6-5-9 mm.; hreadth 3"5-4*o mm. 
Bengal : Barway {P. Cardoti). 

Type in the British Museum ; cotypes in the Brussels Museum. 
A series of specimens of this interesting insect was sent to me 
by M. Severin, of the Brussels Museum. 

Genus IDIOVALGUS. no\ . 

Type, Orcodenis planicolUs, Gestro. 

Ham/e. That of the type. 

Form rather short and stout and the legs not very long. 
Clypeus moderately broad, the front and sides forming a con- 
tinuous curve. Prothorax subcircular, without discoidal carinse, 
the base and sides strongly curved, the former overlapping the 
scutellum, and the hind angles obsolete. Scutellum short. Pro- 
pygidium without prominences, the terminal spiracles not elevated. 
Pront tibia stout and armed with three slender acute teeth, 
placed rather far apart, the uppermost near the base. Tarsi 
moderately slender, the basal joint of the hind tarsus strongly 
triangular and not longer than the succeeding joint. The maxilla 
bears a thick tuft of long hairs and the last joint in all the palpi 
is larse. 



IDIOVALGUS. 



231 



2 . More stoutly built, with the tarsi shorter, the scutellum 
occupying a depression, and the pronotum distinctly lobed behind. 
Only one species of the genus is known. 

212, Idio valgus planicollis. 

Oreoderus planicollis, Gestro,* Atin. 3Ii(S. Genova, (2) x, 1891,. 
p. 862. 

Bright reddish yellow, with tlie head and prothorax sometimes 
darker. 

It is a rather small but stoutly built insect. The head is 
granulated and the dijpeus rounded in front. The j^^'onotum is 
also granulated and has a very slight median groove, not bordered 
by carinas, and an impression on each side. It is gently convex, 
a little longer than it is broad, rounded at the sides and base, and 
about equally narrowed in front and behind. The elytra are 
distinctly striate-punctate, with the sides closely rugose. The- 
propygidium is simple, with a straight margin. 





Fig. 53. 
Idiovalyus planicollis, male. 



Fig. 54. 

Idiovalgus 2}J((iiicollis 



female. 



S. The body is partially clothed above and below with pale 
yello^^• scales, Mhich are dense round the scutellum and upon the 
pygidium and propygidium. The pygidium is vertical. 

$ . The body is very shining above and beneath and only thinly 
and partially clothed with short, silky golden hairs. The scutellar 
region is strongly depressed and overhung by a ■well-marked broad 
and rounded lobe at the hind margin of the pronotum. The 
pygidium is protuberant and has a broad ventral face. The hind 
legs are very short. 

Length 5 mm. ; breadth 3 mm. 

Burma : Teinzo {L. Fea). 

Type in the Genoa Museum ; cotypes in the British Museum. 

This curious little insect was found digging in the sandy bed of 

dried-up torrent. 



232 CETONIIN^, 

Genus XENOREODERUS, nov. 

Type, Oreoderus humilis, Gestro. 

Range. The Oriental Eegion. 

Body stout and compact, clothed with scales and hairs, some of 
Avhich form erect tufts upon the pronotum and propypidium. 
Clypeus moderately broad in front and strongly contracted before 
the eyes. Prothorax narrower than the combined width of the 
elytra, not bearing produced dorsal carinse anteriorly. 8cutellum 
moderately short. Terminal spiracles borne upon prominent 
tubercles at the hind margin of the propygidium. Legs moderately 
slender, the front tibia armed with three strong teeth, tlie tarsi 
slender and the first joint of the hind tarsus equal in length to 
the second. 

I have detected no sexual differences in the specimens 
examined. 

This genus is intermediate in its chai'acters between Oreoderus 
and Dasyval/jus. Its species are probably rather numerous, Vahjvs 
py(jmceus, G. & P., being one of them. This species is quoted in 
the Munich Catalogue as inhabiting " India orientalis." Its exact 
habitat was unknown to the original describers, but it was found 
by Dr. Schaum (see Ann. iSoc. Ent. Prance, 1844, p. ^99) to be a 
Malayan species. 

Key to the Species. 

Elytral scales uniform and evenly distributed, humilix, Gestro, p. 232. 
Elytral scales unevenly distributed occideiitalia, sp. n., p. 233. 

213. Xenoreoderus humilis. 

Oreoderus humilis, Gestro,* Avn, Miis. Genoiri, (2) x, 1891, 
p. 863. 

Black, or nearly black, with the antenna; and legs reddish, and 
the body rather uniformly clothed above and 
below with greyish scales. 

The body is small but stoutly built and 
the legs are slender. The clyptus is bare 
and granular, rounded in front. The pro- 
thorax is about as long as it is wide at the 
base, bell-shaped, with the sides regularly 
curved and not contracted at the base, the 
hind margin strongly ronuded and the hind 
angles obtuse. There is a slight median 
Fiff. bi). groove bordered by a double vow nf brown 

Xenoreoderus hurnilh. tufted tubercles, viz. a pair near the front 
margin, a pair near the middle and a pair 
near the base. There are also two external tufts on each side, one 
near the middle and the other just before the hind angle. The 
scutellxmi is rather short and not very sharp at the apex. The 




XENOnEODEKUS. — DASYVALGUS. 283 

elytra are regularly striated, clothed with uuiform grey scales, 
with the humeral calli prominent and the apical calli slightly 
tufted. The propugidium is not wide and the hind margin is 
broadly excised in the middle and tufted at each end of the 
emargination. The three teeth of the front tibia are sharp, and 
all the tarsi are slender, with the joints of equal length. 

The three typical specimens which I have examined appear to 
be all males. 

Length 4*5 mm. ; breadth 3 mm. 

Burma : Karen Hills (L. Fea). 

Type in the Genoa Museum ; cotype in the British Museum. 

214. Xenoreoderus occidentalis, sp. n. 

Deep red-brown, with the head, legs, scutelluin and margins of 
the pronotum aud elytra generally black : irregularly clothed with 
not close-lying yellow scales, which are frequently larger aud 
closer at the sides, base and middle of the pronotum, in the middle 
of each elytron and iiear the scutellum. 

The form is stout and the legs moderately long. The dyp)eus 
is rounded in front. The pronotum is scarcely longer than it is 
wide, convex, longitudinally grooved at the middle, prominent in 
front, with the sides nearly straight and parallel, but strongly 
curved in front, the base strongly rounded and the hind angles 
very obtuse. There are four inconspicuous tufts near the base 
and two near the middle. The scutellum is very feebly elongate. 
The elytra are not tufted, the propygidium and pygidi^im are 
rather closely scaly and the former bears a pair of tufts at the 
hind margin. The three teeth of the front tibia are sharp, and all 
the tarsi are slender, with, the joints of equal length. 

I have found no sexual diiference in the specimens examined, 
which were collected by Mr. H. Ivemball. 

Length 5*5 mm. ; breadth 3 "5 mm. 

Bombay : Belgaum. 

Type in the British Museum ; cotypes in coll. Andrewes. 



Genus DASYVALGUS. 

Dasyvalgus, Kolhe, Stettin. Ent. Zeit. Ixv, 1904, p, .34. 

Type, Valgus vethi, Eitsema (Sumatra aud Borneo). 

Range. Tropical Asia. 

Form ver}' various, but generally short, the body more or less 
clothed with scales or setre. Legs generally slender ; the front 
tibia toothed from end to end of the outer edge, the teeth 
numbering five, of which the 1st and 3rd (counting from the 
apex) are generally very long and the 4th frequently very blunt ; 
the tarsi long, with the 1st joint longer than the 2nd. Prothorax 
much narrower than the elytra together, with two longitudinal 
dorsal carinae, and generally several tufts of erect setae. Terminal 



23-i CETONIIX.E. 

spiracles placed upon prominent tubercles near the hind margin 
of the propygidium, wliich usually bears also two tut'ts of setse 
near the middle. Pygidium convex and strongly transverse. 

There is no caudal spine in the female. The middle and hind 
tarsi are generally longer in the male and the pygidium is some- 
times different in shape, but differences of colour and pattern 
also occur. The female is much less commonly found than the 
male. 



Key to the Species. 

1 (30) First joint of hii.d tarsus much 

longer than the 2ud. 

2 (7) Hind tarsus rather broad and flat. 

3 (6) Sides of prothorax gently rounded 

in front. 

4 (5) Sides of prothorax a little con- 

tracted at the hind angles .... dohrm, Kolhe, p. 23-3. 

5 (4) Sides of prothorax not contracted 

at the hind angles liictuosus, Gestro, p. 206. 

6 (3) Sides of prothorax strongly rounded 

in front viduatus, sp. n., p. 236. 

7 (2) Hind tarsus t-imple and slender. 

8 (25) Pj'gidium not covered with decum- 

bent scales. 

9 (18) Pygidium bare and shining, or 

■\vitli a verv few minute setai. 

10 (13) Pygidium red. 

11 (12) Pygidium unicolurous militaris, sp. n., p. 237. 

12 (11 ) Pvgidium white-spotted stictopycjus. Gestro, p. 237. 

13 (10) Pygidium black. 

14 (17; Propygidium mtt covered with 

scales. 

15 (16) Pronotum distinctly tufted in the 

middle tristis, Gestro, p. 238. 

16 (15) Pronotum not distinctly tufted in 

the middle carlonarius, sp. n., p. 239. 

17 (14) Propygidium densely clothed with 

■scales podicalis, Blanch., p. 240. 

18 (9) Pygidium clothed with conspicuous 

erect setie. 

19 (20) Terminal .'^])iracles feebly elevated, msvlaris, sp. n., p. 240. 

20 (19) Terminal spiracles strongly ele- 

vated. 

21 (22) Sides of prothorax. scarcely rounded, trisin-iaitns, Gestro, p. 241. 

22 (21) Sides of prothorax strongly 

rounded. 

23 (24) Colour red hijstri.v, sp. n.. p. 241. 

24 (23) Colour dark, with the pygidium 

light fidvicaudo., sp. n.. p. 242. 

25 (8) Pygidium clothed with decumbent 

scales. 

26 (27) Colour reddish, with black and 

yellow .scales vvicollU, sp. n., p. 242. 



DASl'VALGUS. '2'65 

27 (26) Colour black, with greyish scales. 

28 (29) Sides of prothorax strongly rounded 

in front ;je«/c7//rt/(M, Bluucli., p. 243. 

29 (28) Sides of prothorax little rounded 

in front minhnus, sp. n., p. 244. 

30 (1) First joint of hind tarsus not much 

longer than 2nd. 

31 (32) Sides of prothorax little rounded 

in front addendus, Walk., p. 244. 

32 (31) Sides of prothorax strongly rounded 

in front Tcanareyisis, sp. n., p. 245. 

Basyvalgtis pijrropygvs, Kraatz, a Malayan species, has been 
recoi'ded by Dr. Kolbe from Burma, but as the characters he has 
assigned do not agree well with those of the type, which I have 
examined, J. have not included it here. 

215. Dasyvalgus dohrni. (Plate II, figs. 6 & 7.) 

Dasyvalgus dohrni, Kolbe, Stettin. Ent. Zeit. Ixv, 1904, p. 41. 

Black or very deep chocolate-colour, clothed with fine setae and 
decorated with orange or yellow scales, which are numerous and 
closely packed in the male, forming a very conspicuous pattern, 
and in the female fewer, less close and inconspicuous. 

The chjpeus is long, distinctly bilobed and not closely punctured. 
The pronotum is moderately long, bell-shaped, ^^"ith the sides and 
base regularly and gently curved. The dorsal carinse are nearly 
parallel and tufted near the middle and at the hinder extremities. 
The scutellum is moderately long and blunt. The eJytj^a are deeply 
striated and separately rounded at the end. The iiropygidium is 
tufted on each side of the middle and the terminal spiracles are 
moderately prominent. The front tibia is broad and armed with 
five strong teeth and the basal joint of the hi^id tarsus is twice as 
long as the second joint. The upper side of the hind femur is 
clothed with grey scales. 

c? . The pronotum is covered with yellow scales, except at the 
hinder median part, and the elytra have each a large median yellow 
patch and usually a smaller and paler one external to it, a patch 
adjoining the scutellum, another in the sutural angle and several 
inconspicuous longitudinal lines of scales following the intervals 
between the striae. The greater part of the lower surface of the 
body is clothed with pale yellow scales. The three distal teeth of 
the front tibia are long and acute and the hind tarsus is about 
half as long again as the tibia. 

$ . The yellow markings of the male are only vaguely repre- 
sented by a few greyish yellow scales. The body is more elongate, 
the propygidium more extended, and the pygidium has a smooth 
flattened ventral plate. The front tibia is broader than that of 
the male and all its teeth very blunt. The hind tarsus is stout 
and only a little longer than the tibia. 



236 cetoniix.t:. 

Length 6-7 inin. ; breadth 4-5 mm. 

Tenasserim : Tavoy, Mergui (Dohei-ti/) ; Perak : Penakg ; 
Java; Sumatra. 



21 G. Dasyvalgus luctuosus. 

Valgus luctuosus, Gestro,* A/m. Mus. Genova, (2) x, 1891, p. 858. 

Very deep brown or black, shining, but clothed with minute 
erect setae, with two minute patches of decumbent ochreous scales 
placed transversely at the middle of each elytron. 

The body is moderately elongate and the lerjst stout, with rather 
short tarsi, the hind ones rather flattened and the first joint not 
long but twice the length of the second. The sides of the 
prothorax are almost straight, gently converging towards the front, 
where they are a little rounded. There are two straight parallel 
doT'sal ridges ending at about the middle of the disc, where they 
bear a pair of tufts, and there are four similar tufts near the base. 
The scuteUum is moderately large and long and the ehjtra are 
deeply striated, with slight tufts at the shoulders and apical calli. 
There are two distant tufts at the hind margin of t\\Q propiigkUum 
and the terminal spiracles are slightl}' prominent. The front tibia 
is rather short and broad, with the 1 st, 3rd and 5th teeth strong 
but not very sharp, and the 2nd and 4th hardly perceptible. 

The type specimen is a female and has a flat semicircular ventral 
plate upon the j^vgidium. 

Length 6'5 mm. ; breadth 3"o mm. 

Burma : Palon (L. Fea). 

Tijjie in the Genoa Museum. 

Found in the forest. There is a second female specimen in 
the British Museum. 



217. Dasyvalgus vidnatus. sp. n. 

lilack and shining, scantily clothed with minute setag, and 
decorated with two minute patches of decumbent ochreous scales 
placed transversely at the middle of each elytron. 

The body is slightly elongate and the legs moderately slender, 
with the hind tarsi rather flattened and the first joint twice the 
length of the second. The sides of the pronotinn are parallel 
behind, but a little irregular, and strongly rounded in front, and the 
hind angles are sharp but not acute. There are two well-marked 
dorsal carina? extending almost from front to hind margin, a deep 
oblique fovea on each side at the middle, extending to the lateral 
margin, and four tufts near the hind margin. The scvtclhim is 
not long. The ehjtra are finely striated, slightly tufted at the 
shoulders, and separately rounded at the hind margins. The 
terminal s/nradea are moderately prominent. The front tibia is 
broad and armed with five strong, broad and nearly equal teeth. 



DASY VALGUS. 237 

The unique type is a female and has a flat semicircular ventral 
plate to the pygidium. 

Length 6*5 mm. ; breadth 3*5 mm, 

Burma. 

Type in the British Museum. 

This species very closely resembles D. luetuosns, Gestro, from 
which it differs by the more evenly toothed front tibia, longer 
tarsi and the more rounded sides of the prothorax. By analogv 
with D. dohrni, Kolbe, it seems probable that the unknown males 
of both these species are more brightly adorned than the female. 

218. Dasy valgus militaris, sp. u. 

Black, with the last two segments of the abdomen scarlet above 
and beneath. The body is rather thinly clotlied with yellow scales, 
but those at the hind angles of the prothorax, above and beneath, 
upon the mesosterual epimera, the front borders of the elytra and 
along the middle of the propygidium and pygidium are larger and 
closer, forming bright orange-coloured patches. 

The clypms is long, shining, strongly punctured, and feebly 
notched at the middle of the front margin. The sides of the 
prothorax are strongly rounded in front and nearly parallel 
behind, the hind angles are very obtuse and the base strongly 
rounded. The dorsal carinoe are gently curved, converging to 
behind the middle and from there strongly diverging. There is a 
pair of tufted tubercles near the middle and a pair on each side 
near the base. The scutellum is long and narrow, and the elytra 
are feebly striated, with the hind margins slightly curved. The 
terminal spiracles are moderately prominent, the p)y(jidium and 
propygidium ai'e closely and coarsely pitted, and the latter bears 
two tufts of black setoe near the middle of the hind margin. The 
front tibia has the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 5th teeth very sharp and the 
4th obtuse, and the basal joint of the hind tarsus is nearly twice 
as long as the 2nd. 

5 . There is a small, flattened and closely setose, ventral area 
to the pygidium. 

Length 8'5 mm. ; breadth 4'5 ram. 

Madras : Nilgiri Hills {Sir G, F. Hampson). 

Type in the British Museum. 

I have seen only the single female type specimen. 

219, Dasy valgus stictopygus. 

Valgus stictopygus, Gestro* Ann. Mas. Genova, (2) x, 1891, 
p. 857. 

Black above and brown beneath, with the abdomen and legs 
reddish, the propygidium and pygidium bright red ; decorated 
with spots or patches of pale yellow scales distributed as follows : 
one at each hind angle of the prothorax (above and beneath), 
two placed obliquely near the middle of each elytron, four in a 



238 CETONiiN.i:. 

transverse line upon the propygidium (the two inner ones minute), 
three at the base and one at tlie apex of the pygidium, and a 
lateral series upon the sternum, liind coxae and abdomen. 

The body is moderately broad and only scantily clothed with 
fine setie, but with a denser black ])atch at the middle of each 
elytron, four tufts near the hind margin of the pronotum, one at 
each shoulder and apical callus of the elytra, and two at the hind 
margin of tlie propygidium. The clypeits is long, entire, and 
strongly punctured, " The pronotxun is bell-shaped, with the sides 
a little divergent behind and the base strongly rounded. The 
dorsal carin;e are rather feeble. The scutdlum is moderately long 
and the elytra are rather straight at the apical margin. The 
propygidial spiracles are sharply elevated and the two median 
tubercles very prominent and equidistant from the spiracles and 
from each other. The pi/gidmm is closely pitted, but shining 
and scarcely setose. The leys are long, with the fr07it tibia 
rather broad, the 4th tooth blunt and the rest very long and 
sharp, and the basal joint of the hind tarsus is twice as long as 
the second. 

Length G mm.; breadth 3-5 mm. 

Burma : Bhamo {L. Fea). 

Ti/pe in the Genoa Museum. 

1 have seen only the unique type specimen of this well-marked 
species. 

220. Dasyvalgns tristis. 

Valgus tristis, Gestro* Aim. Mus. Genova, (2) x, 1891, p. 859. 

Black and shining, scantily clothed with greyish seta;, which 
are denser in the depressions of the prothorax and in the two 
elongate spots placed side by side near the middle of each elytron. 

The body is rather broad, with the prothorax much narrower 
than the elytra togetlier. The clypeus is feebly bilobed. The 
sides of the prothorax are parallel behind and strongly rounded 
in front, the hind angles are very blunt and the base prominent 
in the middle. The dorsal carina) are prominent in front and 
terminate in a pair of tufts near the middle of the pronotum, 
and there are four nearly equidistant tufts placed before the base. 
The scutellinn is rather narrow and pointed. The elytra are 
rather feeblv striated ; each has a tuft at the shoulder and another 
at the extremity of tlie lateral costa, and the hind margins ai-e 
separately rounded. The terminal spiracles are sharply prominent 
and there are two interposed tufts equidistant from the spiracles 
and each other. The leys are moderately long, the 1st, 2nd, and 
:{rd teeth of the front tibia long and sharp and the 4th and 5th 
short and broad.* The 1st joint of the liind tarsus is nearly twice 
as long as the 2nd. 

LenyiJi 4-5-5 mm. ; breadth 3 mm. 

Burma : Karen Hills, 2700-3300 ft. (L. Fea). 



DASTVALGUS. 239 

Type in the Genoa Museum ; cotypes in the British Museum. 
Ten typical specimens which Dr. Gestro has kindly sent me 
for examination appear to be all males. They were found in 



flowers. 



221. Dasyvalgus carbonarius, sp. n. 

Black and shining, but finely rugose and excessively finely and 
sparingly clothed with dark setfe, with four small inconspicuous 
patches of erect seta? placed in a transverse line across the middle 
of the elytra, each patch immediately followed by a few greyish 
scales. The scales and set?e are easily lost. 

The body is moderately broad and the legs are slender. The 
head is very closely punctured and the forehead sliglitly carinate. 
The proihorax is strongly and densely pitted and rugose, narrow, 
with the front angles acute, the sides gently rounded and a little 
contracted behind, and the hind angles slightly rounded off. 
There are two sharp, nearly parallel, dorsal carinse extending from 
the front almost to the base, two short outer ridges near the 
middle, parallel to the first (but sometimes absent), and a short 
oblique ridge in each hind angle. The scuteUiim is a little elon- 
gate, and the eli/tra are irregularly striated, with a slight tuft of 
black setae at each shoulder, and the hind margins are separately 
rounded. The terminal spiracles are very sharp and prominent, 
and there are two small distant tufts at the hind margin of the 
pi-opygidiitm, which, with the pijgidium and lower surface of the 
body, is closely covered with large annular punctures. The front 
tibia is armed with five equidistant teeth, the 1st, 3rd, and 5th a 
little longer than the others. The basal joint of the hind tarsus 
is as long as the two succeeding. 

(S . The body is very short and compact and the tarsi are very 
long and slender. 

5 . The body is elongate and the tarsi are rather short. The 
front tibia is shorter and broader, the terminal spiracles are less 
sharply produced, and the pygidium is very prominent, with the 
annular impressions larger and less ci"owded, and with a flattened 
and flanged ventral surface. 

Length 6-8 mm. ; breadth 3-5-4*5 mm. 

BuEMA : Euby Mines (Dohertg) ; Sikkim : Karsiang (Ver- 
schraeghen). 

Type in the British Museum ; cotypes in colls. R. Oberthiir and 
Baron P. de Moffarts. 

I have seen a good series of males but only a single female, 
which, in spite of its different aspect, due chiefly to the prominent 
pygidium and very much shorter tarsi, I beheve I am right in 
associating with them. It was brought by Doherty from the Ruby 
Mines, together with several males. 



240 CKTOvmvJE. 

222. Dasyvalgus podicalis. 

Valgus podicalis. Blanch.,* Cat. Col. Mus. Paris, I80O, p. 44. 
Spilovalgus propvgidialis, Moser* Berlin. Ent. Zeitsohr. 1904, 
p. 267. 

Black and rather shining, with the elytra very deep chocolate- 
colour. There is a very scanty clothing of minute greyisli setse, 
the propygidium is densely covered with orange scales, and there 
are lighter yellow scales decorating the mesosternal epimera and 
the scutelhuu and forming a small spot at the middle of the hasal 
margin of each elytron, and two more or less longitudinal marks 
placed transversely at the middle of each. 

The body is rather broad, not tufted, and the legs are long and 
slender. The clijpeuts is long and not notched at the front margin. 
The prothorax is subcircular, with the sides and base uniformly 
rounded and the hind angles obliterated. The dorsal carinre are 
nearly parallel and not sharp, and there is a broad oblique im- 
pression on each side behind the middle. The smtdhim is long 
and narrow, and the eJijtra are striated, with the hind margins 
straight. The terminal spiracles are placed upon minute but 
sharply produced tubercles. The piifjidium is extremely smooth 
and shining, but bears fine annular punctures. The front tibia 
is armed with five sharp equidistant teeth, and the tarsi are very 
long, the basal joint of the hind tarsus being about twice as long 
as the second. 

Length 6 mm. ; breadth 3'5 mm. 

Assam (teste Moser). 

Tif2^e in the Paris jNluseum ; that of propygidialis in coll. Moser. 

The known specimens of this species appear to me to be all 
males. 



223. Dasyvalgus insiilaris, sp. n. 

Black, with rather scattered greyish scales above and beneath, 
aggregated near the middle of each elytron to form a transverse 
patch, which is produced forwards interiorly along the second 
interstice. 

The body is robust and the legs moderately long. The ch/peits 
is shining and feebly bilobed. The sides of the prothora.v are 
strongly rounded in front and nearly straight behind : the hind 
angles are obtuse and the base strongly rounded. The dorsal 
carinae are nearly parallel and end in a pair of tufts near the middle 
of the disc, and there are four posterior tufts. The scntellum is 
long and narrow. The ehjtra are deeply striated, scarcely tufted, 
and separately rounded at the hind margins. The ^propygidium 
bears two slight tufts behind and the terminal spiracles are 
scarcely elevated. The front tibia is rather short and broad, the 
1st, 2ud and 3rd teeth are long, the 4th broad and laminiform, 
and the 5th stout but prominent. The tarsi are not very long. 



DASY VALGUS. 241 

and the basal joint of the hiud foot is about half as long again as 
the second joint. 

LeiigtJi 5-5*5 mm. ; breadth 3-3'5 mm. 

Andaman Is. {Cajit. Wimherley); Nicobar Is. {Roepstorff). 

Type in the British Museum. 

224. Dasyvalgus trisinuatus. 

Valgus trisinuatus, Gestro* Ann. Mus. Genova, (2) x, 1891, p. 860. 

Chestnut-red, clothed all over with coarse erect yellowish setae, 
each elytron marked more or less evidently with a small black 
spot, having a few yellow scales adjoining it. 

It is a small species, with the prothorax relatively rather large. 
The head bears two tufts upon the vertex. The sides of the pro- 
thorax are nearly straight, slightly converging to the front, where 
the angles are prominent. There are two strong, nearly parallel, 
dorsal cariuae, prominent at the front margin and terminating 
behind in two well-marked tufts behind the middle of the pro-- 
notum, which has also four tufts close to the base. The scntellum 
is not long. The elytra are rather deeply striated and each has a 
well-marked lateral costa, tufted at the end ; the hind margins 
are nearly straight and the angles sharp. There are two rather 
distant tufts at the hind margin of the j)ro^>y^«(?Mf)?i and the 
terminal spiracles are sharply prominent. The p)l/gidinm is very 
coarsely and shallowly pitted. The front tibia is rather broad 
and armed with five nearly equidistant teeth, the 1st and 3rd 
much longer than the rest. The first joint of the hind tarsus is 
more than half as long again as the second. 

c? . The tarsi are much longer and more slender than those of 
the female. 

Length 4 mm. ; breadth 2*5 mm. 

Burma: Karen Hills {W. Dohertu), Palon (L. Fea), Victoria 
Point ( W. Doherty). 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 

The type specimen taken by Fea is a female. There are two 
males in the British Museum. 



225. Dasyvalgas hystrix, sp. n. 

Chestnut-red, clothed with yellow scales beneath, and above 
with intermixed yellow, orange and black scales, which are un- 
evenly distributed and more or less erect. The yellow and orange 
scales are dense upon the back of the head, the pronotum, jjro- 
pygidium, pygidium, and the front and hind margins of the elytra, 
and the last have also a small patch of black scales near the 
middle of each and a few at the shoulders and apical calli. 

The body is short and the legs are slender. The clypeus is 
strongly bilobed and the forehead crested. The prothorax is much 
narrower than the elytra together, the sides are strongly rounded. 



242 CETONIIN^. 

in front and a little contracted behind, the dorsal carinae are not 
very strongly marked, and there are eight prominent tufts of 
orange-coloured sette forming two transA-erse series. The scutelhvm 
is rather long. The ehjtm are rather indistinctly striated and 
separately rounded at the hind margins. The terminal spiracles 
are not sharp, but the jrropygidium bears two large yellow tufts 
at its posterior edge. The front tibia bears five well-developed 
teeth, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd being very long and sharp. The first 
joint of the hind tarsus is nearly twice the length of the second. 

Lenfjth b'b mm. ; breadth 3 mm. 

Assam : Patkai Mts. (Doherty). 

Type in the British Museum. 

226. Dasyvalgus fulvicauda, sp. u. 

Black, with the propygidium, pygidium and end of the abdomen 
beneath red ; clothed with minute dark setae and yellow scales, 
the latter forming four longitudinal crests at the base of the pro- 
notum and a patch beneath each hind angle, and being rather 
closely aggregated at the anterior and sutural parts of the elytra 
and upon the propygidium and pygidium. 

The body is rather short and the legs are slender. The head 
imCi pronotum are deeply and closely pitted, the head has a traus- 
verse crest upon the vertex and the pronotum has two rather 
widely separated carinae, ending in a pair of tufts behind the 
middle, a short anterior carina between the two former and a 
short outer one on each side near the middle ; the sides are 
strongly rounded in front and the hind angles rounded off. The 
scutellum is narrow and pointed. The elytra are rather indistinctly 
striated, the shoulders and apical calli are tufted, and the hind 
margins are separately rounded. The terminal spiracles are 
moderately prominent, and the p>ropygidium bears a pair of rather 
distant tufts at the hind margin. The front tibia has the 1st, 2nd, 
and 3rd teeth long and acute and the 4th very obtuse. The first 
joint of the hind, tarsus is twice the length of the second. 

Length 4'5-5'5 mm.; breadth 2-5-3 mm. 

Burma : Karen Hills (Doherty). 

Type in the JJritish Museum. 

The five specimens examined appear to be all males. 

227. Dasyvalgus ovicoUis, sp. n. 

Brick-red, with the sternum dark and the pygidium and pro- 
pygidium densely, the lower surface, pronotum, and scutelkim 
less densely, clothed with ochreous scales, and the elytra deco- 
rated as follows : — a dense patch of ochreous scales, more or less 
completely divided into two, at the middle of each, with similarly 
dense patches of black scales immediately adjoining before and 
behind, the yellow scales also occurring more irregularly at the 
front and hind margins and near the suture. There are small 




DASYTALGUS. 243 

black tufts upon the humeral and apical calli, and orange-coloured 
tufts placed, two upon the dorsal carinse of the pronotum, two 

near the hind angles and two at the 
hind margin of the propygidium. 

The body is moderately broad and 
the legs are long. The protliorax is 
ovate, gently and continuously rounded 
at the sides and base, with the hind 
angles almost entirely obliterated and 
the front angles not much produced. 
There are two long and nearly parallel 
dorsal carinas. The scutellum is very 
long, narrow and blunt. The ehjtra 
are separately rounded at the hind 
margins. The terminal spiracles are 
sharp but not long. The 1st, 2nd 
and 3rd teeth of the front tibia are 
Fi<r. 56. very sharp, the 4th obtuse, and the 

Lasyvalgiii omcollis. oth strong but not acute. The tarsi 

are very slender, and the basal joint 
in the hind foot is as long as the two succeeding ones. 
I have only seen males. 
Length 6-7 mm. ; breadth 3-4 mm. 
Burma : Euby Mines, 3600-7200 ft. (Doherti/). 
Type in the British Museum ; cotypes in coll. R. Oberthiir. 

228. Dasyvalgus penicillatus. 

Valgus penicillatus, Blanch.* Cat. Col. Mus. Paris, 1850, p. 45. 

Black, clothed beneath, rather uniformly but not densely, with 
minute yellow scales, and above with larger scales closely packed 
upon the propygidium and pygidium and less uniformly upon the 
pronotum and elytra, where they are interspersed with spots and 
patches of dark scales and setfe. The yellow scales of the elytra 
are most numex'ous near the suture and in a patch placed behind 
the middle of the outer edge, and there is a round patch of dark 
scales on each side of the suture before the middle. 

The body is a little elongate and the legs are slender. The 
diipeus is notched at the front margin and there are two tufts 
placed transversely upon the forehead. The prothorax has the 
sides strongly rounded in front, nearly parallel behind, the hind 
angles distinct and the base regularly rounded. The dorsal caringe 
are parallel, moderately sharp in front, and terminate in two 
strong tufts behind the middle ; there are also four tufts near 
the base. The scatellurti is long and narrow, and the elytra are 
tufted at the shoulders and apical calli and separately rounded 
at the hind margins. The terminal spiracles are only slightly 
prominent, and the projjygidium bears a pair of rather distant 
yellow tufts at its hind margin. The front tibia is moderately 
long, the 1st and 3rd teeth very long and sharp, and the others 

e2 



244 CEToyiiy.E. 

rather small. The tarsi are long, and the basal joint of the hiud 
tarsus is twice as long as the second. 

Lenrjth 5'5-6 mm. ; breadth 3 mm. 

Punjab : Kulii. 

Ti/pe in the Paris Museum. 

I have seen five specimens, of which only one (kindly presented 
to the British Museum by Baron Paul de Moffarts) is well pre- 
served and has a precise locality. All are apparently males. 
Another example is in the Oxford Museum. 

229. Dasjrvalgus inininms, sp. n. 

Very deep brown, approaching black, with the clypeus, legs 
and lower surface of the body reddish, clothed above and beneath 
with pale ochreous scales, \\hich are very densely packed upon the 
propygidium and pygidium, moderately closely upon the lower 
surface, and rather evenly, but not closely, distributed upon the 
head and pronorum. The elytra bear longitudinal rows of scales, 
separated by the striaj, those adjoining the suture being broad 
and close and spreading outwards a little at the front and hind 
borders. 

The body is elousate and rather parallel-sided, and the legs are 
not very long. The sides of the irrothorax are nearly straight, 
feebly curved and very slightly contracted in front, with the hind 
angles rather blunt. The dorsal carinre are strong, parallel, and 
very prominent in front, and end in slight tubercles near the 
middle of the disc. The scutellum is rather narrow and acute, and 
the elytra bear minute tufts of setje at the shoulders and are 
separately rounded at the hind margins. The propygidium is 
broad and prominent, with two strong tubercles at its hinder 
margin, but with the terminal spiracles scarcely elevated. The 
front iihia is rather broad, and armed with five prominent and 
nearly equidistant teeth, the 1st and 3rd very long. The tarsi 
are moderately long, with the basal joint of the hind foot nearly 
twice the length of the second. 

I have found no sexual difference in a good series of specimens. 

Length 4-5 mm. ; breadth 2 mm. 

Burma : Ruby Mines, .^oOO-ToOO ft., Karen Hills {Doherty). 

Type in the British Museum. 

This is the smallest known Indian Cetoniid beetle. It is closely 
related to DasyvaJgus penicillatus, but in addition to its smaller 
size, is more elongate, with the sides of the prothorax less rounded 
in front and the terminal spiracles scarcely prominent. 

230. Dasyvalgus addendus. 

Valgus addendus, Walker* Ann. Nat. Hist. (3) iii, 1859, p. 50. 

Testaceous red, clothed with yellowish scales which are ratlier 
dense on the lower surface, the propygidium, and pygidium, ratlier 
scattered on the pronotum and arranged in rows on the elytra, 



DASTTALGUS. 



245 



but most closely packed at the front, inner and bind borders. 

There are traces of a dark spot at the middle of each elytron, 
perhaps conspicuous in well-preserved 
specimens. 

It is a small species with long slender 
legs. The profhorax is rather long, 
with the sides very gently curved and 
converging to the front angles, which 
are acute : it is strongly grooved longi- 
tudinally in the middle, but scarcely 
carinate. The basal margin forms a 
very obtuse angle in the middle. The 
scutellum is rather large, moderately 
broad, and smooth and shining. The 
elytra are rather deeply striated and 
separately rounded at the posterior 
margin. The terminal spiracles are 
moderately prominent and there are two 
slight and rather distant tufts of setse 
at the hind margin of the propiigidium. 

The front tibia is moderately broad, with the 1st and 3rd teeth 

long and slender, and the 2nd, 4th and 5th very short and blunt. 

The basal joint of the liind tarsus is a little longer than the second. 
Length 4 mm. ; hrcadih 2 mm. 
Ceylon. 
Type in the British Museum. 




Fig. 57. 
Dasi/valyus addcndus. 



231. Dasyvalgus kanarensis, sp. n. 

Chestnut-red, clothed closely and uniformly beneath, and irre- 
gulai'ly above, with yellowish scales. There is a patch of dark 
scales before the middle of each elytron, and the light scales are 
densest immediately before and behind this and at the front, inner 
and hind borders of each elytron. The pronotum is fairly well 
covered and bears two median and four basal tufts of erect setse, 
and the propygidium and pygidium are densely scaly, the former 
bearing at its hind margin two strong tufts of a darker colour. 

The body is slightly elongate and the legs are moderately slender. 
The clypeus is narrow and entire. The pronotum has the sides well 
rounded in front and very little diverging behind, the posterior 
angles rounded off and the base regularly curved ; there is a 
deep median longitudinal groove, but its sides are not strongly 
carinate. The scutellum is smooth, shining, and rather long ; and 
the elytra are deeply striated, with the hind margins separately 
rounded. The terminal spiracles are very prominent but blunt. 
The front tibia is stout and its 1st and 3rd teeth very long and 
sharp, the 2nd and 5th strong and the 4th small but moderately 
sharp ; there is a very deep notch between the 2nd and 3rd teeth. 
The first four joints of the Jiind tarsve are nearly equal in length, 
but the basal joint is stouter. 



246 CETOxiix.^. 

Lenfjtli 4'5-5"5 mm. ; breadiJi 2*.3-3 mm. 

Bombay : Kanara {T. B. D. Bell). 

Type in the British Museum ; cotypes in coll. II .E. Andrewes. 

Genus CHARITOVALGUS. 
Charitovaljru,*, Kolhe, Stettin. Ent. Zeit. 1904, p. 20. 

Type, Valrpis pulcher, Kraatz (Malacca, Borneo, and Sumatra), 

Bange. North India, Burma and the Malayan Kegion. 

Body long and narrow, clothed with close-lying scales. Legs 
stout, with the tarsi rather slender and flattened: front tibia 
armed with three acute teeth, folloA^ed by one or two very slight 
and blunt ones ; middle and hind tibiae short and thick, smooth, 
without spines or hairs ; hind femora rather long and slender ; 
first joint of the hind tarsus as long as, or longer than, the second 
and third together. Prothorax rather narrower than the elytra 
together, with two longitudinal carina-. Elytra straight at the 
exti'emity and the sutural angles right angles. Terminal spiracles 
situated uj)on very long and sharp tubercles or spines. Pygidium 
not much broader than long, rather flat. 

5 . Tarsi shorter and thicker than in the male, elytra shorter, 
abdomen more exposed above and produced at its extremity into 
a slender style. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (2) Front tibitc long and slender pictits, Hope, p. 246. 

2 (1) Front tibiaj short. 

3 (4) Scutellum large lonfi^ilus, Gestro, p. 247. 

4 (3) Scutellum small andamanicus, Kolbe, p. 248. 

232. Charitovalgus pictus. (Plate II, figs. 10 & 11.) 

Acanthuru3 pictus, Hope,* Grays Zool. Miscellany, 1831, p. 24. 
Valgus pictus, Burm., Handh. Ent. iii, 1842, p. 721. 

Black or deep chocolate-brown, clothed with scales of the same 
colour, with grey scales upon the legs, lower surface, the sides 
and middle of the pronotum, the scutellum and transverse bands 
common to both elytra at the base, middle and apex, the middle 
band pointing obliquely forward at each end. 

In the male the propygidium, pygidium, the middle of the abdo- 
men, aiul the sutural margins of the elytra (dilating anteriorly 
to the shoulders) are covered with bright orange-coloured scales. 
These are entirely absent in the female, which has the middle and 
sides of the propygidium and pygidium, in addition to the parts 
already described, decorated with grey scales. 

It is a large species and very elongate, with slender legs. The 
sides of the ^)/v)^7/ojv?.c are coarsely serrated and distinctly con- 
tracted behind the middle. The dorsal carina^ arc stz'ong and 
slightly contracted and tuberculated a little behind the middle; 



C'HAEITOVALGUS. 247 

the hind margin is rather strongly curved. The scutelhim is 
very long and narrow. The front tibia is very slender and armed 
with five teeth, of which the 1st, 3rd and 5th are sharp, and the 
2nd and 4th small and blunt, the interval between the 3rd and 4th 
teeth being long. 

J . In addition to the difference of pattern already described 
all the tarsi are extremely long in the male. 

5 . The tarsi are much shorter, and in the two posterior pairs 
the basal joint is as long as the three succeeding joints together. 
The caudal spine is simply acuminate. 

Length 8 mm. ; breadth 3*5 mm. 

Nepal (Maj.-Gen. Hardwicle). 

Type in the British Museum. 

Only a single pair is known, the originals of the descriptions of 
both Hope and Burtneister. The first is so fragmentary as hardly 
to merit the name of desci-iption, and the second was drawn up 
from information supplied by Westwood. Burmeister was mis- 
taken in believing the type to be in the Oxford Museum. 



233. Charitovalgus longulus. 

Valgus longulus, Gestro,* Ann. Mus. Genova, (2) x, 1891, p. 855. 

Dark brown, with the legs and a round prominence near each 
hind angle of the pronotum deep red ; clothed with fine scales, 
which are deep chocolate-colour, except upon the legs, at the 
angles of the pronotum, the front margins of the elytra, and the 
sides of the propygidium, pygidium, sternum and abdomen, where 
they are buft'-coloured. There is a fine white semicii'cular line 
crossing the elytra at the middle and curving upwards towards 
the shoulders. 

The sides of the pronotum are almost straight and gently diverge 
from the front to the base, which is strongly rounded. The 
dorsal carinae are sharp and nearly parallel, and terminate abruptly 
near the middle of the pronotum. There is a pair of sharp 
tubercles between the carinse and the basal margin, and a shining 
red area extends from each of these to the hind angle. The 
scutellum is rather long and acute at the apex. The elt/tra are 
very flat above and straight at their extremities. The front tibia 
is short and broad, with the 1st and 3rd teeth sharp, the 2nd and 
5th broader and blunter, and the 4th obsolete. 

The female is unknown. 

Length 6 mm. ; breadth 3 mm. 

Burma : Karen Hills, 2700-3300 ft. (L. Fea). 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 

I have seen only the unique type specimen. 



248 CETONIDf^. 

234. Charito valgus andamanicus. 

Charitovalgus andamanicus, Kolbe, Stettin. Ent. Zeit. 1904, p. 22. 

Deep chestnut-colour, clothed with scales varying in colour 
from almost white to ochre and from that to deep chocolate. The 
medial basal part of the prouotum, the scutellum, and the middle 
of each elytron are dark, and the elytra are decorated with whitish 
scales along the anterior margins, the sutui'e, and a backwardly- 
curved transverse line upon the inner half of each at the middle. 
The prop3'gidium, pygidium, abdomen and legs are clothed with 
pale ochreous scales. 

The pronotum is about as long as it is broad, with the sides 
serrated and not strongly curved, and the base regularly rounded. 
The dorsal carintc are rather far apart and diverge shghtly behind, 
and there are four conical elevations placed in a line parallel with 
the posterior margin. The scutellum is small. The elytra are 
minutely toothed at the shoulders and their lateral costae are 
rather spinose behind. The front tibia is rather short and broad, 
with the 1st, 3rd and 5th teeth strong and sharp, the liud smaller 
and the 4th scarcely traceable. The tarsi are rather long. 

cJ . The hind tarsi are nearly three times the length of the 
tibiae. 

2 . The hind tarsi are more than twice the length of the tibia?. 
The caudal spine is bent downwards at the apex and tridentate, 
the lateral teeth being placed a little behind and beneath the 
middle one. The posterior median part of the pronotum, the 
Bcutellum, and the middle of the elytra are black or almost black. 

Length 5-6 mm. ; breadth 2*5-3 mm. 

Andaman Is. 

Type in the Berlin Museum. 



TBICHIUS. 249 



Division III.— TRICHIINI. 

The members of this group are generally characterised by a 
less compact build and a softer condition of the integuments than 
is found in other Cetonii>^^. The legs are generally long and 
slender and the whole body is capable of freer movement. The 
mouth is suctorial and its various parts do not essentially differ 
from those of the Cetoxiini. The mesosternal epimera do not 
rise into the angle between the shoulders of the elytra and the 
pronotum, and the hinder part of the latter is not closely co- 
adapted to the elytra. The front of the elytra and scutellum form 
a ridge against which the hind margin of the pronotum is 
brought to rest. When drawn forward the thorax is thus more 
freely movable than in the more typical CETOisriiN^. The elytra 
cover the sides of the abdomen and are not at all cut away behind 
the shoulders and they have therefore to be raised in the usual 
manner when the wings are used. 

The larva of the common European representative, Trichius 
fasciatus, L., is closely like those of the true Cetoniini. This 
genus is the only one represented in our region. 

Genus TKICHIUS. 

Trichius, Fahricms, Ent. St/st. i, 2, 1792, p. 118; Bnnn., Handb. 
Ent. iii, 1842, p. 754; ScrvWe, Enci/cL, Meth., Hist. Nat. x, 1825, 
p. 703 ; Lacord., Gen. Col. iii, 1856, p. 504. 

Type, Trichius fasciatus, L. (Europe). 

Range. Europe, Continental Asia and Japan. 

Body rather loosely articulated, not compact, with long and 
slender legs. Eyes large and prominent and clypeus long, 
slightly bilobed. Antennae rather long. Prothorax narrow, not 
emarginate nor distinctly lobed before the scutellum. Scutellum 
very short, with curvilinear sides. Elytra broad, not reduced at 
the sides, with the hind margins separately rounded. Meso- 
sternum not prominent in front. Front tibiae bidentate. Hind 
tibiae truncate at the end. Mandible feebly chitinised, with the 
outer lobe long, thin and straight. Maxilla long, without teeth, 
thickly fringed with hairs. Mentum long, deeply notched in 
front, with the palpi rather short. 

J . The abdomen is arched beneath, and the hind tarsus and the 
club of the antenna are generally longer than in the female. 

2 . There is a strong spinose ridge beyond the middle of the 
middle tibia. 

The form and pattern are very subject to variation, and some- 
times strikingly different in the two sexes, but there is no distortion 
of the middle tibiae of the male as in the genus Gnorimns. 

The European representatives of the genus live during the 
early stages in decaying tree-stumps. 



250 CETO>'II>M. 



Key to the Species. 

1 (10) Tlind angles of protborax rounded. 

2 (9) Upper surface not metallic. 

3 (8) I'rothorax subcircular. 

4 (5) Elytra decorated with oblique 

■svliite lines jant>om', Gestro, p. 250. 

5 (4) Elytra decorated with pale spots. 

6 (7) Numerous white spots on each 

elytron alhofjidtatus, Moser, p. 251. 

7 (6) Two white spots on each elytron. . discolor, Jordan, p. 251. 

8 (3) I'rothorax strongly transverse .... festivus, sp. n., p. 252. 

9 (2) Upper surface more or less metallic orHaf?/s, Jordan, p. 253. 
10 (1) Hind angles of prothorax right 

angles costipennis, Jans., p. 254. 

One species, Trichius donibrotfsJcii, Noufried, has uot beeu 
identified and is therefore uot included in the above key. 



235. Trichius jansoni. 

Trichius jansoni, Gestro,* Ann. Mus. Geneva, (2) x, 1891, p. 854, 
pi. 2, fig. 12. 

Black and opaque, with the scutellum, the nnddle of the 
pygidiura and the legs shining, and decorated with white markings, 
consisting of a narrow marginal line to the pronotum, absent in 
front and interrupted in the middle behind, a short line upon each 
elytron bordering the scutellum, a very short transverse line 
behind the shoulder, an oblique line extending from before the 
middle of the inner margin, where it is slightly hooked, to behind 
the middle of the outer margin, and a small transverse apical 
patch. There is also a large white patch on each side of the 
pygidium, and the sides of the sternum and hind cox^e and the 
greater part of the abdomen are of the same colour. 

The head is finely rugose, with the clypens as long as it is broad 
and slightly bilobed. The pronotum is strongly and rugosely 
punctured, and nearly circular in outline, with the hind angles 
entirely absent but the front angles rather promiueut. The 
scutellum is almost semicircular and strongly punctured, with a 
smooth median carina. The ehitra have rows of punctures deeply 
impressed in front, with the interstices elevated. The pi/gidium, 
metasternnm and abdomen are rugose and clothed with short 
yellowish seta>. The leys are long and slendi-r. 

6 . The club of the antenna is as long as the footstalk. 

Lenyth 10-5 mm. ; breadth 4*o mm. 

Burma : Karen Hills, 2700-3300 ft. (L. Fea). 

Tyi^e in the Genoa Museum. 

Only a single male specimen is at present kuo\\ n. 



TKICHIUS. 



251 



236. Tricliius alboguttatus. 

Tricliius iilboauttatus, Moser* Ann. Soc. Ent. Behjiquo, 1905, 
p. 215. 
Black, with the clypeus, prothorax, scutelhim, elytra, a broad 
line along the middle of the pygidium, and the legs deep crimson 
in the 6 , and the femora and tibicT3 only in the ? ; decorated \yith 
the following white markings :— an incomplete narrow margnial 
line on each side of the prothorax (in the d ), ^ spot on each 
mesosternal epimerou, six spots at the median part of each elytron 
(viz., two near the outer margin, two towards the inner margm, 
and two along the middle line) and usually one adjoining the 
scutellum and one in the apical angle of each (at least in the 6 ), 
and an elongate patch on each side of the pygidium (usually 
divided in the $ ). There are also generally patches, in the 6 at 
least, on the metasternum, the front and hind coxa?, and two rows 
on each side of the abdomen beneath. 

It is a small species, entirely opaque above and very thinly 
clothed with yellow seta? beneath. The liead and ivynotum are 
rugosely punctured, the chjpeus as long as it is wide, with the sides 
strongly curved and the front margin bilobed. 'I\\e prothorax is 
broader than it is long, slightly attenuated in front, with the 
margins irregularly rounded and a broad furrow along the middle 
of the disc. Th.e scutellum is strongly punctured, with a smooth 
median carina, and nearly semicircular in shape. Tlie elytra bear 
impressed rows of annular punctures, the pyrikUum is finely 
strigose, the metasternum entirely rugose and the abdomen coarsely 
punctured. The legs are very slender and the front tibice 
bidentate. 

In addition to the different colouring described above, the male 
has the prothorax less transverse than the female, the hind tarsi 
longer, and the abdomen rather concave beneath. The club of 
the antenna is about as long as the footstalk in the female, and 
nearly twice as long in the male, 

Length 10-12 mm. ; breadth 3-3-5 mm. 

Assam ; Khasi Hills. 

Ty2}e in coll. Moser. 



237. Tricliius discolor. (Plate II, figs. 8 & 9.) 

Tricliius discolor, Jonla7i, Ami. Nat. Hist. (6) xv, 1895, p. 219. 

Black, with the antennae, legs, clypeus, prothorax and elytra 
more or less testaceous red. The pronotum is decorated with a 
white marginal line, interrupted in the middle, and (usually) a 
small discoidal white spot on each side ; each elytron with a white 
spot in the middle and another placed a Httle behind and outside 
of the first. The colouring is exceedingly variable, but the femora, 



252 



CETOxiiy.i:. 



tibise and tarsal joints are ringed with black at the extremities; 
the forehead is black : the pronotuui red, with a large black patch 
on each side, or entirely red ; and the elytra black, with an anterior 
and posterior red mark on each, or red, with the margins and a 
median patch npon each black. 

The form is small and slender and the legs long. The head 
is finely punctured, with the clypeus about as long as it is broad 
and gently emarginate in front. The irroaotum is (coarsely punc- 
tured, slightly grooved along the middle and subcircular in shape, 
with the sides straight and convergent in front, and the front 
angles sharp. The scuteUwn is very short, nearly semicircular 
and slightly punctured. The elytra are coarsely punctate-striate and 
the jjygidiiua is very sparsely punctured. The front tibire are bi- 
dentate, and the aniennal club is long in both sexes, very long in 
the male. 

The upper surface is entirely opaque in the male, but the pro- 
notum, scutellum and elytra are shining in the female. The pygi- 
dium of the male bears a large white patch on each side and the 
greater part of the sternum and abdomen is also white. The 
prothorax is rather more elongate in the same sex, the hind tarsi 
are longer and the abdomen is strongly arched beneath. 

Length 10-] 1 mm. ; breadth 4-5 mm. 

Assam : Khasi Hills. 

Tyjie in coll. Moser. 



238. Trichius festivus, sp. n. 

c? . Black, with the clypeus, antennae, legs, scutellum and a 
marginal band encircling each elytron bright orange ; decorated 
with pale yellow markings as follows : — 
a line encircling the pronotum, a longi- 
tudinal median line extending from near 
the front margin to the base, and a 
(^-shaped mark on each side, a spot 
common to both elytra immediately 
behind the scutellum, a transverse spot 
before the middle of each and a minute 
apical spot near the suture, a large patch 
on each side of the pygidium (the two 
connected at the base), and the greater 
part of the lower surface and coxaj. 
The whole upper surface is opaque and 
the head, pronotum, pygidium and lower 
surface are clothed with pale yellow 
hairs. 

The body is rather broad and llat. 

The head is rugosely punctured, with the 

clypeus almost as long as it is broad, notched in front and a little 

recurved. The protJtorax is strongly transverse, distinctly and 




Fig. [t8. — TiichtKS 
fcstictis. 



TKICHIUS. 253 

evenly punctured, with the sides strongly and the base gently 
curved and the hind angles very bluntly prominent ; there is an 
elevated posterior margin extending the whole width of the base. 
The scutellum is very short and feebly punctured. The elytra are 
punctate-striate and i\ie _p)j(jidmm thinly punctured. The club of 
the antenna is about as long as the footstalk, the front tibia is 
acutely bidentate and all the tarsi are long. 

The female is unknown. 

Var. funehris, nov. The body and legs are entirely black, with 
the pale yellow markings as described above. 

Length 12 mm. ; breadth 6*5 mm. 

Burma : Euby Mines. 

Types in the British Museum. 



239. Trichius ornatus. 

Trichius ornatus, Jordan, Ann. Nat. Hist. (6) xv, 1895, p. 218. 

Deep metallic green, more or less coppery on the head and lower 
surface and opaque above, with the antennae, legs and a broad line 
extending from the shoulder to the apex of each elytron bright 
orange ; decorated with pale yellow markings consisting of a 
narrow longitudinal line at the middle of the pronotum, and a 
marginal line and a minute median spot on each side, the scutellum, 
a longitudinal line on each elytron near the suture, starting from 
the base but not quite reaching the posterior edge, a basal, an 
apical, and three lateral spots upon each, and large patches on each 
side of the pygidium, sternum and abdomen. 

The body is moderately slender and the legs are very long, the 
front tibia armed \\'ith two teeth at the extremity and slightly 
serrated beyond them. The club of the antenna is shorter than 
the footstalk in both sexes. The head is I'ugosely punctui-ed, and 
the clypeus a little longer than it is broad and not very deeply 
notched at the front margin. The jpronotum is strongly punctured, 
lightly grooved along the middle and rather broader than it is long, 
with the front angles acute, the hind angles very bluntly pro- 
minent and the sides and base gently curved. The scutellum is 
shortly triangular. The elytra are strongly punctate-striate, the 
pygidium finely rugose, and the metasternum and abdomen punc- 
tured and clothed with a short yellow pubescence. 

c? . The antennae and legs are more slender than those of the 
female, the prothorax is broader at the base and the abdomen is 
strongly arched. The vertex of the head and the pronotum are 
generally more opaque, and there are often additional pale mark- 
ings upon the vertex, pronotum and elytra. 

Length 12-17 mm.; breadth 5'5-8 mm. 

Assam : Ivhasi Hills. 

Type in coll. Moser. 



254 CEToyii>M:. 

240. Trichius costipennis. 

(inoiimus costipennis, Janson, JS'oles Leydcn Mus. xii, 1890, p. 128. 
Gnorinnis viridis, Jordan, Novit. Zoolog. 1894, pp. 486, C92, pi. 13, 
lig.3. 

Deep metallic greeu, thickly clothed beneath, except at the 
middle of the abdomen, \vith a short greyish-yellow pubescence, 
which also forms a narrow line at each side of the pronotum 
(continued a little round the posterior angles) and three small 
patches at the base of the pygidium. 

It is a very large species and rather stoutly built and convex. 
The head is densely and rugosely punctured and, together with the 
pronotum and the external margins of the elytra, bears very 
minute setae. Tl\\eclypeus is about as long as it is broad and deeply 
incised in front. The pronotuin is strongly punctured, about as 
long as it is broad, much narrowed in front but scarcely at all 
behind, with all the angles sharp, the front ones acute and the 
posterior ones right angles, the sides sinuated and the base gently 
curved. The scxdellum is broad and bears a few punctures. The 
elytra are deeply sulcate, the sulci being rugose at the bottom, and 
the lateral and apical margins are finely rugose. The p>/g'uUum 
is rather feebly rugulose. The mesostenmm forms a short com- 
pressed vertical lamina between the middle coxae. The club of 
the anienna is short in both sexes and the leys are modei-ately, 
but not extremely, slender. 

S . The front tibia is simple, armed only with a blunt apical 
prolongation, and the abdomen is channelled along the middle, with 
a median line of pubescence. 

$ . The front tibia is feebly bidentate, the abdomen is convex 
and bare along the middle, and the pygidium has a slight depression 
at the apex, which is coarsely granulated. 

Lenf/ih 21-24 mm.; hreaJth 11-12 mm, 

Assam : Manipur (Doherty). 

Type in coll. O. E. Janson ; cotypes in the British Museum ; 
tvpe of viridis in coll. Moser. 

I have not been able to identify the following species, and there- 
fore give a translation of the original description. 

241, Trichius dombrowskii, 

Trichius dombrowsldi, Nonfried, Stettin. Ent. Zei't. Ixvii, 1900, 
p. 224. 

^' Dull metallic green above, shining coppery red beneath, 
Clypcus narrow in front, bilobed, with the lateral margins rounded. 
Pronotum closely and coarsely punctured on the disc, almost 
rugosely towards the sides, lightly channelled along the middle, the 
base of the scutellum also beai'ing an impression, consisting of 
closely set punctures, and opaque ; colour green, the sides having 



TEICHIUS. 255 

a white margin, with a spot of the same nature almost in the 
middle. ScuteUum broad, bluntly triangular, carinate along the 
middle, closely and coarsely strigose except at the margins. 
E/i/tra dull green, white-spotted, the sutural stria broad, the 
dorsal striae faint, smooth, the interstices bearing slight curved 
punctures. The ten white spots are distributed as follows : — 
1, 2 and 1 adjoining the sutural stria, 1 at the middle of the base, 
1 rather narrow one beneath the last, 1 on the humeral callus, 
1 beneath it, 1 at the middle of the lateral margin, and 1 in the 
apical angle. Pygidium coppery red, closely shagreened, with a 
large round wliite spot on each side. Lower surface shining, 
strigose, clothed with fine yellowish hair. Sides of the abdominal 
segments white-spotted. Legs slender, coppery red ; front tibiae 
bideutate. 

" Length 16 mm."' 

Assam : Jafflong, in Manipur. 

Type in coll. Nonfried. 



256 DYXASTIN-H;. 



Subfamily DYNASTIN^. 

The Subfamily Dyxastix.e, although not one of the largest, is 
one of the best known groups of Lamellicokxia, iucludiug many 
of the largest and most striking of the beetles. It is very 
scantily represented in the Oriental Kegion and its Indian repre- 
sentatives number only forty-six out of a total of about a thousand 
described species. Although closely related to the Cktoxiin'.i:, one 
of the most remarkable for brilliant colouring among the groups 
of Coleoptera, this on the contrary is one of the most sombre. 
This, as would be supposed, implies a notable difference of habit, for, 
Avhilst the foregoing Subfamily is in general conspicuously diurnal, 
the Dyxastin.e generally remain in concealment by day and emerge 
at night, when decorative effects could have no signiticauce. The 
majority of species are black, and almost the only departure from 
the rule occurs when by some deficiency of the black pigment shades 
of yello\\", brown or red are produced. Even within these limits, 
nothing in the nature of a pattern is found except in an American 
genus, Cyclocephala, and a few other American species. These 
exceptional members of the group are found to have exceptional 
habits, being entirely diurnal and frequenting flowers like many of 
the Cetoniin.x. A single Indian species, Chalcosoma atlas, the 
largest of Indian beetles and one of the most striking, has a slight 
greenish metallic lustre and is almost unique in that respect. 

The group is chiefly remarkable as that in which sexual 
dimorphism appears in some of its most striking phases. Horns of 
relatively enormous size occur, chiefly in the males, upon the head 
audtliorax ; and as some of the species in which they attain their 
maximum development are also among the largest existing insects, 
they have naturally always attracted quite exceptional attention. 



Strvdure. 

Practically all the Dtnastix.e are winged, and in flight the 
wings are spread in the usual way, so that the structure of the 
elytra and the correlated parts of the thorax is not of the peculiar 
type found in the Cetoxiix-i:. The scutellum is always exposed, 
small and bluntly triangular, and the elytra completely cover the 
abdomen, except the pygidium and generally part of the pro- 
pygidium. The latter often bears a vocal apparatus, consisting of 
tine transverse ridges capable of beiug drawn like a flle across the 
sharp inturned posterior edge of the elytra by the movement of 
the abdomen. The ridges are sometimes very long and cover the 
greater part of the segment, which, moreover, may be considerably 



DYNASTIN^. 257 

enlarged at the expense of the pygidium, as in the genus Dipelicus 
(see fig. 76) ; in another group {Heteronychus, etc.) the ridges 
are restricted to two longitudinal lines near the middle of the pro- 
pygidium. Some species, which do not possess the apparatus in 
either form, nevertheless produce a considerable volume of sound 
by movements of the abdomen similar to those by which the 
stridulating ridges are brought into opei'ation. Air is apparently 
imprisoned between the elytra and the back and then expelled 
with some force, producing a hissing sound. In the large and 
common Xylotrupes gideon this has often been observed. 

The occurrence of horns, even of the largest size, upon the head 
is not accompanied by a corresponding development of the head 
itself, which, on the contrary, is relatively smaller than in the 
Cetoniin^. The clypeus is genei'ally small and the eyes less 
prominent than in the previous group, being divided in front 
by a ridge which forms a lateral extension of the clypeus. The 
antennae are inserted beneath this ridge and consist of ten 
joints, of which three form the club. They show little variation 
throughout the Subfamily, nor do they appreciably differ in the 
two sexes. 

The mandibles are much more developed than in the Cetoniin^ 
and, except in certain forms not represented within the Indian area, 
are always in part visible from above (i. e. produced beyond the 
margins of the clypeus) and generally notched or lobed at the 
outer edge. The maxillae are generally furnished with several sharp 
strong teeth and closely fringed with stiff hairs. The mentum 
and ligula are fused together and the labrum small, membranous 
and concealed. 

The legs are inserted in a rather different manner to that found 
in the Cetoniin^. The front coxae are more deeply imbedded in 
the thorax, broad and transverse, and the prosternum forms a 
process behind them which is sometimes free and columnar, 
sometimes inclined and in close contact with the coxae. All the 
coxae ai-e contiguous in the middle, so that the mesosternum is 
divided from the metasternum and the two parts do not produce 
in the middle a process pointing forward as in most CetoniintE and 
many Eutelin^ and Melolonthin^. The legs differ considerably 
in form. Some genera, apparently with more than the normal 
digging powers, have them extremely short, with very thick and 
muscular femora and tibiae, the latter generally trumpet-shaped 
and their wide extremities fringed with very strong spines, and the 
tarsi tapering and very slight at the end. The rest have the legs 
of moderate length, and the tarsi slender and uniform. The front 
tibia has always three stout external teeth and there are sometimes 
four or more, in which last case smaller teeth appear between the 
three primary ones. The claws are always simple, symmetrical and 
immovable, except upon the foi-e-feet of the males in certain 
genera. 

8 



f^58 DTIfASTm^. 

Sexual Dimorpliism. 

The existence of horns in the male, which in the previous group 
is of exceptional occurrence, here becomes characteristic and in 
some of the large species these appendages reach a size unequalled 
in any other insects. They usually take the form of a slender 
recurved horn upon the front of the head, sometimes toothed or 
bifurcated, and generally represented only by a slight tubercle in 
the female ; and upon the pronotum one, two or more processes 
directed forwards or upwards, and often rising from the margin of 
a dorsal cavity. Such a cavity may be present without any pro- 
cesses and it may exist in both sexes but differ in shape, as in 
Eo^iihiJeurus chlnensis. In the very largest Dynastin.i, in \\-hich 
the armature of the male attains its maximum development, there 
is no cavity, but the pronotum of the male on the contrary is much 
elevated or humped. In the smallest forms again, as in the genus 
Heteronyclms, there is no trace of such a sexual armature. 

Although generally distinctive of the male, the possession of 
horns is not invariably so, for in some cases, as in Oryctes 
rhinoceros, the well-known Cocoanut Beetle, both sexes are horned, 
but some distinctive difference of form is always discoverable if a 
sufficient series of specimens is studied. There is no group of 
insects in which it is more necessary that a good series should be 
examined in order to obtain a correct idea of the characteristic 
features of a species. In the early days of Entomology, when only 
occasional specimens of these insects had yet reached Europe, the 
variability of the armature and even its sexual character was un- 
recognised, and almost every specimen which came into the hands 
of Linnaeus, Fabricius and their contemporaries was regarded as 
the representative of a different species and given a distinctive 
name. It has not been considered necessary to include all these 
names in the present work. 

Eemarkable anomalies occur in some species in the development 
of the horns, as seen by a comparison of specimens of different 
size. Horns which at their highest development are slender and 
simple may in minor examples be knobbed, forked or toothed in 
various inexplicable ways ; and it was almost inevitable that 
Chalcosoma atJax, for instance, when known only from a few 
examples brought from different localities should be considered 
to form several distinct species. In the structure of the legs 
there are two opposite tendencies characterising the males of 
different groups of genera. In one, containing the most striking 
forms, the legs become elongated to a greater or less extent, 
while in another the front legs, and especially the tarsi, are con- 
tracted, the others remaining like those of the female. In the 
latter case the anterior claws are also modified in the males, the 
inner claw benig thickened and bent and frequently giving off a 
broad tooth. This formation is never found in the Cetomix.e but 
in some degree it is almost general in the Edtelixje. In other 
genera of Dynastin^, which occupy an intermediate position, the 



DTXASTIN^. 259 

legs are alike in the two sexes, and in some the whole aspect is 
identical. There is a slight difference, however, which is almost 
invariable throughout the subfamilj and serves to determine the 
sex when more obvious distinctions are wanting or doubtful. The 
last ventral segment is more or less angular at the extremity in 
the female, the angle coinciding with the apex of the last dorsal 
segment or pygldium : while in the male this segment is excised at 
the apex, leaving an interval between it and the apex of the 
pygidium filled by a membrane. The pygidiuni itself is often 
extended and iuturned in correspondence with this conformation 
in the male. 



Habits and Metamorphoses. 

The Dtkastin^ being practically confined to the warm regions 
of the earth and almost all of singularly retiring habits, our 
knowledge of their metamorphoses and modes of life is as yet 
exceedingly scanty. With the exception of the flower-haunting 
Cyclocephalini of Tropical America, they appear to be practically 
all nocturnal or crepuscular, lying hidden by day beneath the 
ground or in dark recesses. For this reason, combined with the 
sombre and inconspicuous colouring which is the usual accompani- 
ment of such a mode of life, they are not easily found, although 
generally abundant, and in very few cases have their early stages 
been traced. The only genus in which anything approaching 
complete information is available is Orijctes (the Ehinoceros 
beetles), of which not only are the species exceedingly abundant, 
but one of them (Oryctes yiasicornis, which reaches the north- 
western part of the Indian region) is one of the largest of the 
insects inhabiting European countries. This beetle has been the 
subject of valuable anatomical I'esearches, some of which have been 
already referred to. 

An interesting fact observed in different genera of Dynastin^, 
and in different parts of the world, is the considerable growth 
which takes place in the egg between the times of deposition and 
hatching. Like those of other Lamellicornia, the eggs are 
spherical, whitish and moderately smooth. 

The larvae, as far as they are known, do not differ in any marked 
degree from those of the Cetoniin.^ and allied subfamilies. They 
are rather stout-bodied, clothed with stiff erect hairs, the head not 
very large, without eyes, the mandibles strong, the maxillae single- 
lobed, and the legs well and equally developed, but not long. Like 
the Cetoniiis"^ also, they feed during this stage upon decaying 
vegetable matter, and sometimes upon living roots or woody 
tissues. The food of the adult beetles is uncertain, but it probably 
consists chiefly of sweet or resinous vegetable exudations. 

An account recently published of the habits of a species found 
in the Southern States of North America is interesting as showing 
that in this group, as in the Geoieupin.e, Copein.e and other 

s2 



260 dtnastinjE. 

Lamellicorn subfamilies, the male and female sometimes collaborate 
in the construction and provisioning of a nest for their young. In 
the 'Entomological News,' 1908, p. 286, Mr. A. "H. Manee 
describes his observations in North Carolina of Straiegus antceus, 
one of the species in which the male bears strong horns upon the 
thorax, surrounding a deep cavity. The beetles were found 
■working in pairs in the neighbourhood of fallen oak-leaves 
accumulated in hollows by the wind. A shaft an inch in diameter 
was first excavated by them vertically in the ground to a depth of 
six or eight inches, the dug out earth forming a mound at the top. 
From the foot of the shaft a horizontal chamber of rather larger 
diameter is driven from one to five inches and this is packed with 
dead leaves reduced to a fragmentary state, and a single egg is 
placed in the middle of the mass. Sometimes two, and rarely 
three, such horizontal galleries were found, each containing a 
sin"-le egg. The egg is white and at first three thirty-seconds of 
an inch in length and oblong, but in three or four days it has 
swollen to a globular shape and is an eighth of an inch in diameter. 
Mr. Manee believes that, having devoured the leaves stored up by 
the parent-beetles, the grubs feed upon oak-roots. 

Various DtnastiNjE are injurious to pasture-land by feeding 
upon the roots of grasses, and several species of the Heteronycliiis- 
group have been found to destroy the roots of the sugar-cane. 
The common Indian Phyllognathus dionysius has been found by 
Mr. H. Maxwell Lefroy to feed upon the roots of rice. The 
development is exceedingly rapid, the larval stage lasting only three 
months, a short duration which lias probably been brought about 
as an adaptation to the short life of the rice crop and the 
alternating periods of fertility and aridity of the hot plains in 
which it is cultivated. 

Oryctes rhinoceros is a serious pest in cocoanut plantations, 
destroying the fibrous tissues at the base of the leaves and 
admitting the rain and starting decay in the growing tops of the 
palms. Tliis species has been carefully studied by Mr. C. S. 
Banks and described in the Philippine Journal of Science for 
1906. It is not dependent upon living food, however, being also 
found in vegetable debris, and even flourishing in ordinary soil 
containing only an average proportion of organic matter. Oryctes 
nasicor7iis is constantly found in the refuse-heaps of tanneries, 
where the larvte feed upon the decomposed bark. It also occurs 
in Southern Europe in garden rubbish. 



Table of the Genera. 

1 (8) Basal joint of the hind tarsus similar to 

those succeeding. 

2 (7) Legs of the male elongate. 

3 (4) Elytra coriaceous iu both sexes : male [p. 262. 

bearing a single thoracic horn Xylotiutks, 



DYNASTINtE. 



261 



4 (3) Elytra of S very shining, of 2 rugose 

male bearing paired thoracic horns. [p. 265. 

5 (6) Surface metallic Chalcosoma, 

6 (5) Surface not metallic Eupatorus, p. 268, 

7 (2) Legs of the (S not elongate Pachyoryctes, 

8 (1) Basal joint of the hind tarsus more or less [p. 272. 

triangular. 

9 (18) Prosternum not forming a free erect pro- 

cess behind the front coxae. 

10 (15) Clypeus truncate or bi-anpulate. 

11 (12) Propygidium bearing stridulatory ridges . Oryctes, p. 273. 

12 (11) Propygidium not bearing stridulatory 

ridges. 

13 (14) Mandibles not dilated externally at the [p. 281. 

base Trichogomphus, 

14 (13) Mandibles dilated externally at the base. Dichodontus, 

15 (10) Clypeus acuminate. [p. 284. 

16 (17) Body short and convex ; front tibia 4- 

dentate Blabephorus, 

17 (16) Body long, not very convex ; front tibia [p. 286. 

3-dentate Eophileurus, 

18 (9) Prosternum forming a free erect process [p. 287. 

behind the front coxae. 

19 (30) Hind tibia not contracted. 

20 (21) Hind tibia digitate at the extremity .... Clyster, p. 293. 

21 (20) Hind tibia truncate at the extremity. 

22 (29) Mandibles deeply notched externally : 

sexes similar. 

23 (26) Propygidium bearing two longitudinal 

stridulatory files, [p. 294. 

24 (25) Pronotum not visibly punctured Heteronychus, 

25 (24) Pronotum strongly punctured Alissonotum, 

26 (23) Propygidium without stridulatory files. [p. 298. 

27 (28) Front tibia irregularly toothed Pentodon, p. 302. 

28 (27) Front tibia regularly toothed Microryctes, 

29 (22) Mandibles not notched externally : sexes [p. 304. 

dissimilar Phyllognathus, 

30 (19) Hind tibia contracted, strongly dilated [p, 306. 

from base to extremity. 

31 (32) Propygidium bearing two longitudinal 

stridulatory files Podalgus, p. 309, 

32 (31) Propygidium produced and broadly striated Dipelicus, p. 310, 

The genus Stypotrupes is omitted here, although one of its 
species, S. telnmon, Burm,, is said by its author to inhabit 
" Hinterindien," This expression probably covered an area much 
greater than the part ot' the Indo-Chinese Peninsula with which 
this work is concerned, and S. telamon is represented only by a 
fragment which I have not seen. A second specimen, mentioned 
by Burmeister as in the Paris Museum, seems to have since 
disappeared. 



262 DTNASTIX,!:. 



Genus XYLOTRUPES. 

Xylotrupes, Hope, Coleopten'st's Manual, i. 1837, p. 19; Bwm., 
TIandb, Entom. v, 1847, p. 2G4 ; Lacord., Gen. Coleopt., iii, 18o6, 
p. 446. 

Type, Scarabceus gideon, L. 

linnge. Asia, Polynesia and Northern Australia. 

Ovate and moderately convex in shape, with rather slender legs. 
Clypeus bidentate. ]\Jandibles bluntly bifid at the end and not 
lobed or notched externally. Maxillae slender, thickly clothed 
with silky hairs and armed internally with five acute teeth ; palpi 
slender. Labium broad, subcircular, with the anterior part very 
iiarrovv and not dilated ; palpi short. Prothorax acute at front 
angles, obtuse at hind angles, with the base margined and 
scarcely lobed. Presternum not produced behind. Propygidium 
without stridulating ridges. Front tibiae strongly tridentate ; 
middle and hind tibiae armed externally with strong spines and 
digitated at the ends. Tarsi simple. 

6 • Head armed with a slender horn directed forward and 
upward. Pronotum produced into a horn at the middle Legs 
longer and more slender than those of the female, the teeth of the 
front tibia longer and the two upper ones more transverse : front 
tarsus rather longer and stouter than the others. Pygidium 
very convex. Last abdominal segment very short and deeply 
emarginate. 

2 • Clypeus bearing an indistinct transverse ridge, minutely 
bituberculate at the middle. Pronotum entirely simple. Legs 
rather short and stout and front tibiae broad. Pygidium flat. 
Abdomen slightly convex beneath and last ventral segment rather 
long. 

Only the typical species occurs in our region. 

242. Xylotrupes gideon. 

ScarabiTus pideon, L., Syst. Naf. 12th ed., i, (2) 1767, p. 541; 

Bnrm., Ilandb. Ent. v, 1847, p. 266 ; Oliv., Ent. i, (3) 1789, p. 14, 

pi. 2, tig. 102. 
Scarabaeus phorbaiita, Oliv., Ent. i (3), 1789, p. 17, pi. 1, tifr. 6. 
Scarabaeus oromoron, D7iir>/, III. j^''at. Hist. 1770, p. 81, pi. 36, 

fifr. 5 ; F., Si/st. Ent. i. 1775, p. 4. 
Xylotrupes miiiszechi, Thorns., Arcana Kat. 18-')!), p. 18. 
Xylotrupes austialicus. Thorns., Arcana Xat. 18o9, p. 18. 
Xylotrupes socrates, Schaufuss, Hor. Ent. Soe. lioss., 1885, p. 192. 

Chestnut red or brown with the head, pronotum and legs 
generally darker, the sternum and hind coxa? clothed \\ ith a fine 
pubescence. 

J. The pronohnn has a dull siitiny gloss, except at the anterior 
sloping part and the front part of the horn, and is very finely and 
sparingly punctured. The scutellum is short and broad, and has a 



XTLOTRUPES. 



263 



fine irregular puncturation. The elytra have a very fine and close, 
but irregular and coriaceous, puncturation. The pygidium is 
moderately strongly and closely punctured, becoming rugose at 
the sides, and its ventral portion is smooth and shining. The 
abdomen is shining beneath in the middle and irregularly rugose 
at the sides. 

The head is armed with a horn projecting obliquely forward 
and upward and nearly straight, but terminating in two diverging 




Fig. 69. — Xylotrupes gideon, male (natural size), with outline of female (a) 
and outlines of anterior part of males of maximum {h), intermediate (c), 
and minimum (f/) development. 



points which curve backwards. The basal part of the horn is 
laterally compressed and almost cai'inate above, ending in a strong 
compressed tooth, beyond which the horn becomes depressed. The 
pronotum is drawn out into a cone directed obliquely forward and 
produced at the apex into a gently curved horn bifid at the 
extremity, with the points directed a little downwards. The sides 
of the horn are carinate on the basal part of the lower surface. 
In fully developed specimens the thoracic horn reaches beyond 



264 DT>'A8TI1<M. 

the cephalic horn and, measured from the tips to the base of the 
thorax, considerably exceeds the elytra in length. The inner edge 
of the front tibia is gently bisinuate and the outer edge armed 
with three very sharp slender teeth, of which the two uppermost 
are rather distant. 

In males of minor development (var. oromedon, F.) the tooth at 
the upper edge of the cephalic horn disappears and the thoracic 
horn does not extend as far as that of the head and is very feebly 
bifurcated. 

In the smallest specimens the cephalic horn is extremely short 
but distinctly bifid and the thoracic horn vanishes completely, 
being represented only by a slight eminence. 

5 . This is generally rather darker in colour and the upper 
surface is much more rugose. The head is very rugose, the 
pronotum coarsely punctured, the punctures coalescing at the front 
and sides, the scutellum thinly, and the elytra closely and 
irregularly, punctured. The pygidium is finely rugose and the 
abdomen irregularly punctured beneath. 

Lencjth* 25-50 mm.; breadth 13-28 mm. 

Bengal: Calcutta; Sikkim : Karsiang ; Assam: Shillong, 
Sibsagar, Cachar ; Bombay ; Travancoee ; Cetlox. 

Thomson's types are in M. Bene Oberthiir's collection : the 
location of the older types is uncertain. 

Males vary to a remarkable degree, not only in size and degree 
of development of the horns, but also in the texture and fine 
sculpture of the upper surface. Many so-called species have been 
based upon the different phases of this sex, but none of them 
appear to have at present justified themselves by sufficient evidence 
of constancy or even local distribution. 

This is an extremely abundant insect throughout the East and 
is frequently attracted to houses by light. It is found in all its 
stages in manure heaps and accumulated vegetable debris. The 
larvae are also reported to injure the roots of cane-cuttings in 
sugar plantations, and the adult beetles are fond of the exudation 
from damaged canes and are said even to make their way into 
them. 

Although not provided with the beautiful stridulating structure 
found upon the upper surface of the abdomen in related genera 
which will be presently described, this insect is able to produce a 
loud hissing sound by some means which has not been investigated. 
It is perhaps caused by the compression and expulsion of air held 
between the abdomen and elytra, but careful observation should 
.soon reveal the source of the sound. That it is used as a means 
of defence is shown by the following description from Lieut. -Col. 
Cunningham's " Plagues and Pleasures of Life in Bengal." The 



* The length is always measured from the pygidium to the front of the 
clypeus excluding any armature. 



XYLOTRUPES, — CHALCOSOMIA. 265 

identity of the species referred to is established by the curiously 
coloured but sufficiently accurate figure :— " One of the most 
amusing visitors is a great horned beetle who possesses a most 
startling power of stridulatiou. When one of them comes in and 
falls to the floor he walks quietly and sedately about so long as he is 
left to his own devices ; but whenever he is in any way alarmed or 
interfered with he suddenly sits up on his hind legs and, whilst 
brandishing his jagged and hooked fore-paws aloft, emits a sound 
Ike that of a miniature engine blowing off steam. This per- 
formance is seemingly as alarming to dogs as it is to human beings 
who are unprepared for its occurrence. One hot still October 
night, when a friend and I were quietly seated at dinner, one of 
these beetles flew into the room and in due course fell down with 
a sounding flop on to the matting of the floor. A long-haired 
Scottish terrier, who was always on the outlook for shikar of any 
sort, was present and at once on the spot to inquire into the 
cause of the disturbance. The intruder at first lured her on to 
close investigation by minatory gesticulations and then drove her 
wild with terror by stridulating loudly and fastening on to the 
hair of her muzzle. The result. was wild panic and immediate 
flight, in the course of which she rushed violently under the side- 
board, where a number of bottles of soda-water were lying and 
completed her discomfiture by bursting with a series of loud 
reports." 

Genus CHALCOSOMA. 

Chaloosoma, Hope, Coleopt. Manual, 1837, i. p. 86; Burm., 
Handh. Eiit. v, 1847, p. 269 ; Lacord., Gen. Coleopt. iii, 1856, 
p. 448. 

Type, Scarahceus atlas, L. 

Range. The Malayan Eegion and Lower Burma. 

Form massive and very convex, with slender legs. Clypeus 
bidentate. Mandible stout, entire, strongly bent upwards at the 
extremity and rather prominent at the base externally. Maxilla, 
long, acute at the end, not toothed, densely hairy: the palpi 
slender. Mentum very long and narrow, scarcely dilated or 
emarginate in front. Prothorax rather narrow, a little attenuated 
in front and sinuated at the base. Prosternum not freely pro- 
duced behind the front coxae. Front tibia armed externally with 
three sharp teeth set almost at right angles. Middle and hind 
tibia? acutely digitate at the extremity. Tarsi simple and 
slender. 

(S . Very shiniug above. Head armed with a slender horn, 
generally toothed at the posterior edge. Prothorax armed with a 
pair of slender horns arising from the sides of the dorsal part and 
directed forward. Front legs very elongate, the tibiae having a 
row of short teeth beneath, the femora armed with a slight tooth 
in front. All the tarsi louger than in the female. 



2G6 DYNASTIXJs. 

2 . Not shining above ; more ovate, less convex, with the head 
and thorax entirely unarmed and the legs shorter. 

One very variable species is our only known representative. 



243. Chalcosoma atlas. (Plate II, fig. 12 (male).) 

Scarabfeus atlas, Linn., Si/st. Nat. i, 1858, p. 34o, Mm. Liid. Ulr. 

Beg. 1704, p. 6 ; Bimn., Hn7iflb. Ent. v, 1847, p. 270 ; Blanch., 
Voy. P6le Sud, Zool. iv, 1853, p. 106, pi. 9, f. 1. 
ScarabcTus chiron, Oliv., Entom. i ^3), 1789, p. 18, pi. 25, fio:. 217 ; 

Guerin, Voyage de Belanyer aiuv Indes Orient. 1834, p. 483, pi. 1, 

Ijg. 1. 
Geotnipes Caucasus, F., Syst. E/eut. i, 1801, p. 10. 
Dynastes kirbyi, Hope* Gray's Zool. Misc. 1831, p. 23. 
Dvnastes liesperus, Erichs., Nov. Act. Leap. Car. xvi, Suppl. 1834, 

p. 238, pi. 37, tig. o. 
Chalcosoma phidias, Blanch., Voy. Bole Sud, Zool. iv, p. 107, pi. 9, 

tigs. 2 & 3. 

Black, with the elytra, and frequently the prouotum of the male, 
deep metallic green or coppery ; the lower surface brownish. 

d . Very massive and exceedingly smooth and brilliant above, 
with long and slender legs. The clypeus is strongly bidentate and 
the ridges in front of the eyes are large and prominent. The head 
is armed with a slender pointed horn, curving forward and upward 
and more or less compressed behind. At its full development it is 
longer than the head and prothorax together, and rather sharply 
curved near the middle. The posterior edge is generally provided 
with a laminar projection on each side before the apex, but these 
may be absent or represented by a fine serration. There is some- 
times also a strong tooth near the middle of the horn. The 
pronotinn is strongly narrowed in front, generally produced into a 
sharp horn in the middle of the anterior margin, greatly elevated 
above and produced at the sides into a pair of slender, acute, nearly 
horizontal horns of vcny variable curvature, but in large specimens 
enclosing three-fourths of a circle. The pronotum is considerably 
narrower behind than the elytra and is sometimes strongly punc- 
tured at the sides, but the punctures may become partly or wholly 
obliterated. The scutellum is broad and irregularly punctured or 
smooth. The elytra are devoid of punctures and very glossy. 
The 2'ro2J?/(/u/iM?u is closely punctured and the jn/( /id ium and the 
sides of the metastemum and abdomen are finely granulated and 
clothed with miinite erect setic. All the tarsi are elongate but 
especially the front ones ; the front tibia is slender, the two 
uppermost external teeth rather far apart and the lower face armed 
with a row of short perpendicular teeth ; the front femora have 
each a small anterior tooth. 

In males of minor development (var. Icirbyi) the cephalic 
horn is shortened in its apical part and the subapical lamina? 
become more prominent antl divergent, forming with the apex a 



CHALCOSOMA. 



267 



tridentate head or club. The thoracic horns arise nearer together 
and are generally more parallel, disappearing entirely in the most 
dwarfed specimens. 




Fig. W.— CJialcosoma atlas, female, natural size, 
and profiles of males of medium (a) and minor (b) development. 

5 . The form is more ovate and less convex, and the upper 
surface is not at all shining. The head and pronotum are densely 
granulated and entirely devoid of armature, the latter very convex, 
Avith the sides regularly curved and narrowed to the front angles. 
The scutellum is shining and slightly punctured, and the elytra are 
dull, coriaceous, clothed with minute, reddish, erect setae, which 
are distributed in small tufts at the middle of the back and 
unifoi-mly elsewhere, and the pj/gidium and the sides of the meta- 
sternum and abdomen are clothed with similar uniformly distributed 
setae. The legs are shorter and of normal form. 

Length 45-73 mm. ; breadth 24-44 mm. 

Nepal ; Burma : Martabau, Aracan ; Malay Peninsula ; 
BoBNEO ; Java ; Philippine Is. 



268 DYXASTIN-D. 

Type in the Uppsala University Museum ; that of Jdrhyi in the 
British Museum, that of chiron in the Edinburgh Museum, of 
Caucasus iu the Copenhagen Museum, and oi phidias in the Paris 
Museum. 

Although it has been so long familiar and frequently described 
and figured, I have been unable to find any information upon the 
habits of this striking beetle, which is perhaps the largest insect 
found in the Oriental Eegion. 

Genus EUPATORUS. 

Eupatorus, £ii)-m., Handb. Ent. v, 1847, p. 268 ; Lacord., Gen. 

Coleopt. iii, 18A6, p. 447. 
Alcidosoma, Casteln., Revue Zool, 1867, p. 114. 

Type, Dynastes Jiarchvickei, Hope. 

Range. Tropical Asia and N. Australia. 

Form very convex. Clypeus bidentate. Eront angles of 
prothorax rather sharp ; base scarcely lobed. Prosternum 
without a free post-coxal process. Front tibia armed with three 
strong sharp teeth set at right angles ; middle and hind tibise 
bicarinate, finely spinose externally and slenderly digitate at the 
end. Tarsi simple. Mandibles long, a little dilated at the base 
externally and blunt at the extremity. Maxilla? densely fringed, 
rather broad, not tapering, and broad and internally serrate at the 
end ; palpi not very long. Mentum elongate-oval, rather tumid 
beneath, with the anterior part slightly dilated : palpi very short. 

c? . Head armed with a recurved horn. Prothorax bearing one 
or two pairs of horns. Legs longer than in the female. 

2 . More ovate, less convex, entirely unarmed. Legs rather 
short. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (4) Upper surface more or less shining. 

2 (3) Elytra paler at the sides : J with short 

anterior prothoracic horns hardunckei, Hope, p. 268. 

3 (2) Elytra not paler at the sides : J with [p. 270. 

slender anterior prothoracic horns . . c/racUiconiis, Arrow, 

4 (1) Upper surface entirely opaque binnmiicus, Arrow, 

[p. 270. 

244. Eupatorus hardwickei. 

Dynastes hardwickei, Hope,* Gray's Zool. Misc. 1831, p. 22. 

? Eupatorus atkiusoni, Nonf., Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. 1890, p. 89. 

Var. Dynastes cantori, Hope, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1842, p. 84 ; Trans. 

Ent. 'Soc. iv, 1845, p. 76. 
Eupatorus cantori, Stebbiny, Jour)i. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. xviii, 

1908, pi. 4, tip. 1. 
Var. Dynastes childreui, Hope,* Gray's Zool. Misc. 1831. p. 22 (J 

minor). 

Black, with the lower surface and the femora dark chestnut, 
and the elytra bright reddish yellow, except the extreme margins 



EUPATORTJS. 269 

which are tinged with black. The shape is moderately elongate 
and very convex and the sides of the body are clothed beneath 
with minute tawny setae. 

Var. cantori, Hope. The entire upper surface is black, except a 
broad reddish yellow band at the outer margins of the elytra. 

Var. niger, nov. The whole upper surface is black, 
c? . The head bears a moderately long horn, which is strongly 
flattened laterally and sharply recurved. It is quite simple, rather 
sharp at the tip and slightly rugose at its basal part. The pronotum 
is extremely smooth and shining, with a few minute scattered 
punctures, which are most evident near the posterior angles. It 
is about as loug as it is wide, with the sides approximately parallel 
from the posterior angles to the middle and strongly tapering from 
that point, the anterior angles being acutely produced. A little 
behind each anterior angle arises a short horizontal horn directed 
forward, with a slight outward curve, and rather sharply pointed. 
The posterior dorsal region of the thorax is humped and gives rise 
to a pair of siuiilar but rather longer and nearly vertical horns 
curving forward at the tips. The scuteUmn is rugosely punctured 
and the elytra are smooth and shining, with very minute scattered 
punctures which are most apparent near the suture, where there 
is a line of larger impressed punctures on each side. The pygidium 
is semi-opaque, with a very few minute punctures and a finely 
rugose area in each lateral angle, and the apical part is inturned. 
The front tibia is rather slender, the three teeth are long and 
sharp, and the lower surface has a series of tubercles along the 
middle. All the tarsi are long and the claw-joint is very long. 

In males of poor development the cephalic and posterior 
thoracic horns become reduced, and in those of very small size 
(var. cMldreni) the latter completely disappear. The lateral 
processes of the thorax are fairly constant in size. 

5 . The whole surface is more rugose and opaque, the head and 
pronotum are coarsely rugose and the elytra thinly clothed with 
tawny setae, the sutural edges being a little elevated and more 
shining. The pygidium and the greater part of the loiuer surface 
are similarly clothed. The cephalic and thoracic armature is 
entirely absent. The legs are shorter and the tarsi considerably 
so. The colour of the elytra is more reddish in the typical 
phase. 

Length 42-58 mm. ; breadth 22-33 mm. 

SiKKiM : Karsiang. 

Type in the British Museum ; also those of childreni and niger ; 
type of atlcinsoni in coll. Nonfried ; that of cantori in the Oxford 
Museum. 

Herr Nonfried gives Kashmir as the locality of his supposed 
new species. A request for further particulars has met with no 
response and as the description contains nothing inapplicable to 
the present species it is best disregarded. 



270 DTXASTIITyi:. 

245. Eupatorus gracilicornis. 

Eupatorus gracilicoruis, Arrow,* Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond, 1008, 
p. 351. 

Black, with the elytra straw-coloured except at the sutural and 
extreme outer margins, which are dark. The form and colouring 
are almost those of E. hardwicl:ei , but the body is rather more 
elongate and the elytra are normally lighter in colour and without 
a paler border. 

S . The armature is similar to that of E. Jiarchvickei, but all the 
horns are more slender, that of the head in the largest specimens 
reaching a length of 40 mm. The anterior thoracic horns are 
much longer, being fully as long as the posterior pair, strongly 
curved, and arising farther back than in the other species, giving 
the prothorax the appearance of being more produced in front. 

2 • This is extremely like that of the older species, but besides 
the greater elongation and paler elytra, the latter are minutely 
pubescent only at the posterior part and the pronotum is more 
strongly sculptured and closely rugose at the sides. 

Length 48-70 mm. ; breadth 25-35 mm. 

Assam : Jaintia Eills ; Buema : Shan States ; Siam : Chengmai; 
Tonkin : Dong- Van. 

Type in the British Museum. 

The curvature and direction of the horns of the male vary 
very much. The ceplialic horn is sometimes very strongly and 
sometimes only slightly curved backwards, and the anterior 
thoracic horns generally diverge considerably, but may slightly 
converge. In small specimens the dorsal horns may completely 
disappear. 

I have seen a considerable number of examples, most of them 
males. 



246. Eupatorus birmanicus. 

Eupatorus bu-mauicus, Arroic,* Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1908, 
p. 352. 

The colovir is a very dark chestnut, approaching black, and the 
form convex and moderately elongate. The upper surface is 
coriaceous and scarcely shining, the scutellum and elytra quite 
opaque, and the pygidium and propygidium finely rugose and 
minutely setose. The lower surface is very scantily furnished 
with tawny hairs. 

cJ . The head is bidentate in front and bears a long slender and 
sharply-pointed horn, strongly curving backwards in the basal half 
and afterwards almost straight. The prothorax is about as long 
as it is broad, with the sides nearly parallel behind and strongly 
tapering in front, the margins produced into a sharp point on each 
side just behind the front angle and the dorsal i)art bearing a pair 



EUPATOKUS. 



271 



of spatulate horns placed close together behind the middle. These 
are convex on their posterior face and concave ou the anterior, 
they slope backwards and their tips almost meet. The legs are 




Fig. 61. — Eiipatorus hirvianicus, male. 

Natural size, with part profiles showing full development (above) 

and minor development (below). 



not long, but the front tibia is slightly elongate, and bears three 
nearly equal acute teeth set at right angles and a vertical tooth on 
the lower surface at the extremity. The front femur has an 
irregularly rounded laminar projection near the middle of the 
anterior margin. 

The female is not yet known. 

Length 45-48 mm. ; breadth 25 mm. 

Tenasserim : Moulmein, Mergui. 

Tyjye in the British Museum. 

A (S specimen of low development (represented in outline 
above) shows the remarkable tendency to dimorphism seen in 
males of various genera of the group. The size is httle less than 
that of the type specimen, but the cephalic horn is only a third of 
the length and bifurcated at the end and the thoracic horns are 
represented by a pair of nodular processes occupying the same 
position, but showing no indication of the very peculiar form 
assumed in their fuller development. 



272 DTNASTlNiE. 

Genus PACHYORYCTES. 

Pachyoryctes, Arrow, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1908, p. 349. 

Type, Paclvioryctes solidus, Arrow. 

Range. Burma. 

Form very robust. Clypeus tapering and bidentate at tbe end. 
Mandibles very prominent, blunt in front and sinuated at the lateral 
margins. Maxillae stout, broad at the extremity, where they are 
armed with a series of about eight minute teeth ; palpi moderately 
long, with the 1st joint slender, the 2nd and 3rd inflated and the 
4th long. Mentuin thick and rather broad ; labial palpi with the 
last joint large and the preceding ones very small. Front tibia 
strongly and almost equally tridentate, middle and hind tibiae 
strongly spinose at the extremities. Tarsi moderately long and 
slender, with the first similar to the succeeding joints. Prosternal 
process broad, not long. Propygidium without stridulating 
surface. 

cJ . Head armed with a long, transversely flattened, strongly 
curved horn. Prothorax strongly retuse in front. Legs similar 
to those of 2 . 

$ . Head armed with a blunt tubercle, Prothorax strongly 
punctured. 

The type species is the only one so far discovered. 

247. Pachyoryctes solidus. 

Pachyoryctes solidus, Arroiv,* Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1908, p. 349. 

Chestnut-black, rather smooth but not very shining, with minute 
scattered punctures above and scanty reddish hairs upon the 
sternum, sides of the abdomen and legs. 

S . The body is very robust and convex. The head is triangular 
and sparingly punctured and carries a long strongly recurved horn, 
the posterior face of which is flattened and slightly excavated. 
T\\e pronotum is minutely aud sparsely punctured, strongly curved 
at the sides, with the front angles promiuent and acute. The 
])rothorax, except at the posterior and lateral bordei's, is retuse, 
nearly flat, and very shining, with some large punctures before 
and behind the posterior margin of the flattened part. This 
margin is slightly interrupted and depressed in the middle, and 
elevated at each side into a more or less sharp tooth. The scutellum 
is rugose, short and very bluntly augulated. The eh/ira have a 
minute scattered puncturatiou and a single line of larger punctures 
upon each side of the suture. The apical margins are more thickly, 
and the pygidium and propygidium are strongly and closely, 
punctured, 

2 . A little narrower and less convex. The head is very coarsely 
and rugosely punctured and armed with a slight tubercle. The 



PACHYOBYCTES. — ORYOIES. 



273 



prothorax is coarsely punctured, the punctures being distinct behind 
and confluent and rugose in front, and the front angles are less 





Fig. 62. — Pachyoryctes solidus, male, natural size, with lateral view of head 
and thorax (above) and enlarged details of labium and maxilla (below). 

prominent than in the male. The scutellum is rather more 
pointed and the elytra a little longer. 

Length 40-48 mm. ; breadth 23-26 mm. 

BuEMA : Karen Hills, 2700-3300 ft. {L. Fea). 

Type in the Genoa Museum ; cotype in the British Museum. 

The male has the appearance of a stout and broad Oryctes, while 
the female greatly resembles that of a Trichogomphus, but the 
structure of the hind tarsi, the maxillae, the horn of the male, etc., 
show it to have a truer relationship with the Chalcosoma group, 
although the absence of any elongation of the legs of the male 
forms an important distinction from Chalcosoma, Eupatorus, etc. 



Genus ORYCTES. 

Oryctes, Illiger, Kiifei- Preussens, 1798, p. 11 ; Lacord,, Gen, Coleopt. 
iii, 1856, p. 430. 

Type, Scarabceus nasicornis, L. 

Range. Europe, Asia, Africa and Madagascar. 

Eorm rather narrowly cylindrical, convex, smooth on the upper 
surface, and clothed beneath with short erect hairs. Clypeus 
triangular and blunt or bifid, with acute recurved angles. Head 
armed in both sexes with a short horn, slender and recurved in 
the male. Lower surface of the clypeus and organs of the mouth 

T 



274 BTNASTIN.E. 

densely hairy. Maudible entire, blunt at the end. Maxilla 
terminating in a broad lobe, not tootlied ; palpus long. Mentum 
short and tapering ; palpus very short. Prothorax with the front 
angles acute and the hind angles rounded. Prosternal process 
flattened, not erect, tufted at the end. Propygidium enlarged at 
the expense of the pygidium, and its entire surface, except the 
lateral angles, covered with microscopic regular transverse stridu- 
lating ridges. Pygidium inturned beneath and very prominent 
behind. Legs rather short and stout, the front tibia armed with 
three or four strong teeth, and the middle and hind tibiae digitated 
at the end ; tarsi of moderate length, the basal joint in the four 
posterior legs distinctly triangular. 

cJ . The cephalic horn is generally longer than that of the female 
and the pygidium is smooth and convex. 

9 . The pygidium is more or less conical. 

This is the first genus so far dealt with in which a stridulating 
organ occurs. The delicate ridges occupy a considerable area, 
])ractically covering the penultimate dorsal segment, and the 
vibrations are produced by movements of the abdomen causing a 
sharp edge at the end of each elytron to be drawn across the ridges. 
Darwin, in the ' Descent of Man,' called attention to a difference 
of structure according to sex in the stridulating apparatus of 
Oryctes, resulting as he supposed in its greater effectiveness in 
the male. It is true, as he noticed, that the microscopic hairs 
scattered over the propygidium are more numerous and con- 
spicuous in the female, but the effective part of the striated 
surface appears to be only a small area upon each side which is 
bare in both sexes, and in the sculpturing of these areas I have 
not been able to detect any such difference as described by 
Darwin. It is strange that, although two of the species here 
described are extremely common and well-known, I have failed to 
obtain any account of the sound produced by them. 



Key to the Sjtecies. 

1 (2) Front tibioe 3-dentate : hind tibiae bluntly [p. 275, 

digitate nasicornis, L., 

2 (1) Front tibiaj 4-dentate : hind tibiae acutely 

digitate. [p. 276. 

3 (4) Elytra very smooth, minutely punctured .... desertortan, sp. u., 

4 (3) Elytra strongly punctured, the punctures 

annular. [p. 277. 

5 (6) Punctures of elytra small mulicauda, sp. n., 

6 (f)) Punctures of elytra large rhinoceros, L., 

[p. 278. 



oiiYcxES. 275 

-!48. Oryctes nasicornis. 

Scarabseus nasicornis, L., Si/st. Nat. i, 1758, p. 340 ; Burtn., Handb. 
Ent. V, 1847, p. 193 ; Camemno, Bull. Soc. Ent. If.al. x, 1878, p. 21, 
Var. Geotmpes grypus, Illiff., Mar/, ii, 180-5, p. :^12. 
Oryctes grypus, Duoal, Gen. Col. Eur. iii, pi. 19, fig. 95, 

Dark chestnut-red, usually \vith the pygidiiim and lower surface 
lighter, and the head and prothorax darker, the latter frequently 
nearly black. 

It is moderately elongate, smooth and shining above and clothed 
with tawny hairs beneath. The chjpeus is tapering and blunt or 
broadly euiarginate in front. The scutellum is irregularly punc- 
tured, or rugose, with a smooth outer margin ; and the elytra are 
finely and irregularly punctured, with a strongly impressed row of 
coalescing punctures adjoining the suture and slight traces of other 
double sei'ies. The stridulating ridges of the projiygidium are 
exceedingly fine. The front tibia is armed with three external 
teeth and without any tooth ou the lower surface ; the middle 
tibiae are not much shorter than the hind ones, and each of the 
four posterior tibias is armed at the extremity with two not very 
acute teeth. 

cJ. There is a strongly recurved, rather compressed horn ou the 
head, rugose at the sides and punctured in front, and the prothorax 
is strongly angulated at the sides, which are produced forward 
forming acute angles in front. The disc is broadly elevated 
behind, forming a three-toothed transverse carina, and cut away 
from the carina to the front margin. The posterior part is finely 
punctured, the anterior declivity smooth and scarcely punctured, 
and the sides, except in the posterior part, coarsely rugose. The 
pygidium is very convex and quite smooth and shining, except in its 
lateral angles, where it is very finely rugose. 

2 , The head is entirely rugose and armed only with a very 
short conical horn directed backwards. The prothorax is rounded 
at the sides, the front angles are not prominent, there is a slight, 
transversely oval excavation reaching from the front margin to 
near the middle and the surface is entirely rugose, except near the 
bind margin, where it is punctured. The propygidium bears a 
microscopically fine pubescence and the stridulating ridges are 
slightly coarser than in the male. The pygidium is punctured 
and rather thinly pubesceut, with a transverse carina which is 
angulated in the middle. 

Length 26-40 mm,; hreadtli 13'5-19 mm. 

Baluchistan; Kashmir (^es^g Fairmaire) ; S.W. Asia ; S, & S,E. 
Europe. 

Var. grypus, Illig. — The elytra are more smooth and shining, 
with the punctures scarcely visible or entirely absent. Various 
other differences which have been pointed out are inconstant and 
of little importance. The two forms have long been regarded as 
distinct species and the vai'iety grypus is described as the Eastern 

t2 



276 DYNASTIX.i;. 

representative of the TN^estern and Central European Onjctes 
nasicornis ; but, altliough there is a tendency for one or other of 
the forms to preponderate in the different regions, they also occur 
together, and when a large series is studied it becomes impossible 
to divide them sharply. 

0. nasicornis is the largest and most common of the two or three 
insects Avhich alone represent the essentially tropical subfamily 
DiNASTiNiE in Europe. It is found in old decayed trunks of oak, 
olive, chestnut and other trees, in accumulations of vegetable 
debris in gardens, etc., and most commonly of all in the refuse 
heaps of tanneries, from whicli, in the countries it inhabits, it is 
said to be rarely absent. Westwood states that the larval period 
lasts four or five years, but probably this is only when it is 
retarded by unfavourable circumstances. The beetles conceal 
themselves during the day and fly at dusk, appearing in Southern 
Europe about July. Xambeu (Le IS'aturaliste, 1902, p. 102) 
gives the following particulars : — The eggs when laid are coated 
with a glutinous substance which causes the surrounding earthy 
particles to adhere to and conceal them, an obvious protection 
against hungry foragers. Twelve or fifteen eggs are deposited 
not far apart within the tree or refuse-heap and hatch in fifteen 
to twenty days. The larva feeds during the autumn and winter 
and pupates in May. According to M. Fabre, this larva is the 
natural prey of the great parasitic Wasp, Scolia hortorum, the 
female of which seeks it out in its retreat and, having paralysed 
it by stinging it in the ventral ganglion-mass, deposits an egg 
beside the puncture. The Scolia grub rapidly devours the whole 
interior of its immobile victim, leaving only an empty skin beside 
which it forms its own cocoon. 



249. Oryctes desertorum, sp. n. 

? Oryctes sinaica, Walker, List of Coleopt. coll. by J. K. Lord in 
Etjxjpt, etc., 1871, p. 13. 

Dark chestnut-red, with the pygidium, femora and lower surface 
lighter and the head and pronotum sometimes darker. 

It is a small species, elongate, cylindrical, smooth and shining 
above, and clothed with erect tawny setae beneath. The clypeus 
has two sharp divergent teeth in front. T\\q pronotum is strongly 
rounded at the sides, with the hind angles obliterated. It is ex- 
cavated and rugose in front and smooth behind. The scutellvm is 
irregularly punctured and the elytra are finely and irregularly 
punctured, some of the punctures forming indistinct double rows. 
The propyfjidium is finely transversely striated. The front tibia 
is armed with three strong teeth and a blunt uppermost one, and 
the middle and hind tibiae are strongly and sharply digitated at 
the end. 

S . The head bears a strongly curved, not very long, horn and 
is rugose at the sides. The pronotum has a broad, oval, rugose 



ORYCTES. 277 

excavation extending from the front to about the middle, the hind 
margin being very feebly produced forwards into a slight bifid 
process. The posterior half of the pronotum is smooth and 
shining, with only a few minute punctures ; the front angles are 
depressed and rugose, and there is a narrow rugose area near the 
median excavation on each side. The pygidium is bare, smooth 
and shining in the middle, where there are only minute punctures, 
and coriaceous at the sides. 

5 . T!ie head is entirely rugose and armed with a very short 
horn. The pronotum has an anterior rugose depression which 
does not reach the middle, aud the posterior margin of this is 
feebly produced forward into a blunt point. There is a small 
punctured area just behind this point and a large rugose depression 
on each side. The pygidium is pointed and clothed Avith rather 
long tawny hairs. 

Length 24-35 mm. ; breadth 12'5-17 mm. 

SiND : Karachi ; Peesia ; Arabia : Muscat, Fao, Lahej. 

Tyjoe in the British Museum ; that of siaaicus destroyed. 

This is probably the Oryctes siaaicus of Walker, presumably 
brought from the Sinai Peninsula, but the type of that, together 
with the numerous other Coleoptera described by Walker in the 
same paper, no longer exist, and as few of the species will ever 
be determined with any degree of certainty from the descriptions 
I consider it best to treat the names as, like the types, non- 
existent. The collection was housed in the School of Medicine at 
Cairo, but the late Director of that Institution, Dr. Innes, informs 
me that, through neglect, the insects had entirely disappeared more 
than twenty years ago, and only the labels remain. 



250. Oryctes nudicauda, sp. n. 

Deep chestnut-colour, with the lower surface reddish, clothed 
Avith tawny hairs. The form is narrowly cylindrical and the 
general structure that of Oryctes rhinoceros, L. The clypeus is 
sharply cleft, the points not strongly diverging and the horn is 
rugosely punctured, except at the base behind. The pronotum is 
distinctly transverse, strongly margined all round, with the front 
angles acute, the hind angles almost obliterated and the sides 
strongly bisinuated. There is a transversely oval rugose excavation 
extending from the front margin to the middle or beyond it and 
bounded by a smooth carina with a slight projection behind. 
There is an elongate depression outside the carina on each side, 
and another in each front angle. All these depressions are rugose, 
and the remaining surface is smooth, shining and minutely 
punctured. The scutellum is rugose, with a smooth outer margin, 
and the elytra are moderately punctured, the punctures being 
annular and some of them forming inconspicuous double rows ; 
the apical margins are densely punctured. The propygidium is 
scarcely produced and the stridulatory ridges are not very fine. 



278 DTN'A.STIX^. 

The i^ygidium is smooth, rounded and very finely rugose in both 
sexes. The front tibia is armed with four teeth, the uppermost one 
small, and there is only a ve.->tige of a tooth upon the lower face. 
The middle and hind tibiae are very acutely digitated. 

S • The cephalic horn is longer than that of the female and 
the posterior margin of the thoracic cavity forms, in the middle, 
part of a very broad trisinuate projection. The pygidium is very 
convex and quite hairless. 

$ . The lateral rugose areas of the pronotum unite behind the 
carina and the pygidium is entirely devoid of hairs, as in the male, 
and slightly pointed. 

Lenr/th 28-33 mm. ; breadth 14-15-5 mm. 

BcJRMA : Minhla (Comoro, 1881-2). 

Type in the Genoa Museum ; cotype in the British Museum. 

0. nudicauda resembles the much more widespread 0. rhinoceros 
very closely, but the elytra are much less coarsely punctured, 
besides which the pygidium is without the basal fringe in the male 
and the thick liairy clothing found in the female of that species 
and is of a different shape in the latter sex. 

251. Oryctes rhinoceros. 

Scarabseiis rhinoceros, L., Syst. Nat. \, 1758, p. 34G ; Oliv., Ent. 

i. (3), 1789, p. 34, pi. 18, tig. I(j6. 
Oryctes rhinoceros, Burm., Handb. Ent. v, 1847, p. 202. 

Black or pitchy, with the lower surface reddish and clothed with a 
short tawny pubescence. It is elongate-cylindrical in shape. The 
dypeus is sharply forked, with the points directed forwards, and 
the horn rather broad at the base, tapering to a blunt point and 
rugosely punctured except at the base behiud. The pronotum \s 
almost as long as it is broad, strongly margined all round, with 
the front angles sharp, the hind angles obliterated, the sides 
strongly rounded behind and convergent in front. There is an 
approximately oval excavation extending from the front to beyond 
the middle of the disc and surrounded by a smooth carina which 
forms behind a short truncate process directed forwards. There is 
an elongate depression outside the carina on each side and another 
in each front angle. All the depressions are rugose and the 
remainder of the surface is smooth and shining but minutely 
punctured. The scuteUum is rugose, with a smooth outer margin ; 
and the elytra are strongly and closely punctured, the punctures 
being annular and forming a juxta-sutural line and three pairs 
of other lines i*ather wide apart, with closely punctured intervals : 
the sides and apices are more finely punctured. The propygidium 
is very large, lobate beliind and rather closely ridged or striated. 
The front tibia is armed with four teeih, the uppermost one 
small, and there is also a sharp and conspicuous tooth on the lower 
face. The middle tibije are much shorter than the hind ones aud 
all are very acutely digitated at the end. 



ORTCTES. 



279 



The head and thorax are very similar in the two sexes, but the 
c? has generally a longer horn. The pygidium is protuberant in 
both sexes, but in the d* it is rounded, finely rugose and bare, 








Fig. 63. — Larva («), pupa (h), and male imago (c) of Oryctes rhinoceros, with 
lateral view of head and thorax {d), and extremity of the body of male (e) 
and female (/). All natural size. 



except for a hairy strip at the anterior margin, while in the $ it 
is pointed and densely clothed with tawny hairs. 

Length 39-47 mm. ; breadth 18-22 mm. 

Ceylon; Madras: Malabar; Bombay: Kanara, Bandra; 
Bengal : Howrah ; Tenassemm : Mali^\•on ; Siam ; Annam ; 
Singapore ; Pahang ; Sumatra : Java ; Celebes ; Ceram ; 
Amboyna ; Philippine Is. ; Formosa ; Corea ; Hongkong. 



280 DYNASTIN.E. 

Type in the Uppsala University Museum. 

This is an extremely common beetle, familiar in many parts of 
the East as the Ehinoceros Beetle or Black Cocoanut Beetle, and 
is one of the two great enemies of the Cocoanut Pahn, the other 
being the Palm Weevil or Red Cocoanut Beetle {Rhynchophorus). 
The latter begin their attack at the roots and tunnel upwards into 
the tree, but the Rhinoceros Beetle on the contrary always begins 
at the top, the soft growing point of the tree, and works gradually 
downwards, assisted by the decay caused by the entrance of water 
at the opening made. Its depredations have been described by 
Mr. L. C. Brown in the Agricultural Bulletin of the Straits and 
Federated Malay States, 1903, p. 66, and more exactly by 
Mr. Chas. S. Banks in the Philippine Journal of Science, vol. i. 
1906, p. 143. The latter states that the beetles' attacks are con- 
fined to the soft tissues near the top of the tree, and holes seen in 
the trunk below this point date from the time when the growing 
apex was here located. " The attacks always begin during the 
night and by the following morning it will frequently have entered 
so far into the burrow as to be protected from the light. It then 
continues its feeding until a gallery of considerable size has been 

excavated Observation has shown that the males make 

burrows as well as the females and it is probable that they always 
accompany the latter at the time of egg-laying, retreating from 

the burrow they have made to allow the female access It is 

rare to find a single Cocoanut tree anywhere in the Philippines 
\\hich does not show one or more evidences of attack by this 
beetle. It is the pest most frequently reported by farmers and 
cocoanut growers, and in hundreds of trees which I have personally 
examined large holes in the trunk, distorted leaf-stems, or ragged 
leaves demonstrate the character of its work. The insect larva or 
the adult, in its work inside the tree, frequently cuts off the tip of 
the embryo leaf or the tips of the leaflets on one or both sides 
of the midrib, so that when the leaf finally grows it appears as if 
it had been trimmed with a pair of shears or as if a triangle had 
been cut from one or both sides. The fibres severed by the insect 
protrude from its burrow, giving the latter a ragged appearance. 
During the daytime the beetles are freqtiently encountered in very 
old holes, into which they evidently have gone for the purpose of 
hiding." Mr. Banks has figured a standing tree in which nearly 
the whole interior from the top to within half a yard of the ground 
has been hollowed out and from which nearly a hundred larvse 
were taken. 

This unfortunate taste for the cocoanut tree is probably an 
acquired one, for the larvte are also found in a variety of other 
situations and appear to have a remarkable power of adapting 
themselves to circumstances. They will flourish in rotten wood, 
decaying leaves, sawdust, manure heaps, etc., and in one case 
70,000 grubs are said to have been taken upon one estate from 
the ground itself, the soil being a very rich vegetable mould. The 
ground was flooded in order to destroy them (Agric. Bull. Straits 



ORTCTES. TRICHOGOMPnrS. 



281 



& Fed. Malay States, 1904, p. 18). It is probable that their 
primitive habit is to feed in decaying vegetable refuse, like their 
kin in general and that at first the eggs were only deposited in 
standing trees when decay had begun, the adult beetles perhaps 
resorting to the palm " cabbage" for the sake of its juices. They 
are attracted by the oozing sap when leaves have been cut off and 
the removal of old leaves with tlieir tough basal sheaths makes the 
trees more vulnerable at that point. The best methods o£ coping 
with tlie beetle are fully dealt with by Mr. Banks in the treatise 
quoted above. 



Genus TRICHOGOMPHUS. 

Trichogomphus, Burm., Handb. Ent. v, 1S47, p. 219; Lacord., Gen. 
Coleopt, iii, 1856, p. 4.32. 

Type, Geotrupes milo, F. (Philippine Is.). 

Range. The Oriental Region. 

Form moderately elongate and not very convex. Legs not 
long, very spinose ; front tibia armed with three teeth, posterior 
tibiae digitated at the end. Tarsi rather short, the basal joint in 
the hind feet rather triangular. Clypeus tapering, bidentate at 
the apex. Mandibles acute in front, strongly curved, entire at 
the outer edge. Maxillaj short, broad, rounded at the end and 
without teeth, but with a short dense fringe of fulvous hairs. 
Mentum long, with a narrow ligular part. There is no free pro- 
sternal process. The propygidium is without stridulating ridges, 
and the pygidium is smooth and flat in both sexes and not in- 
turned ventrally. 

d* . The head is armed with a simple laterally-compressed horn. 
The prothorax is cut away in front and elevated behind into a 
short massive protuberance. The legs are similar in both sexes. 



Key to ilie Species. 

1 (2) The greater part of the elytra strongly 

punctured martabani, Guer., p. 282. 

2 (1) The greater part of the elytra smooth 

and free from punctures. 

3 (4) Sides of the elytra irregularly or not 

at all punctured mongol, Arro\v, p. 283. 

4 (3) Sides of the elytra having two or 

three rows of punctures ucuticollis, Arrow, p. 284. 

Trichogomphus lunicollis, Burm., and bronchus, Jabl., are Malayan 
species which have been inaccurately catalogued as Indian. 



282 DYXASTiy.E. 



252. Trichogomphus martabani. 

Scarabaeus martabfiiii, Guer., Voy. Belong. Ind. Or., ZooL, 1834, 
p. 484, pi. 1, fig. 3 ; Arrozv, Trans. Ent. Soc. Land., 1908, p. 347. 

Trichogomphus tonkinens, Fairm., Ann. Sue. Ent. Belg., 1898, 
p. 313. 

Shining black, with the lower surface and femora slightly 
reddish, and scantily clothed with tawny hairs at the sides 
beneath. 

The form is elongate and parallel-sided. Th.Q.head\s, rugose, the 
2>ronotum rugose in front and at the posterior angles, which are 
well-marked, and smooth and shining elsewhere. The scutellum is 
rugose and setose in front and smooth behind. Each eh/tron has 
a strongly impressed line of coarse annular punctures adjoining 
the suture and two or three pairs of similarly but less closely 
punctured lines upon the disc ; with irregularly punctured 
intervals, and the outer margins are minutely and rather scantily 
punctui-ed. The ^^/r/uZiuwi is nearly smooth in tlie middle but 
strongly punctured towards the circumference and setose at the 
base and in the lateral angles. The metasternum is coarsely and 
scantily punctured, but almost smooth in the hinder part, and the 
ahdomen is very sparingly punctured. 

d . The head is armed with a strong, simple, laterally-com- 
pressed horn, moderately long and a little recurved. The prothorax 
is subquadrate, the sides being more parallel than in the female, 
and rather abruptly bent round in front, with the posterior angles 
sharper. There is a distinct lobe at the middle of the base and in 
well-developed examples this is very large and almost covers the 
scutellum. The front part of the pronotnm is broadly excavated ; 
the excavation is rugose except in the middle, its sides are produced 
upwards into a tooth on each side, and the hinder part is smooth 
and elevated in the middle into a hump, which is produced 
slightly forward over the excavation and ends in two blunt 
tubercles. 

In small males the curvature of the sides of the prothorax is 
more gradual, the posterior angles are more obtuse, the hump is 
absent, and only a slight anterior depression, bordered by two 
lateral and two posterior minute tubercles, remains. 

2 . Tiie head is armed with a minute acute tubercle. The pro- 
thorax has the sides curvilinear, the front angles acute and the 
hind angles obtuse ; the disc is moderately convex, irregularly 
I'ugose in front and in the hind angles, and almost smooth behind, 
and the base is trisinuate. The sides of the elytra are more curvi- 
linear than in the male. 

Length 35-56 mm, ; brcadlJi 17-27 mm. 

Assam: Manipur, Silhet ; JU'ema: Martaban, Karen Hills, 
Kachin Hills, Metanja (L. Fca). 



TRICHOGOMPHUS. 



283 



253. Trichogomphus mongol. 

Trichooomphus mongol, Arrow,* Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1908, 

p. 347. 
Trichogomphus martabani, Burin, (nee Guer.), Handh. Ent., v, 

1847, p. 220. 

Shining black, with the lower surface and femora reddish, and 
scantily clothed with tawny hairs at the sides beneath. The form 
is that of T. martabani, with which it may be easily confused, but 
the elytra are almost smooth and impunctate, having only a deeply 
impressed sutural line upon each and a few large irregular 




Fig. 64. — Trickoffom2)hits mongol. male, natural size, with lateral view of 
head and thorax (above) and outline of female (below). 



punctures close to the base. There ara usually a few longitudinal 
impressions or vestigial striae, but these are entirely free from 
punctures. The apical margins are slightly rugosely punctured. 

S • The armature of the head and tliorax is the same as that of 
T. martabani, but in well-developed specimens the posterior 
thoracic horn is more hollowed out in front and its lateral edges 
are more sharply carinate. The hind angles of the prothorax are 
more obtuse than in that species. 

Length 33-47 mm. ; breadth 18-25 mm. 

Burma: Kachin Hills (L. Fea); Siam ; Cambodia; Chixa : 
Hong Kong. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Whereas T. martabani ranges north-westwards from Burma, 
T. mongol extends eastwards from that centre and is apparently 
not found in India proper. 



284 DTNASTIN,!:. 



254. Trichogoinphus acuticollis. 

Trichogouiplms acuticollis, Arrow* Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond.j 1908, 
p. 346. 

Size and general appearance of the preceding species, but the 
elytra are each decorated with a strongly impressed sutural stria, 
two or three lines of punctures at the lateral margin, some 
irregular punctures at the base and a closely and irregularly 
punctured area at the apex. The scutellum is very scantily 
punctured. 

(S . The head is armed with a moderately long, slightly re- 
curved, laterally compressed horn. The sides of the prothoraxare 
obliquely produced in front and the anterior angles directed 
forward. The sides are more regularly curved behind than in 
2\ martahani and T. monrjol and the widest part of the thorax is at, 
or a little before, the middle, instead of behind it. The base is 
very strongly lobed behind and elevated into a hump, which is not 
broadly forked in front but bluntly pointed, the point showing 
only a trace of bifurcation. 

In a male specimen of minor development the armature is 
reduced to a condition almost indistinguishable from that of 
similarly undeveloped examples of T. monrjol. 

The female is unknown. 

Lenrith 38-45 mm. ; breadth 20-24 mm. 

Tenasserim : Dawna Eange, 1500 ft. 

Type in the British Museum. 



Genus DICHODONTUS. 

Dichodontus, Burmeister, Handh. Ent. v, 1847, p. 217; Lacord., 
Gen. Culeopt. iii, 1856, p. 436. 

Type, Dichodontus coronatus, Burm. 

Tlanrje. Burma, >Siam and the Malayan Region. 

Generally smaller than 7Vu7«o7o»i2)A«s, compact and very convex. 
Clypeus tapering, truncate at the apex. Mandibles bluntly bi- 
dentate at the extremity and furnished with a very prominent and 
exposed rounded lobe at the outer edge. Maxilla armed with 
three strong terminal teeth and thickly tufted with hairs. Mentum 
short and tapering. Prothorax generally very wide in the middle, 
the prosternal process flattened, not erect. Propygidium without 
stridulating ridges. Legs not long ; front tibia armed with three 
teeth ; hind tibia truncate ; basal joint of the hind tarsus slightly 
triangular. 

<S . Head (and sometimes also that of the $ ) armed with a 
slender horn curving backward. Pronotum (sometimes that of the 
2 also) broadly elevated in the middle of the posterior part. 
Pygidium convex, shining and nearly smooth. Last ventral seg- 
ment smooth and emarginate. 



DICHODONTUS. 285 

2 • Pjgidium rugose, not very convex. Last ventral segment 
rugose, triangular. 

The species are few and only one is known to occur in India. 

255. Dichodontus coronatus. 

Dicliodontus coronatus, Burin., loc. cit., p. 218. 

Black or piceous, reddish beneath ; rather short and broad, 
very smooth and shining above and rather densely clothed with 
tawny hairs beneath. The clypeus is rugose, very narrow, 
emarginate at the extremity, with the angles acute. The head is 
armed with a moderately sharp and slender horn. The prothorax' 
is trisinuate at the base, the hind angles are sharp but slightly 
obtuse, the sides gently rounded and very slightly diverging from 
the base to the middle, where they are very prominent, and from 
there abruptly narrowed and concave, with the front angles very 




Fig. 65. — Dichodontus coronatvs, male, natural size, with outlines of 
anterior part of male (a) and female {b). 



acute. The anterior half of the pronotum is depressed and the 
posterior half elevated into a broad hump, the anterior edge of 
which is sharp and usually forms four angles, the two inner ones 
a little in advance of the others. The scutellum is rather short, 
rugose and hairy. The elytra are rather feebly punctured, most 
of the punctures falling into longitudinal rows, and there is a 
deeply impressed stria on each side of the suture. 

S . The cephalic horn is strongly curved, laterally compressed, 
and in well-developed specimens bears a strong blunt tooth at the 
middle of the posterior edge. The pronotum is strongly elevated 
behind and that portion is entirely smooth, except near the sides 
and base, where it is rugosely punctured. The anterior half is 
entirely smooth in the middle but slightly rugose in the front 



'286 dtnastinjE. 

angles and immediately under the extremities of the carina. The 
upper part of the pygidium is a little punctured and hairy and 
the apical part smooth, and the abdomen is almost smooth 
beneath. 

2 . The cephalic horn is simple, less strongly curved, and 
generally shorter. The pronotum is similarly shaped to that of 
the male, but rather less elevated behind and coarsely punctured 
at the summit from side to side. The anterior part is rugose, \^dth 
a smooth area in the middle and one on each side. The pygidium 
is finely rugose and densely clothed with erect tawny hairs, the 
last ventral segment is less closely rugose and hairy, and the re- 
mainder of the abdomen beneath is very feebly punctured. 

Length 22-33 mm. ; breadth 13-19 mm. 

Texasserim : Mergui ; Siam ; Malay Pexixsula ; Bokneo. 

This insect is said by Burmeister to inhabit tlie Malabar Coast, 
but this is no doubt a mistake. 



Genus BLABEPHORUS. 

Blabephorus, Fdirm., Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1898, p. 382; Arroic, 
Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud. 1908, p. 346. 

Type, Blabephorus pinguis, Fairm. 

liawje. India, Burma and the Malayan Region. 

Form short and stout, with legs of moderate length, the front 
tibia armed with four acute teeth, the middle and hind tibiae 
dilated and very sharply digitated at the extremity. The tarsi ax'e 
slender and the basal joint in the posterior feet strongly spinose. 
Clypeus tapering, blunt and a little reflexed at the apex. 
Mandible largely exposed externally, sinuated at the outer edge 
and bluntly pointed at the end. Maxilla furnished with three 
very acute teeth : palpus rather long. Mentum very protuberant 
beneath, bilobed in front. Prosternal process not free but rather 
swollen in front. Propygidium without stridulatory ridges. 

cJ . Head armed with a short, strongly curved horn. Pronotum 
broadly excavated at the middle. 

$ . Head armed with a short conical tubercle. Pronotum with 
a broad well-marked longitudinal furrow. 

Only a single species of this peculiar genus is known. 

256. Blabephorus pingiiis. 

Blabephorus pinguis, Fairm., loc. cit. p. 383 ; J , Arrotv, loc. cit. 

Chestnut-red, with short tawny hairs beneath ; short, oval, and 
very convex in form. The head is finely rugose and the chjpcus 
blunt and reflexed. The prothorax is short, approximately semi- 
circular, with the sides strongly rounded in front and rather 
contracted behind, the posterior angles very blunt and the base 
feebly trisinuate. The upper surface is rugose in front and in the 
excavated part and punctured elsewhere. The scutellum is strongly 



BLABEPHORUS. — EOPHILEUEUS. 287 

punctured, and the elytra are coarsely coriaceous, with a punctured 
stria adjoining the suture and other coarse irregular punctures 
distinguishable in the same region. The propygidiuni is thinly- 
setose and the pygidmrn bare and rugosely punctured. 




Fig. 66. — Blahephorus pinguis, male, natural size, and 
outline of female. 



J . The body is rather shorter than that of the female. The 
horn on the head is short but slender, compressed and strongly 
recurved. The prothorax is very strongly rounded at the sides, 
with the front angles obliterated and the hind angles more obtuse 
than in the female. The thoracic cavity is rounded and extends 
from the front almost to the hind margin in well-developed speci- 
mens, the lateral margins of the cavity are sharp and each is 
produced to a point in the middle. The pygidium is convex and 
strongly punctured. 

$ . There is a conical tubercle on the head and a broad longi- 
tudinal furrow extending from the front to the hind margin of the 
pronotum, its sides rounded. The pygidium is impressed on each 
side and very smooth in the middle. 

Length 28-34 mm. ; breadth 16-18 mm. 

Assam : Cachar, Sibsagar ; Buema : Karen-ni (L. Fea) ; 
Tenasseeim : Dawna Hills, 2000-3000 ft., March. 

Type in the Paris Museum. 



Genus EOPHILEURUS. 

Eophileurus, Arrow, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1908, p. 332. 

Type, Geotrupes planatus, Wied. 
Range. Tropical Asia. 

Eather long and narrow, parallel-sided and depressed. Head 
armed with a single short median horn or tubercle, the clypeus 



288 DYXASTI>'iE. 

triangular, pointed and slightly reflexed at the apex. Mandible 
acutely produced in front and sinuous at the outer edge. Maxilla 
armed with three teeth. Labium long, scarcely tapering, broadly 
bilobed in front, with the palpi inserted on the inside. Pro- 
sternal process long and erect, resting against the front coxse. 
Propygidium without stridulatory ridges. Pygidium protuberant. 
Legs moderately long ; front tibia armed \\ith three very acute 
teeth, without secondary denticles ; hind tibia truncate and 
fringed with short stiff spines. Tarsi slender, with the basal 
joint of the middle and hind pair triangular. 

cJ . Head armed \A'ith a short horn and smooth and shining 
behind it. Pront tarsi thickened and the inner claw flattened and 
cleft. Pronotum more or less impressed in the middle. t!!^ 

2 . Head rugose or closely punctured with a small median 
tubercle. Pronotum generally unimpressed. 

Kei/ to the S2)ecies. 

1 (10) Sides of the metastermim more or 

less shininfr. 

2 (3) Pimctures of the upper surface not 

very coarse planaius, Wied., p. 288. 

3 (2) Punctures of the upper surface 

very coarse. 

4 (7) Scutellum not strongly punctured. 

.5 (O) Scutellum with a few punctures . . plati/pterus, "Wied., p. 289. 

6 (5) Scutellum unpunctured perforatus, Arrow, p. 289. 

7 (4) Scutellum strongly punctured. 

8 (9) Elytra bearing large annular punc- 

tures in rows dngaleixsis, Arrow, p. 290. 

9 (8) Elytra bearing large annular punc- 

tures not in rows decatenatus, sp. n., p. 291. 

10 (1) Sides of the metasternum entirely 

rugose. 
11(12) Metasternum very thinly hairy .. mloirensis. Xrxov!,-^. 2^\. 
12 (11) Metasternum thickly hairy chinensis, raid., p. 292. 

257. Eophileurus planatus. 

Geotrupes planatus, Wied.,* Zool. Mag., ii, 1, 1823, p. 5. 

Black, moderately shining and closely punctured. The pro- 
thorax is strongly curved at the sides, not very broad at the base, 
and the hind angles are very obtuse ; it is closely, not coarsely, 
punctured all over, the punctures being confluent in front and fine 
and less close in the middle behind. The scutellum bears a few 
isolated punctures, and the ehitra are closely covered with annular 
but not coarse punctures, confluent at the sides and apices, and 
arranged in irregular rows on the disc, with the interstices 
minutely punctulated. The metastemuin is finely punctured in 
the middle and strongly punctured and pubescent at the sides, and 
the abdomen has scattered punctures. 



EOPHILEUKUS, 289 

cf . The cephalic horn is short and simple. The pronotum 
has an anterior depression not reaching the middle. The pygidium 
is very convex and shining, strongly but not closely punctured. 

5 . There is a faint trace of a longitudinal furrow upon the 
pronotum and the pygidium is rugosely punctured, a little flat- 
tened near the base, with a slight prominence just before the 
apex. 

Lenciih 22-25 mm. ; breadth 9*5-1 1 mm. 

United Provinces : Almora ; Bengal : Dacca ; Sikkim ; 
Assam : Silhet, Naga Hills, Patkai Hills, Manipur ; Tenassekim ; 
Andaman and Nicobar Is. 

Ty_pe in the Copenhagen University Museum. 



258. Eophileurus platypterus. 

Geotrupes platypterus, Wied.* Zool. Mag. ii. 1, 1823, p. 5. 

Black and shining, closely and very coarsely punctured, with 
very scanty bristles beneath. The pronotum is strongly rounded 
at the sides, \vith the hind angles rather prominent and sharp and 
the entire surface very deeply and coarsely punctured, the punc- 
tures becoming confluent in the anterior part. The scutellmn 
bears a few fine punctures, and the elytra have rows of rather close 
large annular punctures, a little finer at the sides and confluent 
and rugose in the posterior part. The pygidium is moderately 
finely punctured and has a finely rugose band at the base, 
the metasternum is coarsely and sparsely punctured (rather more 
finely in the middle), and the abdomen is finely and irregularly 
punctured. 

c? . The head is moderately punctured and there is a very short 
horn, which is shghtly compressed from side to side and a little 
produced backwards at the base. The prothorax has a feeble 
impression at the front margin and the pygidium is very convex. 

2 . The head is rugosely punctured and bears a short stout 
tubercle. The pygidium is a little impressed on each side and 
almost pointed behind. 

Length 14-18 mm. ; breadth 7-9 mm. 

Bombay ; Madras : Malabar, Moghal Serai. 

Type in the Copenhagen University Museum. 



259. Eophileurus perforatus. 

Eophileurus perforatus, Arroiv* Trans. Ent. Sac. Land. 1908, p. 332. 

The species is black, shining and coarsely punctured, the punc- 
tures not very numerous on the prothorax, which has a slight 
longitudinal sulcus at its posterior part, and absent from the 
scutellum. The sides of the prothorax are strongly rounded and 
the hind angles not very sharp. The punctures are deep, 



290 DYNASTIN^. 

irregular and scanty, upon the disc, closer and finer at the front 
and sides. The elytra bear rows of annulate, moderately distant 
punctures and extremely minute punctulations in the interstices. 
The pyrjidium is coarsely punctured and the metastermira bears 
large deep crescentic impressions at the sides and rather fine 
punctures in the middle, and there are also fine and scanty hairs. 

S - The head is smooth and shining, with a simple slender 
horn, and the prothorax has a shallow broad impression behind 
the front margin. 

$ . The head is rugosely punctured and bears a tubercle. 

Length 19-22 mm. ; breadth 9-10 mm. 

Centeal India : Mhow; Bombay: Belgamn. 

Type in the British Museum. 

A specimen was found by Mr. H. E. Andre\A"es in the hollow 
stem of a decayed Mango tree. 

E. perforatus resembles^, platypterus, "Wied., but is rather larger 
and much less densely punctured, especially upon the prothorax, 
which is sparingly, though very coarsely, punctured and bears a 
longitudinal impression absent in the other species. The scu- 
tellum is without the large punctures present in E. p)latyp)te'rus. 
The male is most markedly distinguished by the head, which is 
smooth with a slender horn, while in the older species it is closely 
punctured and the horn is laterally compressed. 



260. Eophileurus cingalensis. 

Eophileuius cingalensis, Arroio,* Trans, Ent. Soc. Lond. 1908, 
p. 3:53. 

Black, shining, rather broad and depressed, very coarsely 
punctured above and very scantily clothed with stiff tawny hairs 
beneath. The prothorax is strongly rounded at the sides and 
very strongly punctured all over, the punctures becoming confluent 
in front. The scutellum is confusedly punctured, and the elytra 
are closely covered with ro\\s of very large ring-shaped im- 
pressions, the interstices being minutely and scantily puuctulated. 
The pygidium is coarsely and rather rugosely punctured and the 
metasternum decorated with large crescentic impressions, except at 
the middle, which is almost smooth ; it bears only a few tawny hairs. 

S . There is a short simple horn on the head, which is quite 
smooth and shining behind it. The pronotum bears a faint 
median groove, which is rather deeply and more broadly impressed 
at the front margin. This impression does not reach the middle 
and its posterior margin bears two very blunt angulations. 

2 . The head is tuberculated and rugosely punctured, and the 
pronotum bears a very feeble groove upoji its posterior half. 

Length 20 20 mm.; breadth 10-13"5 mm. 

Ceylon : Peradeuiya, Colombo. 

Type in the British Museum. 



EPPHILEURUS. 291 

261. Eophileunis decatenatus, sp. n. 

Black and shining, with a very scanty clothing of stiff tawny 
hairs beneath. The size, shape and genei'al characters are those 
of E. cingalensis. The pronotum is coarsely punctured, but less 
coarsely than in that species, and the punctures are rather 
scattered upon the hinder pai't. The scutellum is irregularly 
punctured and the elytra are decorated with very coarse annular 
punctures, as in E. cinrfalensis, but these are arranged irregularly 
and not in longitudinal lines, the intervening spaces being broken 
up and without minute punctures. The pygidium is closely 
punctured, becoming rugose at the sides and base. The meta- 
sternum is decorated at the sides with large horseshoe-shaped 
impressions, reduced to a few small punctures at the middle. 

The sexual characters of the head and thorax are exactly as in 
£J. cingalensis. 

Length 19*o-21*5 mm ; breadth 10-11 mm. 

Madras : Shembaganur, near Madura. 

Type in the British Museum ; cotypes in coll, C. Sternberg. 

This may possibly prove to be a variety of E. cingalensis with 
irregularly punctured elytra, but I have seen E. cingalensis only 
from Ceylon, where it is fairly common, whereas the present form 
is represented by four specimens from Southern India. 



262, Eophileurus nilgirensis, 

Eophileurus uilgirensis, Arrow,* Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud. 1908, 
p. 334. 

This species is very nearly related to E. planatus, "Wied,, but 
much less finely punctured, and the prothoracic fovea in the male 
is circular, extends in well-developed specimens considerably past 
the middle and is not bounded behind by distinct angulations-. 
^\iQ prothorax is closely punctured, becoming rugose in front, and 
the sculpture is only a little coarser than in E. planatus. The- 
sides are strongly rounded but the curvature does not quite reach 
the posterior angles, which are rather sharp. The scutellum is 
irregularly punctured. The elytra are closely covered with coarse 
annular punctures arranged in definite rows and there are a very 
few minute punctulations in the interstices. The pygidium is 
rugose at the base and scantily punctured at the apex, and the 
metasternum is densely punctured and clothed with long tawny 
hairs, except in the middle, where it is scantily punctured and bare. 

Length 22-24 mm. ; breadth 12*5 mm. 

Madras : Nilgiri Hills, 6000 ft., Shembaganur, near Madura. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Capt. A. K. Weld Downing found several specimens of this 
beetle in the interior of a decayed tree (Flex whiteana) but failed 
to discover any larvae. Mr, H. L. Andrewes dug up a female in 
the jungle. Specimens have also beeu taken upon Orevillea. 

tj2 



292 



DTNASTIX.E. 



263, Eophileurus chinensis. 

Phileurus chinensis, Fald.* Mem. Ac. St. Petersh. ii, 183o, p. 370, 

pi. 4, fig. 4. 
Trionychus chinensis, Fairm.,Ann. Soc. Ent. Ffance,\9QS, p. 385. 
Trionychus poteli, Fairm.,* Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1898, p. 384. 

Shining black, with the raetasternum thickly clothed with 
reddish hairs. T]iq pronotum is depressed in the middle in both 
sexes, the scutellum rugosely punctured, and the ehjtra striated, 
with close, irregular, annular punctures in the striae. The meta- 
sternum is densely rugose except in the middle, where it is punc- 
tured, and the abdomen is coarsely punctured. 

(S . The head is armed with a slender horn, behind which it is 
smooth, and the pronotum has a large excavation extending from the 
front to near the hind margin, almost circular in large specimens 
and elongate in minor ones. The cavity is rugose and the rest of 
the surface moderately punctured. The pygidium is very convex 
and smooth and shining, except at the base and in the lateral 
angles. The inner cla\\' of the front tarsus is very broad and 
widely cleft. 




Fi"'. 67. — Eophileurus chinensis, male, and anterior 
pai't of male (a) and female {b). 



2 . The head is rugose and has a short sharp tubercle in the 
middle. The pronotum is coarsely punctured all over and has a 
narrow longitudinal channel in the middle, extending almost from 
front to hind margin. The pygidium is rugose, not prominent, 
and thinly clothed with erect hairs. 

Length 20-2-4 mm. ; breadth 10-12 mm. 

Bhutan ; Burma : Ruby Mines ; China ; Japan. 

Type in coll. K. Obertluir, also that oi poteli. 

Mr. George Lewis states that this beetle is found concealed 
beneath wood, tiles, etc., upon the ground near refuse-heaps, in 
which no doubt the larvae live. 



CLYSTER. 



293 



Genus CLYSTER. 
Clyster, Arrow, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1908, p. 330. 

TrPE, Scarabceus itys, Oliv. (Malayan Eegion). 

Range. Burma ; Malay Peninsula ; Java ; Borneo, etc. 

Form cylindrical. Clypeus produced and truncate in front, the 
frontal suture bearing a short recurved horn in the male and two 
tubercles in the female. Mandibles straight at the sides and blunt 
in front, not produced beyond the clypeus. Front tibia armed 
with three strong teeth and secondary denticles ; middle and hind 
tibiae compressed and spinose, digitated at the end. Tarsi moder- 
ately slender, the front ones greatly thickened in the male, with 
the inner claw very broad and cleft at the end. Propygidium 
rather produced behind, with almost the whole median part finely 
striated. 

The typical species, Cluster itys, Oliv., although recorded as 
Indian in the Munich Catalogue of Coleoptera, appears to be really 
confined to the Malayan Eegion and is therefore not included here. 

264. Clyster retusus. 

Clyster retusus, Arroiv,^ Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1908, p. 330. 

Black or piceous, elongate and rather convex. The Jieacl is 
coarsely rugose, narrowly produced in front, Avith the anterior 
edge nearly straight and "slightly reflexed, and the angles scarcely 
rounded. The prothorax is not much shorter than its width, 





Fig. 68.— Clyster retusus, male (natural size) and outline of female, 

with the sides gently and uniformly curved, narrowed in front, 
with the anterior angles acute and the posterior ones rounded ; it 
is smooth in the middle but there are large scattered punctures at 
the sides. The scutellum bears a few suiall punctures, sometimes 
forming an angulate line. The elytra are closely punctured, the 
punctures forming four pairs of lines upon each and a single line 
bordering the suture, and the intervals are closely and irregularly 
punctured. The proinjgidium is gently produced in the middle and 
the whole median part covered with fine but broken striae. ""' * 



The 



294 DyxASTiyiE. 

pygidmm is densely punctured, and the punctures, at least at the 
sides, tend to coalesce tpansverselj. 

c5' . The cephalic horn is sliort and nearly straight. The anterior 
halt' of the prothorax is scooped out and divided by two smooth 
oblique carinse into three areas which are coarsely rugose. The 
elevated dorsal part ends abruptly in front and is sometimes 
slightly produced, but it never extends nearly as far as the front 
margin. 

5 . There is a rudimentary excavation at the front margin of 
the pronotum and two slight tubercles behind it. 

Length 21-29 mm. ; breadth 11-15 mm. 

Andaman Is. ; Buema ; Penang. 

Tyj^e in the British Museum. 

Genus HETERONYCHUS. 

Heteronychus, Bunn., Ilandh. Ent. v, 1847, p. 90; Lacord., Gen. 
Coleopt. iii, 1850, p. 406 ; Kolhe, Ent. Nachr. 1900, p. 163. 

Type, Geotrupes arator, F. (8. Africa). 

Rawje. Africa and Southern Asia. 

Form shortly cylindrical, not very convex, smooth and shining, 
and without armature or excavation. Clypeus tapering and 
generally minutely bideutate in front. Mandible bluntly pro- 
minent in front, deeply notched at the outer margin. Maxilla 
very strong, not hairy, armed wdth three pairs of strong sharp 
teeth. Mentum long and narrow, slightly tapering to the end. 
All the palpi slender. Pronotum very smooth, impunctate, 
strongly and regularly rounded at the sides and scarcely narrowed 
to the front. Prosternum forming a free columnar process behind 
the front coxa3. Propygidium bearing near the middle two longi- 
tudinal tiles composed of short stridulatory ridges. Legs not long, 
with rather broad and flat tibiae, the front ones armed with three 
broad teeth and smaller ones between, the middle and hind tibiae 
strongly car'nate externally, truncate and fringed with stout spines 
at the end. 

(S . Front tarsi very short and thick, with the claw-joint enlarged 
and the inner claw broadly dilated, bent inwards and cleft or 
lobed. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (4) Pygidium strongly and uniformly 

punctured. 

2 (3) Punctures of the pygidium very coarse 

and conflueut Uoderes, Redt., p. 295. 

3 (2) Punctures of the pygidium separate . . annulatus, Bates, p. 295. 

4 (1) Pygidium not, or little, punctured. 

5 (8) Elytra punctate-striate. 

6 (7) Sides of the elytra evenly punctured . . subleevis, Fairm., p. 296. 

7 (0) Sides of the elj-tra almost smooth in 

the middle robitstuf!, sp. u., p. 29(5. 

8 (5) Elytra smooth sacchari, Arrow, p. 297. 



HETEEONYCHUS. 295 

265. Heteronychus lioderes. 

Heterouychus lioderes, Redtenhacher,* Reise der Novara, Zool. ii, 

Col. 1867, p. 75. 
HeteroHvchus poropygus, Bates* The Entomologist, 1891, Suppl. 

p. 19. ' 

Black above, deep reddish brown beneath, and very smooth and 
shining, elongate-oval in shape and not very convex. The head 
is transversely rugose, except on the vertex, the clypeus armed 
with two moderately distant reflexed teeth and divided from the 
forehead by a slight carina interrupted in the middle. The pro- 
notiim and scutellum are entirely smooth and shining, and the elytra 
regularly and deeply punctate-striate, with the subsutural inter- 
stice wide and irregularly punctured throughout its length ; the 
apical margins are strongly and irregularly punctured. The 
jiygidium is very deeply and coarsely, and more or less coufluently, 
punctured. The lower surface is almost entirely smooth, but the 
anterior angles of the melasternum are lightly punctured. 

S . The front tarsus is thick and the inner claw dilated into a 
convex plate as broad at its extremity as it is long and very in- 
conspicuously cleft. 

Length 15-17 mm. ; breadth 8-9 mm. 

Nepal : Nagorkot, Chanbragiri, Gowchar ; Bengal : Purneah 
District, Calcutta, Dacca, Sahibganj, Balasor, tSuudarbands ; 
Assam : Silhet ; Burma : Eangoon ; Malay Peninsula ; Java ; 
Celebes. 

Ty23e in the Vienna Museum, that of ■poropygus in coll. E. 
Oberthiir. 

This is a very abundant species. It has been taken in numbers 
at light in November and December. 

266. Heteronychus annulatus. 

Heterouychus annulatus, Bates,* The Entomologist, 1891, Suppl. 

p. 19. _ 

Phileurus curtipennis, Fairm., * C B. Soc. Ent. Belgique, xxxv, 

1891, p. 124. 

Black above, deep reddish brown beneath, very smooth and 
shining, shortly ovate, rather broad behind, and moderately convex. 
The head is rather closely rugose except between the eyes, where 
it is smooth ; the clypeus is feebly bidentate in front and separated 
from the forehead by a slight carina interrupted in the middle. 
The pronotum has a few extremely minute punctures at the sides 
only, and the sciiteUum is uupunctured. The elytra are very 
strongly punctate-striate, the striae forming three pairs, and the 
spaces between the pairs each contain a single row, or part of a 
row, of punctures, the second interstice containing an irregular 
aggregation ; the apical margins are irregularly punctured. The 
stridulatory files of the p>ropygidium are moderately distant and 
not very fine, and the jjygidium is strongly and densely punctured. 
The lower surface is almost smooth. 



296 DTNASTIN^. 

(f . The inner claw of the front tarsus is dilated, bent, and 
furnished with a broad basal lobe. 

Length 12-5-13 mm. ; breadth 6*5 mm. 

Punjab : Kulu ; I^engal : Calcutta. 

Tyjie in coll. R. Oberthiir; cotypes, and also the type of 
curtipennis, in the British Museum. 

267. Heteronychus sublaevis. 

Phileurus sublasvis, Fainn., C. R. Soc. Ent. Belgique, xxxv, 1891, 
p. 123; Arrotv, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1908, p. 327. 

Black, or piceous, broadly elongate-ovate. The head is coarsely 
rugose, with the front bitubereulate and rather broad at the anterior 
margin, which bears two minute tubercles placed near together. 
The pronotum is almost iiupei'ceptibly punctured at the sides, with 
the lateral margins broadly curved and slightly narrowed anteriorly, 
the front angles acute and the hind angles obtuse. The scutdlum 
is smooth. The ehjtra show a vestige of a punctured sutural stria 
and four pairs of lines of strong punctures, the first two pairs 
abbreviated behind ; there are a few similar punctures in the 
intervals and the lateral and apical borders are strongly and ir- 
regularly punctured. The propygidium is scarcely punctured and 
the stridulating files are rather distant and very finely sculptured. 
The pygidium is finely and densely punctured, except towards the 
apex. The front tibia is furnished with three strong acute 
teeth and supplementary denticles. 

(S . The front tarsus is slightly thickened and the inner claw 
very short, thick and strongly curved, with a strong basal lobe. 

The species resembles II. punctolineat^is., Fairm., but the 
marginal tubercles of the clypeus are placed closer together, the 
pronotum is less visibly punctured, the stridulating files are finer 
and farther apart, and the pygidium is more finely and closely 
punctured. 

Length 18'5-22 mm. ; breadth 9'5-lli mm. 

Assam; Bciima: Eangoon ; Malay Peninsula. 

Type in the Paris Museum. 

268 Heteronychus robustus, sp. n. 

Black or piceous, reddish beneath, smooth and shining, and 
broadly elongate-ovate in shape. The head is coarsely rugose, 
with two tubercles at the middle, and the clypeus bidentate. 
The pronotum is broad, scarcely narrowed in front, with the 
side margins strongly rounded and the hind angles broadly 
rounded off. The scutellian is smooth, and the elytra have a broad 
smooth strip bordering the suture and rather feeble longitu- 
dinal rows of punctures externally, the punctures being obsolete 
at the middle of the outer margin and strong and irregular at the 
apical angles. The propygidium is finely punctured and pro- 
vided with two narrow stridulating files, and the pygidium is 



HETBRONTCHrS. 297 

un punctured in its apical part and densely punctured towards the 
sides and base. The metastemum is smooth, with a few punctures 
at the sides, and the abdomen entirely smooth. 

6 . The front tarsus is short and thick and the inner claw rather 
long, greatly dilated, straight to beyond the middle and rather 
narrowly cleft before the extremity, which is truncate. 

I have not seen the female. 

Lenr/ih 18 mm. ; breadth 10'5 mm. 

Lower Bengal : Sahibganj (J. Wood-21ason), Kajmahal. 

Type in the British Museum. 

This species is similar in size and sculpture to H. subkevis, Fairm., 
but relatively shorter, with the prothorax less narrowed in front, 
the hind angles more broadly rounded and the elytral sculpture 
feebler. The shape of the inner claw of the front tarsus is quite 
different in the male. 

269. Heteronychus sacchari. 

Heteronychus sacchari, Arrow,* Tram. Ent. Soc. Loud. 1908, 
p. 329. 

Black, extremely smooth, and rather short and broad. The 
head is rugose, with an inconspicuous carina before the eyes, 
broadly interrupted in the middle. The clypeus is produced into 
two rather sharp reflexed teeth. The iwothorax is closely punc- 
tured along the extreme posterior margin, but is otherwise smooth ; 
it is slightly narrowed in front and regularly rounded at the sides, 
with the front angles acute and the hind 
angles obtuse. The scuteUum is small 
and vaguely punctured at the base. The 
elytra are short, widening a little behind 
the middle, with faint traces of strite 
quite devoid of punctures ; there are 
a very few punctures at the shoulders 
and tiie outer margins are very minutely 
punctulated behind. The 2}ro2}ygidium 
is finely punctured and the stridu- 
lating files narrow and not reaching 
the hind margin. The pygidium is 
densely rugose at the base and almost 
smooth on the apical half. The front 
tibia has three strong acute teeth and 
Fig. 69. intermediate denticles. 

Heteronychus saccharz. ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ prothorax is rather 

longer relatively to the elytra and the front tarsus and inner 
claw are only moderately thickened, the latter not cleft or lobed. 

Length 17-19 uim. ; breadth 11 ram. 

Bengal : Eangpur. 

Type in the British Museum ; cotype in the Indian Museum. 

This species is reported as causing considerable injury to 
Sugar-cane. 




298 DYNASTIN.E. 

Genus ALISSONOTUM. 
Alissonotum, Arroio, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1908, p. 322. 

Type, Geoimpes piceus, Y. 

liamje. Southern Asia. 

Ovate or cylindrical in form, convex, smooth and shining. 
Clypeus attenuated and bidentate in front, the suture represented 
by a pair of transversely placed tubercles. Organs of the mouth 
as in Heteronijclius, the mandibles bilobed externally. Pronotum 
distinctly punctured and sometimes slightly impressed behind the 
middle of the front margin, regularly rounded and not closely 
fringed at the sides. Front tibia tridentate, with minute denticles 
before and after the uppermost tooth. Hind tibia flattened and 
spinose and tarsi slender. Propygidium bearing two narrow 
longitudinal stridulatory files. 

The sexes are alike and the front tarsi not thickened, but the 
inner claw of the male may become very feebly enlarged. 

The strongly striated elytra and functional stridulatory files, as 
well as the rather differently formed hind legs, distinguish this genus 
from Pentodon. In the latter there are sometimes traces of a 
double series of ridges upon the propygidium, but the files are always 
very coarse and imperfect and the ridges do not nearly reacli the 
hinder margin of the segment. The recognised species of Pentodon 
are very homogeneous in size and form and are essentially Palae- 
arctic in distribution, whereas the present group consists of smaller 
species of rather varied form and is apparently confined to 
Tropical Asia. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (8) Pronotum witliout un anterior mar^nal 

pit. 

2 (5) ProiiotiHu very finely and unequally 

punctured. 

3 (4) Body short piceum, F., p. 299. 

4 (3) Body long elongatum, sp. n., 

5 (2) Pronotum coarsely punctured. [p. 299. 
G (7) Punctures of the pronotum not crowded 

at the sides rangunense, sp. u., 

7 (6) Punctures of the pronotum crowded at [p. 300. 

the sides simile, sp. n., p. 300. 

8 (1) Pronotum having a small anterior mar- 

ginal pit. 

9 (10) Pronotum not very coarsely or closely [p. 301. 

punctured impressicolle, Arrow, 

10 (9) Pronotum very coarsely and closely punc- 

tured. 

11 (12) Hind angles of the pronotum completely [p. 301. 

rounded binodulwn, Fairm., 

12 (11) Hind angles of the pronotum not com- [p. 302. 

pletely rounded crassum, Arrow, 



ALISSONOTUM. 299 



270. Alissonotum piceum. 

Scarabaeus piceus, Fah.* Si/st, U?it. i, 1775, p. 14 j Oliv., Ent. i, 3, 

1789, p. 53, pi. 24, tig. 211. 
Geotriipes piceus, Fab., Syst. Eleut. i, 1801, p. 19. 
Heteronychus piceus, Bitrm., Handh. Ent. v, 1847, p. 93. 
Phileurus detractus. Walk.,* Ann. May. Nat. Hist. (3) iii, 1859, 

p. 54. 

Very deep red, sometimes black above, broadly ovate, convex, 
smooth and shining. The head is rugose, with a slight transverse 
carina before the eyes, interrupted in the middle and generally 
bearing two tubercles placed close together. The clypeus is trun- 
cate in front, where it bears two reflexed teeth. The pronotum is 
smooth and convex, strongly and regularly rounded at the sides, 
without anterior impression or elevation, very minutely punctured, 
the punctures being stronger at the sides but not close. The 
scutetlum is smooth and the elytra are deeply punctate-striate, the 
punctures more or less annular ; the apical borders are irregularly, 
and the lateral borders lightly, punctured. The stridulatory files 
of the propygidium vary greatly : they are sometimes continued 
to the posterior margin, broad and well-developed, and sometimes 
terminate at a distance from it or are reduced in the hinder part 
to mere vestiges. The pygidium is strongly and deeply punctured, 
but often smooth at the apical part only or everywhere but 
the sides. The metastemum is smooth, usually with scattered 
punctures at the sides, and the abdomen is unpunctured. 

The sexes are alike. 

Length 11-13 mm. ; breadth 6-7 mm. 

SiKKiM : Darjiling ; Bengal : Sundarbands, Dacca ; Madras : 
Malabar ; Ceylon. 

l'yp)e in the British Museum ; also that of detractus. 



271. Alissonotum elongatum, sp. n. 

Black, reddish beneath, very smooth and shining, rather 
elongate and not very convex above, with the greatest breadth 
behind the middle of the elytra. The Jiead is rugose, with two 
median tubercles and a well-marked depression behind them, and 
the clypeus is bidentate. The pronotum is very smooth, finely 
punctured in the region of the front and hind angles, without 
anterior impression, well rounded at the sides and scarcely nar- 
rowed towards the front. The scutellum is smooth and the elytra 
are rather unequally punctate-striate, the punctures moderately 
large and irregular at the lateral and apical margins. The 2^^'o- 
pygidium is finely punctured and the piigidium coarsely and 
closely. The metastemum is smooth, with a few punctures at the 
sides, and the abdomen unpunctured. 

<S . The inner claw of the front tarsus is sharp and of normal 
shape, but is a little thickened and has an indication of a basal 
lobe. 



300 DYNASTIN^. 

Lenrfth 15-5-17'5 ram. ; hreadth 8*5-9-5 mm. 
Assam : Silhet, Patkai Mts. 
Type in the British Museum. 



272. Alissonotum rangunense, sp. n. 

Black, smooth and shining, rather narrowly elongate and convex. 
The head is rugose, narrow and bidentate in front, with a pair of 
tubercles placed rather close together in the middle. 1\\q irronotum 
is strongly but not closely punctured, without anterior impression 
or tubercle, and boldly and regularly rounded at the sides. The 
scuteUum is smooth and the elytra are deeply punctate-striate, the 
apical margins closely and irregularly punctured and all the 
punctures annular and I'ather coarse. The stridulatory files of the 
propyriidium are rather divergent and the jyyr/idium is coarsely but 
not very closely punctured. The lower surface is almost smooth, 
but there are a few large punctures at the sides of the metasternum. 
S . The inner claw of the front tarsus is a little thickened and 
strongly bent. 

Length 9-11 mm. ; hreadth 4*5-6 mm. 

Burma : Pegu, Kangoon. 

Type in the British Museum. 

This is one of the smallest known DYXA.STix.i: and the smallest 
dealt with in this volume. It is extremely like Alissonotum 
crihratellum, Fairm., from Cochin China and the Malay Peninsula, 
in which the front claws are perfectly normal and similar in both 
sexes. 



273. Alissonotum simile, sp. n. 

Black, smooth and sliining, convex and elongate-oval. The head 
is like that of A. rangunense, but the ante-ocular ridges are a little 
more prominent. The pronotum is strongly punctured and the 
punctures are dense at the sides. There is no anterior impression 
or tubercle. The scutdlam is smooth and the elytra are vei-y 
coarsely and deeply punctured in rows, the apical margins being 
closely and irregularly punctured. The stridulatory files of the 
jrropygidhim diverge rather strongly at their ends and the jw/^u^m?H 
is coarsely and rather closely punctured. The luwer surface is 
nearly smooth, but there are some large punctures at the sides of 
the nictastennnu. 

The front claws are alike in both sexes. 

Length 10-11 mm., breadth 5"5-6 mm. 

Assam : tSilhet, Dilkoosha : Bengal : Pusa. 

Tyjie in the British Museum. 

This species is extremely like A. rangunense and A. crihrateUum. 
It is a shade larger and less elongate than the former, the punc- 
tures of the elytra are rather coarser, those of the pronotum more 
crow-ded at the sides and those of the pygidium rather more 



AlilSSONOTUM. 301 

numerous and close in the middle. Tlie ante-ocular ridges are a 
little more prominent. In the male the inner anterior claw is 
quite simple. The genitalia of all these species are quite different 
in the male. 



274. Alissonotum impressicolle. 

Alissouotum impressicolle, Arroiv,* Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud. 1908, 
p. 323. 

This is almost of the same size and shape as A. piceum, F., but 
a very little larger and more elongate. It is black and shining, 
with "the legs and underside piceous. The head is closely rugose, 
bituberculate in front and armed on the vertex with two tubercles 
placed moderately far apart. The 'protliovax is very distinctly but 
not closely punctured, the punctures being finer in the middle. 
There is a faint impression just behind the middle of the front 
margin and a slight elevation in front of it. The scutellum is 
broad and unpunctured. The elytra have each a very deep, not 
distinctly punctured sutural stria and four pairs of strongly punc- 
tured striae, the first and seventh interstices being irregularly 
punctured and the third and fifth having each an incomplete line 
of punctures ; the outer and apical margins are strongly and 
closely punctured. The propygidium is slightly produced and 
bears a pair of fine and moderately broad files. The pyrjidium is 
strongly but not closely punctured. 

The sexes are alike. 

Length 14 mm. ; breadth 8 mm. 

BuKMA : Bharao, Teinzo (L. Fea) ; Tonkix. 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 

275. Alissonotum binodulum. 

Phileurus binodulus, Fairm.* C. R. Soc. Ent. Belyique, xxxv, 1891, 
p. 124. 

Black, reddish beneath, very smooth and shining, convex and 
rather broadly oval, the elytra widening almost to the end. The 
head is rugose, bidentate in front, and provided with two median 
tubercles. The pronotum is coarsely and rather closely punctured, 
except in the middle, where there is a slight anterior impression 
and a minute elevation immediately in front of it ; the sides are 
strongly curved and the hind angles completely rounded off. The 
scutellum is smooth and the elytra are short and rather broad 
posteriorly, deeply striated, with the striae coarsely punctured ; 
the subsutural interval is broad and has a few punctures, and the 
apical margins are irregularly punctured. The liropyii'idium is 
produced, and the pjygidium finely punctured in the middle and 
closely at the sides. The metasternum and abdomen are almost 
smooth. 

The sexes are alike. 



302 



DyNASTIN.E. 



Length 17 mm. ; breadth 10 tnm. 

Kashmir: Gurais Valley, 7000 ft., Sonamarg ; Punjab: Kulu. 

Tyjye in the British Museum. 

A female specimen, originally in the Eothschild collection and 
generously presented by Herr Chr. Sternberg to the British 
Museum, appears to be the type of the species. 



276. Alissonotum crassnm. 

Alissonotum crassum, Arrow,* Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1908, p. 323. 

This is a large, black, oval insect. The head is coarsely rugose 

and bituberculate above. The jrrothorax is closely punctured, the 
punctures being coarse except along the 
middle, where they are fewer and finer. 
There is a faint impression near the 
middle of the anterior margin and a 
minute elevation in front of it. The 
lateral margins are well rounded, hut the 
hind angles are not entirel_y obliterated. 
The sciiteUum is broad and smooth. The 
elytra are deeply striated, the sutural 
stria being scarcely punctured and the 
remainder rather strongly so ; the sub- 
sutural interval is very broad and irregu- 
larly punctured, and the third and fifth 
have each an incomplete line of punctures ; 
the outer margins are finely, and the 
extremities coarsely, punctured. The 
2yropy[iidium is produced in the middle 
and bears two long and finely striated 

files ; the remainder of the surface is finely rugose and pubescent. 

The ])ygidiurn is finely punctured in the middle and rugosely at 

the sides. 

The sexes are alike. 

Length 19-21 mm. ; breadth 11 mm. 

Bengal : Eajmahal ; Assam : Silhet ; Burma : Bhamo ; 

Tenasserim. 

Type in the British Museum. 




Fig. 70. — Alissonotum 
crassum. 



Genus PENTODON. 

Peutodon, JEfojoe, ColeopterisV s Manual, 1837, i, p. 92; Biirm., Handb. 
Ent. V, 1847, p. 102; Lacord., Gen. CoUopt. lii, 1856, p. 410. 

Type, Geotnipes jmnrtatus, Yillers (S. Europe). 

Range. Southern Europe, AVestern and Central Asia, Eastern 
Africa. 

Body broadly oval and very convex. Clypeus rather elliptical, 
narrowing to the front, the head armed in the middle with one or 



PENTODON . 303 

two minute tubercles. The mandible is trilobate at the outer 
edge. Maxilla rather sleuder, bifid at the end, with two or three 
inferior teeth. Mentum moderately long, feebly notched in front. 
Prosternal process erect and very hairy. Pronotum subglobose 
and strongly punctured. Elytra closely and irregularly punctured, 
sometimes with inconspicuous striae, Stridulatory files absent, or 
coarse and incomplete. Legs stout, the front tibia armed with 
three strong teeth and two or three secondary denticles ; the hind 
tibia not flattened, but truncate at the end and fringed with 
numerous close short spines. Tarsi short, the basal joint of the 
hind tarsus flattened and triangular. 

The sexes are alike. 

This genus differs from Alissonotum by its rounder clypeus, the 
irregularly punctured elytra and the absence or partial atrophy of 
the stridulatory files. It is essentially Pala^arctic in its distribution, 
and the new species here described from Bengal is abnormal in its 
appearance as well as its habitat and is only provisionally assigned 
to the genus. 

Key to the Sjoecies. 

1 (2) Froutal carina bearing a small tubercle iu [p. .303. 

the middle : elytra of moderate leugth , . bispinifrons, Reitter, 

2 (1) Frontal carina without a tubercle : elytra [p. 304. 

very short hengalense, sp. n., 



277. Pentodon bispinifrons. 

Pentodon bispinifrons, Heitte?;* Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr. 1894, p. 45. 

Black and moderately shining, reddish beneath, broadly oval and 
very convex. The head is densely rugose and the clypeus rather 
elliptical, with the sides contracted but a little rounded, and the 
front margin armed with two acute reflexed teeth. There is a 
slight transverse carina, a little angulated at the middle, where it 
bears a small rather sharp tubercle. The pronotum is strongly 
and rather thickly punctured, with an imperfect smooth longi- 
tudinal line at the middle ; the sides are strongly and uniformly 
curved and the hind angles completely rounded off. The eh/tra 
are thickly and almost rugosely, but not very coarsely, punctured, 
with a deep sutural stria and three pairs of punctured striae, the 
intervening spaces being broad. The projjygidium is finely punc- 
tured and setose, and has a pair of coarse and more or less im- 
perfect stridulatory files, the pygidium being closely punctured at 
the base and feebly at the apex. The lower surface is smooth 
except at the sides. 

Leifigth 16-22 mm. ; breadth 9-12 mm. 

Punjab: ^annu {Br. PennelT); Baluchistan; Sind : Karachi; 
Persia ; Ttjekestan. 

Type in the Vienna Museum ; cotype in the British Museum. 




304 DYNASTIX.E. 

278. Pentodon bengalense, sp. n. 

Black or piceous above and reddish beneath, with a few tawny 
hairs on the lower surface. The body is broadly ovate and convex 
and the elytra are only a little longer than 
the head and prothorax together. The 
head is finely rugose, with the clypeus 
short and tapering, sharply bidentate in 
front and separated from the forehead by a 
fine carina, which is angulate in the middle. 
The pronotum is broad and convex, strongly 
and rather closely and evenly punctured, 
with the hind margin a little impressed on 
each side. The scutellum is very short, 
smooth and slightly impressed in tlie 
middle of the base. The elytra are short 
and unequally punctured, the larger punc- 
tures forming rows upon the disc and 
Ficr. 'ii.— Pentodon those at the sides and apices being fine, 
bengalense. close and irregular. The projyygidium is 

irregularly granulated and setose. The 
jpyyidmm is finely and rugosely punctured near the base and 
nearly smooth at the apex. The metastermim and abdomen are 
smooth in the middle and finely rugose at the sides. The legs 
are stout and the tarsi slender. The front tibia bears three very 
strong teetli and t\^ o or three secondary denticles. 
Length 13-14 mm.; breadth 8 mm. 
Bengal : Pusa (March), Eajmahal. 

Type in the British Museum ; cotype in coll. E. Oberthiir. 
1 have seen only female specimens, one of them found under- 
ground. 

Genus MICRORYCTES. 

Microryctes, Arroiv, Trans. Eyit. Sue. Lond. 1908, p. 324. 

Type, Mici-oryctes Icanarensis, Arrow. 

Range. Tropical Asia. 

Elongate-oval and convex. Clypeus attenuated in front, w ith 
the margin feebly notched and reflexed. Mandibles strongly 
notched externally, i'ront transversely carinate \\ith a single 
slight median tubercle. Prothorax simple, punctured, and bearing 
a rather long hairy fringe at the sides. Elytra membranous at 
the apical margins. Eront tibia 3- or 4-dentate, without inter- 
mediate denticles. Eront tarsi slender and claws equal in both 
sexes. Propygidium without stridulating files. 



MICROETCTES. 305 



Key to the Species. 

Apical margin of elytron straight and membranous [p. 305. 

fringe inconspicuous monodon, Fairm., 

Apical margin of elytron slightly oblique and [p. 305. 

membranous fringe distinct kanarensis, Arrow, 

Apical margin of elytron strongly oblique and [p. 306. 

membranous fringe conspicuous apicalis, Arrow, 

279. Microryctes monodon. 

Heteronychus monodon, Fairm., Ann Soc. Ent. Belgique, 1893, 
p. 313. 

Shining black above and reddish beneath, rather narrowly oval 
and convex. The liead is moderately finely rugose and hardlv 
visibly notched at the apex. The j^ronotwn is convex and 
sparingly and extremely finely punctured, except at the sides, 
where the punctures are moderately coarse. The scutellum is 
unpunctured but lightly impressed along the middle line. The 
elytra are very strongly punctate-striate, with the intervals smooth 
and nearly equal, except the subsutural one, which is wide at the 
base and contains a few irregular punctures ; the outer and apical 
margins are closely and irregularly punctured ; there is a minute 
membranous fringe traceable at the inner part of the apical 
margin, which is not obhque. The liropygidium is very finely 
punctured and the pygidlum very strongly and confluently so. 
The body is slightly setose at the sides beneath, and the sides of 
the metasternum are strongly punctured. 

cS . There is a slight angular indentation at the middle of the 
front margin of the pronotum. 

Length 13-16-5 mm. ; breadth 7-8-5 mm. 

BuEiiA : Eangoon ; SiAii ; Cochin China. 

Type in the Paris Museum. 

280. Microryctes kanarensis. 

Microryctes kanarensis, Arrotv* Tra7is. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1908 
p. 324. ' 

Eather elongate, black, shining and strongly sculptured. The 
head is strongly and rugosely punctured, with the front of the 
clypeus feebly bifid and the frontal tubercle not very strong. 
The p)rothorax has very minute scattered punctures on the disc 
and these become rather abruptly coarse at the sides. The scu- 
teUum is unpunctured and longitudinally impressed down the 
middle. The elytra are very strongly striate-punctate, all the 
interstices being unpunctured and nearly equal, except the juxta- 
siitural strip, which is narrow. The sides and apices are strongly 
and irregularly punctured. The apical margins are slightly 
truncated obliquely at the inner half and continued as a 

X 



306 



DTNASTIN-i:. 



membranous flauge. The irropy^klhim is very finely and sparingly 
punctured and i\\Q pyfiidiura very coarsely and thickly. The front 
tibia is furnished with three strong pointed teeth . and a vestige 
of a fourth upper one. 

Length 15 mm. ; breadth 8 mm. 

Bombay: Kauara {T. R. D. Bell). 

Txjpe in the British Museum ; cotype in coll. H. E. Andrewes. 



281. Microryctes apicalis. 

Microryctes apicalis, Arrow,* Trans. Ent. Soc. Land. 1908, p. 325. 

This species is very like the preceding, but smaller, and the 
jyrotJiorax is relatively narrower, the 
front angles sharper and the hind 
angles less broadly rounded. The 
elytra are very coarsely and deeply 
punctate-striate, and the membranes 
to which their apices become abruptly 
reduced are broad and conspicuous. 
The pygidium is very strongly punc- 
tured, and the front tibia sharply 
tridentate without trace of an ad- 
ditional tooth as in the other two 
species. 

Length ll'S mm. ; breadth 6"5 mm. 
Fig. l^.—Micrort/ctcs a2nccdis. Bfema : Karen Hills, 2700-3300 

ft. {L. Fea). 

Type in the Genoa Museum ; cotype in the British Museum. 




Genus PHYLLOGNATHUS. 

Phyllognathus, Eschsch., Bull. Soc. Moscou, 1830, p. 65; Lacord., 

Gen. Coleopt. iii, 1856, p. 420. 
Oryctes, suby. Phyllognathus. Burm., Hmulb. Ent. v, 1847, p. 187. 
Oryx, Gtier., Voy. de la Coquille, ii, 2, 1838, p. 80. 

Type, Geotrupes silenus, F. (Southern Europe). 

Range. Southern Europe, West Africa, South-Western Asia 
and India. 

Eorm short and rotund, with tlie abdomen, except the last two 
segments, contracted beneath and the legs of moderate length, the 
front tibia 3-toothed, the middle and hind tibia) truucate at the 
extremity and fringed with closely set short spines. Tarsi stout, 
with the basal joint in the posterior legs broadly triangular. 
Clypeus triangular, rounded and recurved at the apex. Mandibles 
largely exposed, broadly rounded at the sides, with the points not 
sharp nor produced. Maxilla reduced and unarmed, \\\t\\ stout 



PHYLLOGNATHUS. 



307 



palpus. Labium elongate, narrow and pointed in front. Pro- 
sternal process free, prominent and rather pointed. Propygidium 
Mdthout stridulatory ridges. 

d" • Shorter and more globose than the female. Head armed 
with a short, flattened and recurved horn, and pronotum excavated 
in the middle. 

Only one Indian species has been described. 

282. Phyllognathus dionysius. 

Scarabfeiis dionysius, i^., Ent. St/st. i, 1792, p. 20. 

Geotrupes dionysius, F., Si/st. Eleut. i, 1801, p. 17. 

Oryctes haworthii, ITope, Gray's Zool. Miscellany, 1831, p. 22. 

Oryctes dionysius, Burm., Handb. Ent. v, 1847, p. 188. 

Xylotrupes reductus. Walker, Ann. Nat. Hist. (3) iii, 1859, p. 54. 

Chestnut-red, shining above and clothed with tawny hairs 
beneath. 

It is a compact globose insect. The liead is densely punctured 
and the clypeus bluntly pointed. The prothorax is transverse, 
strongly rounded at the sides, with the front angles obtuse, the 
hind angles little marked, and the base feebly prominent in the 
middle. The scuteUum is broad, and rugose except at the extreme 
margins, and the elytra are rather indefinitely punctate-striate, 
with coarse irregular punctures in the intervals. 




Fig. 73. 



-Fhyllognatlius dionysius, male, and outlines of anterior part of 
male (a) and female {h). 



(S . The cephalic horn is broad, smooth beyond the base, 
strongly reclined, and in well developed specimens dilated at the 
end and obtusely triangular at the exti-emity. The prothorax is 
deeply excavated from the front almost to the hind margin, and 
the sides of the excavation are almost straight, diverging gently to 
the front, slightly carinate anteriorly and produced on each side 

i2 



308 DTNASTIN2E. 

into a slight tooth just behind the front margin and a still slighter 
one at the middle. The cavity is rugose and the remaining surface 
of the pronotuin smooth and minutely punctured. The pygidium 
is smooth, convex and very thinly and minutely punctured. 

In less developed males the cephalic horn is shorter and tapers 
to a sharp point without any dilatation at the end. and the pro- 
thoracic excavation is smaller. 

§ . This is more elongate and generally larger. There is a 
small sharp tubercle upon the vertex, directed backwards. The 
pronotum is entirely convex and punctured, the punctures being 
distinct at the sides and base, and very dense and confluent in 
front and in the middle. The pygidium is not very convex and 
is punctured and thinly clothed with erect hairs. 

Length 16-24 mm. ; breadth 10-14 mm. 

SiKKiM : Karsiang ; Bekgal ; Purneah District, Chota Nagpur, 
Calcutta ; Bombay : Belgaum ; Madras : Berhampur, Mysore ; 
Ceylon. 

This beetle is destructive in its larval stage to rice-crops and 
has been described and figured in all its stages by Mr. II. Maxwell 
Lefi'oy in ' Indian Insect Life,' 1909. Specimens sent from the 
rice-fields were reared in captivity by 31r. Lefroy in soil in which 
rice-plants were groxAing, upon the roots of \^hich they fed. The 
following is an outline of the life-history : — 

The egg is white and soft ; when first laid it is oval, being 2 mm. 
in diameter. It grows larger day by day until it is nearly round 
and 3 mm. in diameter, the increase in weight beuig from '04 grain 
to '16 grain, due probably to the absorption of moisture. The 
larva is of the typical fonu, a full grown one measuring 36 mm. 
by 6 mm. The larva; live in the soil, feeding upon tlie roots of the 
rice, and there is no indication of their presence but pellets of 
earth thrown up near the plants. When full grown they burrow 
down a foot and make cells of consolidated earth, Mhich are 
smooth inside. They then pupate. The periods are as follows : — 
The eggs are laid during June and July, and hatch in five to eight 
days. The larvae feed during July, August, and September ; they 
then pupate, the pupal period being eight days only. The beetles 
rest in the soil till May, when they become active, burrow out, fly, 
mate, and lay eggs. Prom eight females only thirty-four eggs 
were obtained, but perhaps all did not lay eggs. This curious 
life-history is an adaptiition to the climate. Some showers fall in 
May, before the monsoon, and the beetles then emerge ; the mon- 
soon breaks in June and then the eggs are laid, the larvae finding 
plenty of food and soft moist earth ; the period from November to 
May is dry, the earth being hard and no rice available. 

Mr. Lefroy has never heard this species make any sound. 



PODALGUS. 309 

Genus PODALGUS. 

Podalgus, Bunn., Handb. Ent. v. 1847, p. 117 ; Lacord., Gen. Coleopt. 

iii, 1856, p. 408 ; Arrorv, Tram. Ent. Soc. Land. 1908, p. ;J40. 
Vertumnus, Reiche, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1859, p. 10. 
Crator, Semenow, Jforce Soc. Ent. Hoss. 1890, p. 207.— Type, P. m- 

fantulus, Sem. 

Type, Podalr/us amiculus, Burra. (W. Africa). 

Banr/e. jN'orthern Africa and Western Asia. 

Body convex and ovate, with the head and prothorax rather 
small and without armature. Clypeus short, tapering to a point 
and separated from the forehead hy a transverse carina. Mandible 
narrow in front and having two rounded lateral lobes. Maxilla 
long, slender and without teeth. Labium bulging beneath and 
tapering to a very sharp point. Last joint of all the palpi long 
and thick. Prosternal process long, free and erect. Propygidium 
bearing two longitudinal stridulatory files. Legs not long, the 
hind ones short and their femora much inflated. Front tibia 
armed with three very strong teeth ; middle and hind tibiae very 
short, truncate at the end and fringed with minute spines, the 
two spurs very broad and leaf-like ; hind tibia re<jularly and 
strongly dilated from base to extremity. Tarsi slender, those o£ 
the hind legs short, with the basal joint strongly triangular. 

The sexes are alike. 

One species only is known to enter India. 

283. Podalgus infantulus. 

Crator infantulus, Sem., Horce Soc. Etit. Itoss. 1890, p. 207. 

Chestnut-red, with a few reddish hairs on the sternum ; elongate 
and very convex. The Jiead is trans- 
versely rugose, with rather prominent 
anteocular ridges. The pronotum is 
strongly and densely punctured, boldly 
and uniformly rounded at the sides, with 
the angles obsolete. The scuteUum is 
smooth, and the elytra are rather feebly 
and irregularly punctured, some of the 
punctures forming imperfect rows ; the 
apical angles are right angles. The stridu- 
latory files are rather divergent and do not 
quite reach the hind margin of the pro- 
jrig_ 74_ pyriidium. The jj?/f/t(?m/H is very minutely 

Podalgus infantulus. and thinly punctured in its apical part, 
and densely and rugosely at the base. The 
metastermim is slightly punctured and hairy at the sides, and the 
abdomen very smooth. 

Length 11-13 mm. ; breadth G-7 mm. 

Punjab {Br. Pennell) ; Bokhaea. 

Type in coll. Semenow. 




-310 DYNASTIN^. 



Genus DIPELICUS. 

Dipeliciis, Hope, Trans. Ent. Sue. Lond. iv, 1845, p. 7; Biirm., 

Handh. Ent. v, 1847. p. 179; Waterli., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond, v, 

1867, p. 531. 
Horonotus, Jitom., Handh. Ent. v, 1847, p. 178; Lacord., Gen. 

Coleopt. iii, 1856, p. 421. — Type, Kcarahccus dcedalus, F. (n. syn.). 
Camelonotus, Fairm., Ann. Soc Ent. Bely. 1883, p. 14 ; Heller, 

Notes Leijd. Mxis. xix, 1897, p. 163 (u. sj-n.). 
Palmerstonia, Bluchb., JProc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 1888, p. 855. 

—Type, P. bovilli, Blackb. (Australia). 
Neodipelicus, EiLsema, Notes Lei/d. Mus. ix, 1887, p. 215. — Type, 

Dijjelicus nasutus, Bates (D. of York I.). 

TxPE, Dipelicus cantori, Hope (Java). 

Kan'je. Tropical Asia, Polynesia and Australia. 

Form very convex and moderately elongate, with rather short 
legs. Head vertically truncate in front, with tuo slight teeth at 
the lower edge and an elevated carina at the upper edge of the 
truncature. Pronotum very convex above, with all the angles 
blunt. Elytra sharply rectangular at the posterior angles. 
Propygidium more or less lobed behind and bearing a broad 
stridulatory file at the middle. Pygidium smooth and sliining. 
Prosternum forming a free columnar process behind. Femora 
short and broad, the hindmost very large, subglobose. Front 
tibia armed with three very strong and sharp teeth occupying 
nearly the whole outer edge. Four posterior tibiae short, rapidly 
dilating, and truncate at the extremity, where they are fringed 
with short close-set bristles. Front tarsi vei'y long and slender. 
Middle tarsi moderately short. Hind tarsi very short, with the 
first joint broadly triangular. All the claws minute. Spurs of 
the hind tibia broad and leaf-like. Mandible small, not exposed 
externally, and without teeth or notches. Maxilla rather long, 
not very hairy, with six very sharp teeth internally ; the palpus 
rather slender. Labium long, with the terminal part almost 
quadrate and the palpi short, the basal joints minute and the 
terminal joint large and globose. 

d . The vertical front of the head is sharply acuminate above. 
The pronotum is deeply excavated in front and the hind margin 
of the cavity produced. The propygidium is greatly produced 
behind, encroaching upon the pygidium. 

2 . The frontal carina is more or less notched in the middle. 

I have merged several supposed genera under the common name 
of Dijielicus, the various types passing one into the other. The 
only differences pointed out by tlie authors are sexual features of 
no value for generic division. Thus Neodijielicus is based upon 
females only, and the type of B. /irts?<iH*, Bates, although said to be 
a male, is evidently a female. 



DIPELICUS. 311 



Keij to the Sjiecies. 

1 (4) Pronotum with a distinct posterior 

marginal Hue. 

2 (3) Elytra shining and little punctured . . hircits, F., p. 311. 

3 (2) Elytra rather closely striate-punctate. lacordairei, Sharp, p. 312. 

4 (1) Pronotum without a distinct posterior 

marginal line. 

5 (6) Stridulatory ridges of the propygidium 

very line anteriorly cantator, sp. n., p. 313. 

6 (6) Stridulatory ridges of the propygidium 

very coarse anteriorly bidens, sp. u., p. 313. 



284. Dipelicus hircus. 

Scarabaeus hircus, F., St/st. Ent. i, 1775, p. 13; Ent. Si/d. i, 1792, 

p. 21. 
Geotrupes hircus, F., Si/st. Eleut. i, 1801, p. 18. 
Oronotus hircus, Jlar., Coleopt, Hefte, viii, 1871, p. 121. 
c?. Scarabpeus xantus, Oliv., Ent. i, 3, 1789, p. 180, pi. 27, fig. 235. 
2 , Scarabseus diadema, Oliv., Ent. i, 3, 1789, p. 181 ; I. c, i, 5, pi. 5, 

fig. 63. 
cT. Scarabseus dsedalus, F., Ent. Syst. i, 1792, p. 7. 
Geotrupes dasdalus, F., Syst. Eleut. i, 1801, p. 7. 
Horonotus dsedalus, Burm., Handb. Ent. v, 1847, p. 178. 
(S 5 . Callicnemis eximius, Gtier., Voy. Favor, v, 1839, p. 134, pi. 40, 

tig. 2. 
Xylotrupes solidipes, Walk., Ann. Nat. Hist. (3) iii, 1859, p. 54. 

Chestnut-red, thinly clothed with tawny hairs beneath ; cylin- 
drical and convex in shape. The head is smooth, the jironotum 
coarsely punctate-rugose, with the sides smoother, the lateral 




Fig. 75. — Dipelicus hircus, male, natural size, with lateral view 
of head and thorax of male (above) and female (below). 

margins strongly curved and the base gently curved and bearing 
an impressed marginal line. The scutellum is smooth and the 



312 DYNASTIN^. 

elytra smooth and shining, with a few coarse punctures in im- 
perfect rows. The apical angles are sharp and slightly produced 
inwards. The propyrjidium has a graduated series of stridulatory 
ridges at the middle, very fine posteriorly and becoming very 
coarse towards the anterior margin of the segment. Thepygidium 
is finely punctured. 

S . The clypeal shield of the head is produced above into a 
sharp-pointed short horn, slightly curving backwards. The pro- 
notum is very deeply excavated, and the cavity is nearly smooth 
and gives rise at its hind margin to a short elevation limited behind 
by a carina, which is semicircular or (at its greatest development) 
sharply angular ; above the cavity the pronotum is rugosely 
punctured and produced forward as a broad horizontal lamina, 
rapidly narrowing, truncate in front and abruptly reflexed. The 
propygidium is produced at the middle almost to the extremity of 
the pygidium. 

5 . The clypeal shield is shortly bidentate above, and the 
pronotum coarsely punctate-rugose, with the marginal part smooth, 
rather abruptly sloping just before the liind margin and very 
convex above. 

Length 19-22 mm. ; hreadth 10-12 mm. 

Madras : Pondichery, Tranquebar ; Ceylon. 



285. Dipelicus lacordairei. 

Horouotus lacordairei, Sharp, Rev. et May. Zool. 1S73, p. 270. 

Chestnut-red, clothed with tawny hairs beneath, cylindrical and 
very convex in shape. The head is smooth and \he^ pronotum very 
coarsely rugose (some large irregular pits being distinguishable in 
the median part), strongly rounded at the sides, with the base 
gently curved and bearing a distinct impressed marginal line and all 
the angles very blunt. The scuteUum is smooth and the elytra are 
strongly and uniformly punctured, most of the punctures forming 
deeply impressed double rows ; the apical angles are sharp and 
slightly produced inwards. The propjigidhi.m is produced behind 
and the median part covered with stridulatory ridges, extremely 
fine anteriorly and becoming coarse at the hind margin. The 
2)ygidinm is finely ])unctured. 

cJ . The head and pronotum are armed as in B. dcdalus, but 
the cavity of the latter is deeper on each side. The propygidium 
is produced almost to the end of the pygidium. 

2 . The clypeal shield is bluntly bidentate above, and the 
pronotum less closely rugose in front and at the sides but not 
behind, and scarcely sloping there. 

Length 22-23 mm. ; hreadth 10-12 mm. 

Burma : Arakan ; Malay Peninsula. 

Type in coll. R. Oberthiir. 



DIPELICUS. 313 



286, Dipelicus cantator, sp. n. 

Chestnut-red, with the head and pronotum rather darker and 
the legs and lower surface clothed with long tawny hairs. 

The ch/peus is bidentate and the head rather shining and armed 
with a strong transverse carina at the middle. The jironotum^ is 
densely covered with very large and partially coalescent pits, which 
become obliterated at the sides, the lateral margins are strongly 
rounded and the posterior margin trisinuate, without a distinct 
maro-inal line. The scuteJhcm is smooth and the eh/tra are rather 
closely and shallow'ly punctured with moderately fine pits, some of 
which form four double rows; the apical angles are produced 
inwards, forming sharp overlapping tongues. The propygidium 
is finely but not very deeply or regularly striated upon its posterior 
part and bears anteriorly several transverse bands which are ex- 
tremely finely and sharply striated, l:\ie pygidium is smooth and 
shining in the middle and rugose at the sides. The abdomen is 
shining and thiuly hairy beneath. The front tibia is slender and 
armed" with three very sharp teeth, and the front tarsi are ex- 
tremely long. The four 2JOSierior legs are of moderate length. 

(5 . The cephalic carina forms a very short sharp horn and the 
pronotum is excavated and smooth in its anterior half, the 
posterior margin of the cavity bearing two small vertical tubercles 
placed at a short distance apart. 

Length 20 mm. ; breadth 11 mm. 

Bengal : Berhampur (Atlinson). 

Type in the British Museum. 

I have seen only a single male specimen. 

287. Dipelicus bidens, sp. n. 

Chestnut-red, with the upper surface black and the legs and 
lower surface clothed with tawny hairs. The clypeus is bidentate, 
the head scarcely punctured and bearing a strong transverse carina 
at the middle. " The pronotum is very closely and coarsely pitted, 
the pits coalescent and indistinct except in the posterior median 
part ; the lateral margins are very strongly curved and the base 
strongly trisinuate, without a distinct marginal line. The 
scutellum is smooth and the elytra are rather closely and shal- 
lowly punctured with moderately fine pits, some of which form 
four double rows; the apical angles are a little produced 
inwards. The propygidium bears stridulatory ridges, which are 
extremely coarse in the anterior, and moderately fine in the 
posterior, part. The piigidium is smooth and shining m the 
middle and rugose at the sides. The legs are stout wath the 
front tibice not very slender nor the teeth sharp, but the front 
tarsi are very long. i i. i 

S . The cephalic carina is produced upwards into a short sharp 
horn. The pronotum is broadly excavated in front (the excavation 



314 



DYNASTiy.i, 



extending backwards beyond the middle in a well-developed 
specimen), the cavity almost smooth and its posterior margin 
bearing two slight vertical tubercles placed close together. 

2 . The cephalic carina is rounded above and scarcely visibly 
notched in the middle. The pronotum is relatively narrower than 
in the male, convex above and entirely coarsely rugose, with an 






Fig. 7G. — Bipelicits hidois, male, natural size, with lateral view of the anterior 
part and diagrammatic iigures of the stridulatiug files of D. bideus (above) 
and I), cantator (below). 

indication of a very narrow smooth median longitudinal line. 
The propygidium is a little less produced and the pygidium is 
prominent and feebly granulated, except a small median area. 

Length 31 mm. ; breadth 16 mm. 

Cetlox : Kandy. 

Type in the British Museum. 

A single male has been presented to the Museum bv Mrs. 
Christopher Morris. There is a female from the same locality in 
Herr C. Sternberg's collection and one has been sent to me by 
Mr. H. Maxwell Lefroy. In M. Eene Oberthiir's collection are 
a male and female from the Castelnau collection bearing the 
locality Madras. They are smaller and uniformly reddish in 
colour, but in other respects agree with the type. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



All uames printed in italics are synonyms. 

When more than one reference is given, the page on which the description 
occurs is indicated by thickened numerals. 



Aceraius, 2. 
Aclopus, 23. 
acuminaia ( Cetonia), 

165. 
acuminata (Prottetia), 

155. 
acuta {Cetonia), 172. 
acuta (Chiloloba), 172. 
acuticollis (Trichogom- 

phus), 284. 
acutipes (Coenochilus), 

210. 
addendus (Dasyvalgus), 

244. 
addendus ( Valgus), 244. 
arata {Cetonia), 143. 
.Ethiessa, 135. 
affinis {Coryphocera), 91. 
Agestrata, 192. 
alhclla {Cetonia), 170. 
albella (Stalagmosoma), 

170. 
alhellus {Scarahceus), 170. 
alboguttata (Anatona), 

115. 
alhoyuttata {Cetonia), 

162. 
alboguttata {Macronota), 

45. 
alboguttata (Protsetia), 

162. 
alboguttatus (Trichius), 

251. 
albomaculata {Glycy- 

phana), 123. 
albonotata (Macronotaj, 

45. 
albopunctata {Cetonia), 

166. 
albopunctata (Oxy ce- 
tonia), 166. 
Akidosoma. 268. 



Alissonotum, 298. 
alter na {Cetonia), 170. 
amoena {Cetonia), lUl. 
amoena (Heterorrhina), 

101. 
amoena, var. barmanica 

{Heterorrhina), 101. 
Anatona, 113. 
Ancognatha, 15. 
anda m ana {Eu ryom ia), 

127. 
andamanarura (Pro- 
tsetia), 148. 
andamanensis (Glycy- 

phana), 127. 
andamanicus (Charito- 

valgus), 248. 
andrcioesi { Glycyphana), 

167. 
andrewesi (Oxycetonia), 

167. 
annm {Carolina), 52. 
anncB {Macron ota), 52. 
annulatus (Heterony- 

chus), 295. 
Anomala, 17. 
Anomalocera, 84. 
antennata (Macronota), 

65. 
anthracina {Cetonia), 195. 
antliracina {Hetero- 

rrhina), 93. 
Anthracophora, 109. 
apicalis (Microryctes), 

306. 
ajncalis {Bhomhorrhina), 

83. 
apicalis (Torynorrhiua), 

83. 
Apogonia, 18. 
apterus (Lethrus), 19. 
arator { Geotrupcs), 294. 



argentifer (Pogonopus), 

117. 
argentifera {Anojjlo- 

cheila), 117. 
argillaceus (Oreoderus), 

224. 
argillaceus { Valgus), 224. 
aspera {Glycyphana), 

125. 
asaamica {Eucetonia), 

134. 
Atcenia, 41. 
atkinsoni {Eupatoi-us), 

268. 
atlas (Cbalcosoma), 15, 

17, 266. 
atlas {ScarabcBus), 265, 

266. 
atomaria {Cetonia), 154. 
atrocoerulea {Anatona), 

144. 
atromaculata { Cetonia), 

110. 
auriclialcea {Cetonia), 

143. 
aurichalcea (Protatia), 

143. 
auripes {Cetonia), 141. 
auripes (Protietia), 141. 
auritus (Cephalocosmus) 

(Mycteristes). 39. 
aurocincta (Grlvcvphana), 

122. 
auronotata (Cliuteria), 

179. 
auronotata {Gymnctis), 

179. 
australicus {Xylotrupes), 

262. 

bagdadensis (^thiessa), 
136. 



316 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



baiigaloreiisis (Sj)ilo- 

phoriis), 202. 
bai'iuanica (Hetero- 

rrhina), 101. 
healicB (Ceto7iia). 168. 
belli (Clinteria). 180. 
bengalense (Peutodon), 

304. 
bengalensis {Cetoina), 91. 
bengalensis (Hetero- 

rrkitia), 91. 
bensoni (Cetonia), 132. 
bensoni (Prof<efia), 132. 
bhutanus (Oreoderus), 

22.5. 
biarqeii tat a ( G lycipha no), 

121. 
bicolor (Callinomes), 215. 
hicolur (CcenocJiilus), 215. 
bicolor {Macroma), 219. 
bicornis (Cetonia), 71. 
bidens (Dipelicus), 313. 
bideiitipes (Prota'tia), 

153. 
bimacnia (Cetonia), 75. 
bimacula (Diceros), 75. 
bimacula ( Glycyphana), 

124. 
bimaculaia {Gnaikocera), 

76. 
binghami (Ligrir/nct), 80. 
binghami (Prottetia), 156. 
binodulum (Alissono- 

tum), 301. 
binodulus {Pkileuriis}, 

801. 
Innolaia {Cetonia), 123. 
binotata (Gljcjphana), 

123. 
biplagiata(Glycosia), 130. 
birniauicus (Eupatorus), 

270. 
bispinifrons (Pentodon), 

303. 
bivittata (Gametis), 166. 
Blabepborus, 286. 
bohemani {Anfhraco- 

phora), 112. 
Bolboceras, 3. 
Bombodes, 41. 
bovilli (Palmerstonia), 

310. 
bou-riin/i (Glgcgphana), 

120." 
brevipeiinis (Oreoderus). 

226. 
bronchus (Trichogoni- 

pbus), 281. 
bnanieoanea {Aiioph- 

cheila), 1.58. 
brunneus (Coenocliilus), 

208. 



bufo (Anthracophora), 

112. 
bufo (Macronota), 54. 



caliginosa (Clinteria), 

188. 
Callinoujes, 30, 215. 
Camelonotus, 310. 
campbelli (Ccenochiliis), 

212. 
cantator (Dipelicus), 313. 
cantori (Dipelicus), 310. 
cantori {JJynastes). 268. 
cantori {Eupatorus), 268. 
cantori (Rhomborrhina), 

103. 
caprcolus (GoHaihopsis), 

206. 
carbonarius (Dasyval- 

gus), 239. 
cariana (Cetonia), 161. 
cariana (Prota;tia), 161. 
cariana (Ehomborrhina), 

83. 
Carolina, 41. 
castanoptera (Anatoua), 

116. 
castanoptcriis (Anoplo- 

chilus), 116. 
catena (Glycvphana), 

122. 
Catbarsius, 19. 
caudata (Protivtia), 147. 
cancasns (Geotrupcs), 

266. 
Centrognathu!^, 201. 
Cephalocosmus, 36. 
ccrvus ( Go/iathopsis), 206. 
Cetonia, 9, 28, 30, 132, 

136. 
Cetoniides, 108. 
Cetoniina, 32. 

CETONIINiE, 24. 

Cetoniini, 32. 

ceylanica (Poiosia), 
141. 

ceylmieni'is (Anthraco- 
phora), 110. 

ceylonicus (Tbauiuasto- 
peus), 196. 

Chietopisthes, 21. 

Clialcosonia, 265. 

Charitovalgus. 17, 27, 
246. 

Cheironitis, 5. 

chiklreni (Diceros), 74. 

childrcni (Dgnastes), 268. 

childreni (Heterorrhina), 
74. 

Cbiloloba, 171. 

ckinensis (Agesfrata). 193. 



chinensis (Cetonia), 192. 
chinensis (Eophileurus), 

292. 
chinensis (Phileurus), 

292. 
chinensis (Trionychus), 

292. 
chiron (Scarahaus), 266. 
chloronota (Clinteria), 

183. 
cinctella (Cetonia), 175. 
cinctella (Oxythyrea), 

175. 
cinerea (Protsetia), 149. 
einerea (Pseudaplasta), 

136, 149. 
cingalensis(Eophileurus), 

290. 
cingalensis (Macroma), 

218. 
Cirrhospila, 40. 
Clerota, (5i). 
Clinteria. 28, 176. 
Clitopa. 3. 
Clyster, 293. 
Ccenochilus, 4, 206. 
coenosa (Anoj)locheila), 

158. 
coenosa (Protsetia), 158. 
coerulea (Cetonia), 189, 

190. 
ca?rulea (Clinteria), 190. 
coerulea (Gymnetis), 190. 
coerulea, var. meqaspilota 

(Cetonia), 189. 
cognata (JTacronia), 217. 
Coilodera, 41. 
confinis (Cetonia), 184. 
confinis (Gymnetis), 184. 
confusa (Cetonia), 161. 
confusa (Heterorrhina), 

75. 
confusa (Protajtia), 161. 
Copris, 13, 19. 
cornutus (Pacbypus), 3. 
coronatus (Dicliodontus), 

285. 
Coryphocera, 24, 90. 
Coryphoderus, 21. 
cosfipen nis ( Gnorimus), 

254. 
costipenuis (Tricbius), 

254. 
co.valis (Coryphocera), 93. 
crassuiu (Alissonotum), 

302. 
Crator, 309. 
Cremastochilina, 198. 
cretosa (Cetonia), 201. 
cretosus (Spilopborus), 

31, 201. 
crinita (Cetonia), 174. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



317 



crinita {Epicomctis), 

174. 
crucicolHs (Macronota), 

27, 55. 
crucicoUis ( T<Bmodera),55. 
crucifera (Anthraco- 

pbora), 110. 
crucifera (Cetonia), 110, 
cruentus {ScarahcBus), 

1G4. 
Cryptodus, 4. 
cimiculus (Podalgus), 

309. 
cuprea {Cetonia), 93, 139. 
cuprea (Prottetia), 30, 

139. 
cupripes (Cetonia), 136, 

150. 
cupripes (Protajtia), 150. 
curtipennis (Phileurus), 

295. 
curtipes (Ooenocbilus), 

213. 
cuvera (Diceros), 75. 
cuvera (BicJ/eros), 75. 
Cyraophorus, 203. 
Cyphonocephalus, 68. 

d(BcIaliis ( Gcot riipes) , 

311. 
dcedalus {Horonotiis), 

311. 
dcsdalus {Scaralxsiis), 

310,311. 
dalman (Cetonia), 160. 
dalmauni (Antliraco- 

phora), 112. 
dalmanni (Cetonia), 112. 
Dasyvalgus, 233. 
decatenatus (Eophileu- 

rus), 291. 
decora (Clintcria), 187. 
dclesserti (Goliathus), 107. 
delesserti (Trigono- 

phorus), 107. 
deprssa (Macronota), 46. 
desertorum (Oryctes), 

276. 
despectus (Goliathopsis), 

206. 
despectus (Pilinurgus), 

206. 
detractus (Phileurus), 

299. 
diadema (Scarabcsus), 

311. 
diardi (Macronota), 43. 
diardi (Mystroceros), 24, 

72. 
Diceros, 28, 71. 
Dicheros, 71. 



Dichodontus, 284. 
Dicranocpphalus, 32, 33. 
dijformis (Cetonia), 144. 
dioiiysius (Ori/ctes), 307. 
dionysius (Phyllo- 

gnathus), 307. 
dionysius (Scarabcsus), 

307. 
Dipeliciis, 13, 310. 
Diphi/l'ioinorplia, 84. 
discolor (Trichius), 251. 
dispar (Heterorrhiua), 

27, 92. 

distincta (Ehomborrhina), 

82. 
distincta (Torynorrliina), 

28, 82. 

dives (Diceros), 72. 
dives (Heterorrhiua), 24, 

72. 
dives (Macronota), 44. 
dives (Bhomborrhina), 

86. 
dohrni (Cetonia), 145. 
dobrni (Dasyvalgus), 

235. 
dombrowskii (Tricbius), 

254. 
domiuus (Heliocopris), 

19. 
dorscdis ( Gnathocera) , 

91. 
ducalis (Clinteria), 180. 
Dynastin.e, 256. 

ehena (Lomaptcra), 195. 

elegans (Cetonia), 93. 

elegans (Heterorrbina), 
93, 96. 

elongatuni(Alissonotum), 
299. 

Eopbileurus, 287. 

Epicometis, 173. 

Eucefonia, 132, 136. 

Eucbirus, 16. 

Eucbloropus, 89. 

Eumimela, 113. 

Eumimimetica, 136. 

Eupatorus, 268. 

Euryomia, 120. 

euryrrhina (Hetero- 
rrhiua), 80. 

eurj-rrbina (Ingrisma), 
80. 

eximius ( Callicnemis), 
311. 

fairinairei ( Callinomes), 

215. 
falcifer (Dicaulocepba- 

lus), 15. 



fasciatus (Tricbius), 249. 

fese (Trigonopborus), 
106. 

feralis (Cetouia), 135. 
/estiva (Cetonia), 126. 

festivus (Tricbius), 2.52. 
fictilis (Cetonia). I.'i4. 
flam mea ( Rhomborrh ina ), 

83. 
flavofasciata (Carolina), 

5i. 

flayofasciata(Macrouota), 
51. 

flavoguttata (Anatona), 
114. 

flavomaculata (Cirrho- 
sjiila), 40. 

flavomaculata (Macro- 
nota), .50. 

flavopicta (Clinteria), 
187. 

flavosparsa (Macronota), 
55, 56. 

florentina (Cetonia), 139. 

foveiceps (Trigono- 
pborus), 107. 

fiilgidissima ( Corypho- 
cera), 94. 

fulvieauda (Dasyvalgus), 
242. 

fusca (Cetonia), 154. 

fusca (Protatia), 28, 31, 
154. 



gagates (Agestrata), 193. 
Gametis, 163. 
Geotrupes, 12, 19. 
germari (Cetonia), 150. 
gestroi (Cepbalocosmus) 

(Mycteristes), 38. 
gestroi (Rbomborrbina), 

86. 
gideon (Scarabcsus), 262. 
gideon (Xylotrupes), 15, 

262. 
glaberriiaa(Ano77ialoeera), 

87. 
glaberrima (Rbombo- 
rrbina), 87. 
gloriosa (Macro?na), 221. 
Glycosia, 129. 
Glycypbana, 27, 120. 
Gnorimidia, 40. 
Goliatbides, 33. 
Goliatbopsis, 205. 
goryi (Cetonia), 168. 
gracilicornis (Eupatorus), 

270. 
gracilipes (Cceuocbilus), 

208. 



318 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



gracilipes (Trigono- 

phorus), 1U4. 
gracilis (Diceros), 70. 
gracilis (Heterorrhina), 

•»6. 
gracilis (Macrouota), 05. 
granti (Cbiasognatbus), 

13. 
gravis (OiUhophagus), 

18. 
gravis (Oreoderus), 228. 
griseus (Podovalgus), 

23U. 
grypus (Geotrupes), 275. 
grypus (Ori/ctes), 275. 
giitiifera (Cefonia), 176. 
Gymnopbana, 118. 



halyi (Macrouota), 47. 
hamiltoni (Platyno- 

cepbalus), 77. 
liardwickei (Dgnastes), 

268. 
bardwickei (Eiipatorus), 

268. 
hardwicJcei ( Trigono- 

phorus), 103. 
haworthii {Oryctes), 

307. 
bearseiana (Clinteria), 

188. 
Heliocopris, 13, 19. 
heros (Goliathus), 85. 
beros (EhomboxTbiiia), 

85. 
hespcrus (Dynasfes), 206. 
Heteroehtbes, 2. 
Heteronycbus, 13, 294. 
IleterorrbiiKi, 24, 27, 

90. 
Heterorrbiuides, 67. 
h ierog/ypkica ( Cetonia), 

159. 
bieroglypbica (Prohetia), 

159. 
hilaris {Clinteria), 187. 
hilaris {Tinclirea), 187. 
hircus (Dipelicus), 311. 
hircus {Ge(itrnpcs), 311. 
hircus {(Jronottis), 311. 
hircus (Scarnficeus), 311. 
birtellus (Scarabseus), 

173. 
hirtivcntris{Coryphocera), 

87. 
bispanus (Copris), 15. 
histrio (Cetonia), 166. 
hisfrio {Gametic), 166. 
boft'iueisteri (Clinteria), 

185. 



bookeri (Trigonopborus), 

98, 104. 
hope {G)ia(hocera), 91. 
hopei {Heterorrhina), 91. 
Horonotus, 310. 
hor»fieldi {Cetonia), 121. 
borsfieldi (Glj'cypbaiia), 

121. 
bumeralis (Oreoderus), 

228. 
humilis {Oreoderus), 

232. 
humilis (Tceiiiodera), 55. 
biimilis (Xenoreo- 

derus). 232. 
hyacinth ina {Bhomho- 

rrhina), 83. 
byacintbina (Toryno- 

rrhina), 83. 
by.strix (Dasy valgus), 

241. 



Idiovalgus, 2,30. 
idolica (Macronota). 60. 
idolica {Tceniodera). (50. 
ignipes {Cetonia), 141. 
impavida {Potosia), 145. 
impavida (Protsetia), 

145. 
imperialis (Cetonia), 

177. 
imperialis (Clinteria), 29, 

177. 
iinpressicoUe (Alissono- 

tum), 301. 
inanis (Cetonia), 151. 
inanis (Protatia), 151. 
vianis, var. cuprea (Ce- 
tonia), 151. 
incerta (Clinteria), 177. 
incisa (Toryiiorrbina), 

83. 
indica (Macronota), 59. 
ijidira { Taniodcra), 59. 
iiifantulus (Crafor), 309. 
infant ulu3 (Podalgus), 

309. 
Ingrisma, 80. 
insignis (Macroma), 

220. 
insularis (Dasyvalgus), 

240. 
irrorata (Cetonia), 157. 
l9cbiopso])ba, 14. 
itys (Scarahaeiis), 293. 
Ixorida, 41. 



jansoni (Macronota), 64. 
jansoni (Platysodes), 200. 



jansoni (Tricbius), 250. 
javanica (Macroma), 218. 
Jucunda (Cetonia), 1G8. 
jucunda (Coryphe), 99. 
jucunda (Oxycetonia), 

168. 
Jumuos, 78. 



kanarensis (Dasyvalgus), 

245. 
kanarensis (Microrj'ctes), 

305. 
kbasiana (Mycterietes), 

36. 
khasiana (Prigenia), 36. 
kirhyi (Bynastes), 266. 
klugi (Cetonia), 187. 
klu'gi (Clinteria), 187. 
korini (Cetonia), 170. 



Lacbnosterna, 18. 
lacordairei (Dipelicus), 

312. 
lacordairei (Horonotiis), 

312. 
Iceta (Cetonia), 89. 
Iceta (Gnathocera), 89. 
Iceta (Heterorrhina), 89. 
Isetus (Eucbloropus), 27, 

89. 
liEviventris (Cetonia), 

i:i4. 

leonardi (Heterorrhina), 

98. 
lepida (Cetonia), 170. 
Letbrus, 2. 
Leucocelis, 175. 
leveillei (Ooenochilus), 

214. 
leveillei (Pilinurgus), 

207, 214. 
lignea (Cetonia), 114. 
lioderes (Heteronycbus). 

295. 
Lomapterides, 191. 
longipennis (Protjetia), 

146. 
longulus (Cbaritovalgus), 

247. 
Ivngulus { Valgus), 247. 
louisa (Glycosia), 131. 
luctifera (Grlycosia), 131. 
luctifera (Glycypbana), 

131. 
luctucsa (Cetonia), 164. 
luctuosa (Lomaptera), 

194. 
luctuosus (Dasyvalgus), 

236. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



319 



luctuosHS ( Valgus), 236. 
lunicoUis (Ti-icbogom- 

pluis), 281. 
luzonica {Agestrata), 192. 



tnaclmy {Gnatliocera), 

72. 
Macroum, 31, 217. 
Macronota, 27, 29, 41. 
Macronotides, 35. 
maculata (Cetonia), 143. 
onaculatus (Cremastochi- 

lus), 201, 202. 
inaculatus (Spilophorus), 

201, 202. 
onacuUcoUis (Macroma), 

218. 
maculipennis (Oreode- 

rus), 227. 
onadurensis ( Taniodera), 

68. 
magnifica {Eucetffiiia), 

158. 
malabariensis ( Carnlina), 

52. 
malabariensis (Maci'o- 

nota), 52. 
malayana {Glycgphana), 

128. 
Tnalayensis {^Cetonia), 

128. 
malayensis (Clinteria), 

180, 182. 
malaTensis(Glycvphana), 

128. 
mandarina ( Cetonia), 

154. 
onandarinca (Protmtia), 

154. 
marginicollis ( C'e^'o;; z'a) , 

121. 
mmrmorata {Cetonia), 

155. 
marmorea {Cetonia), 

155. 
martabani {ScarabcBus), 

282. 
martabani (Trichogom- 

pbus), 282, 283. 
niaura (Cetonia), 206. 
mearesl {Anomalocera), 

87. 
mearesl {Biphyllo- 

morpha), 88. 
mearesl {Macronota), 44. 
mearesi (Ehomborrbina), 

88. 
Mecinonota, 41. 
melanaria {Gnatliocera), 

91. 



melanopus (Macroma), 

219. 
Melinospila, 41. 
mcllyi { Goliatktis), 86. 
mclli/i {Eliomhorrhina), 

82. 
mellji (Rhomborrbioa), 

86. 
Melolontba, 9. 
onetalUca. {Cetonia), 139. 
micans {Gnathocei-a), 95. 
micans (Heterorrhina), 

95. 
microcepbala (Rliombor- 

rbina;, 87. 
micropbyllus (Mycter- 

istes), 37, 38. 
Microryctes, 304. 
uiidas (Heliocopris), 19. 
militaris (Dasyvalgus), 

237. 
milo (Geotrupes), 281. 
miniiiiiis (Dasyvalgus), 

244. 
mitrata {Heterorrhina), 

72. 
m niszech i {Xylotrupcs), 

262. 
modesta {Gymnetis), 187. 
moewisii { Cephalocosmus), 

37. 
mohnikei {Lomaptera), 

194. 
niomeitensis (Oreoderus), 

224. 
niongol(Tricbogompbus), 

283. 
hionodon {Heieronyclt us), 

305. 
monodon (Microryctes), 

305. 
montana {Cetcmia), 142. 
moutana (Protsetia), 142. 
■liiouhoti {Ixorida), 62. 
mouboti (Macronota), 

62. 
mutahilis {Cetonia), 91, 

99. 
mutabilis(Heterorrbina), 

27, 91. 
Mycteristes, 36. 
myrmecopbilus (Ontbo- 

pbagus), 21. 
Mystroccros, 71. 

nagpiirensis (Glyeosia), 

130. 
Narycius, 68, 70, 77. 
nasicornis (Oryctes), 275. 
iiasicomis {Scarabcsus), 

273, 275. 



nasutus (Dipelicus), 310. 
neglecta {Cetonia), 160. 
neglecta (Protsetia), 160. 
Keodijielicus, 310. 
uepalensis (Glycypbana), 

125. 
nepaleusis (Trigonopbo- 

rus), 103. 
nicobarica (G-lycypbana), 

124. 
nicobarica {Lomaptera), 

196. 
nicobaricus (Tbauuias- 

topeus), 196. 
iiigricollis {Atania), 51. 
nigricoUis (Macronota), 

51. 
niqripennis {Macroma), 

"218,219. 
nigrita {Cetonia), 193, 

195. 
nigritarsis {Cetonia), 90, 

99. 
nigritarsis { Gnatliocera), 

*99. 
nigritarsis (Heteror- 

rbina), 28, 99. 
nilgirensis (Eopbileurus), 

291. 
nitidus (Coenoebilus), 

210. 
nudicauda (Oryctes), 277. 



oatesi {Cetonia), 119. 
oatesi (Gymnopbana), 

119. 
obertburi (Clinteria), 

181. 
obertburi (Macronota), 

27, 55. 
obertlmri {Taniodera), 

55. 
obesa (Heterorrbina), 

97. 
oblongus {ScarabcBUs), 

192. 
obscura {Cetonia), 168. 
occidentalis (Xenoreo- 

derus), 233. 
Ocbodceus, 3, 13. 
ocbraceipes (Macronota), 

58. 
olivacea {Gnatliocera), 

95. 
olivacea {Heterorrhina), 

95. 
olivaceus (Cypbonoce- 

pbalus), 69. 
olivaceus {Narycius), 69. 
Onitis, 15. 



320 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



Onthophagus, 18. 
opaca (Protsetia), 31. 
opalina {Cetonia), 84. 
opalina (Torjnorrhina), 

84. 
opalinus {Goliatkus), 84. 
opalus (Narycius), 69, 

71. 
Oreoderus, 223. 
orichalcea (Agestrata), 

l'J2. 
orichalceus (Scarabaus), 

192. 
orientals ( Cetonia), 1 43. 
orientalis (Protsetia), 

143. 
ornatus (Trichius), 253. 
oromcdon {Scar abatis), 

262. 
Oryctes, 273. 
Oryx, 306. 
ovicollis (Dasy valgus), 

242. 
Oxycetonia, 163. 
Oxyperas, 136. 
Oxythyrea, 30, 175. 
Oxytliyreides, 173. 



Pacliyoryctes, 272. 
Pachypus, 3, 23. 
Palmerstonia. 310. 
pantherina (Clinteria), 

182. 
Parapilinurgiis, 204. 
Parastasia, 17. 
parryi (Anomalocera), 

88. 
parvus (Trigonojihorus), 

104. 
Passalus, 2. 
pcnicillata (Coilodera), 

44. 
penicillata (Macronota), 

44. 
penicillatus(Dasy valgus), 

243. 
penicillatus ( Valgiis), 

243. 
Pentodon, 302. 
peregrin a ( Cetonia), 

144. 
peregriua (Protsetia), 

144. 
perforatus (Eophileurus), 

289. 
pcrpkxa {Cetonia), 172. 
perraudieri (Macronota), 

61. 
perraudieri { Toeniodera), 

f.l. 



Pheidologiton, 21. 
phidias {Chalcosoma), 

26i). 
phorbanta {Scarabaus), 

262, 
Pbyllognathus, 300. 
piceum (Alissonotum), 

299. 
pieeus {Geotrupes), 298, 

299. 
pieeus {Hetero7iychus), 

299. 
pieeus {ScarabcBus), 299. 
picius {Acanthurus), 246. 
pictu.s (Charitovalgus), 

24(5. 
pictus { Valgus), 246. 
pilicollis {Anatona), 114. 
pinguis (Blabephorus), 

286. 
pjperina {Protsetia), 161. 
plagiata {Glycosia), 129. 
plcir/osus { SpilopJiorus), 

201. 
planata (Heterorrhiua), 

94. 
planatus (Eophileurus), 

288. 
jAanatus {Geotrupes), 

287, 288, 
planicollis (Idiovalgus), 

231. 
planicollis {Oreoderus), 

231. 
Platynocephalus, 77. 
platvpterus (Eophileu- 
rus), 289. 
])lati/pterus {Geotrupes), 

289. 
platt/rrhinus { Coenochi- 

lus), 212. 
Platybodes. 199. 
Pleocoma, 3, 23. 
Plcuronota, 41. 
Podalgus, 309. 
podicalis (Dasyvalgus), 

240. 
podicalis { Valgus), 240. 
Podovalgus. 229. 
Pogonopus, 116. 
poropt/gu» { Heteronychus), 

295. 
porphyreticii (Hetero- 
rrhiua), 100. 
porteri (Golofa). 16. 
potcli {Trionychus), 292. 
prasina {Cetonia), 168. 
pratensi.> (F"orinica), 30. 
prctiosa {Cetonia), 141. 
pretiosa (Prota^tia), 141. 
Prigenia, 36. 



propygidialis {Spilo- 

valgus), 240. 
Prota^tia, 28, 30, 136. 
prunina (Protatia), 147. 
Pseudanatona. 136. 
Pseudanthracophora, 136. 
Pseudaplasta, 136. 
Pseudospilophorus, 201 . 
Ptychophorug, 203. 
ptignator {TJiaumasio- 

patis), 197. 
pugnator (Thaumasto- 

peus), 197. 
pulchella (Macronota), 

63. 
pulchellus (Cymopho- 

rus), 203. 
pulcber (Valgus), 246. 
pulla {Cetonia), 195. 
pull us (Thauuiastopeus), 

195. 
pumila {Cetonia), 191. 
pumila (Clinteria), 183, 

191. 
punctatissima (Hetero- 

rrhina), 28, 99. 
punctatus {Geotrupes), 

302. 
puncticollis {Proiwtia), 

160. 
piurpurascens { Cetonia), 

134. 
pusillus (Calliuomes), 

216. 
pusillus (Pogonopus), 

117. 
]}ygialis {Eumimela), 116. 
pygidialis (Ccenochilus), 

211. 
pyrropvgus (Dasyvalgus), 

235." 

quadriliueata (Macro- 
nota), 61. 

qtia drist riqata { Tcsnio- 
dcra), 62. 

quadrivittata (Macro- 
nota), 58. 

quatuordecirn-maculata 
{Cetonia), 189. 

quatuordecirn-maculata 
(Clinteria), 189. 

rana (Protatia), 153. 

rangiler (Onthophagus), 
15. 

rangunense (Alisso- 
notum). 300. 

rasuta (Ingrisma), 80. 

reductus {Xylotrupes), 
307. 



ALPHA.BETICAL INDEX. 



321 



rcgalis (Progastor), 152. 
regalis (Protsetia), 15"2. 
regalis, var. horni (Pro- 

taetia), 152. 
regia {Ccfonin), 46. 
regia (Macronota), 46. 
retusus (Clyster), 293. 
rhinoceros (Oryctes), 

48, 278. 
rhinoceros {Scarabaits), 

278. 
rhinophyllus (Goliathus), 

36. 
rhodoclendri (Oetonia), 

134. 
Rhomborrhina, 84. 
rohustus (Heteronychus), 

296. 
roepstorfB (Diceros), 74. 
roylei ( Cctonia), 79. 
roylei (Juinnos), 79. 
ruckeri (Jumiios), 27, 

79. 
rufa (Formica), 30. 
rufipeiinis (Clinteria), 

186. 
rufocuprea (Cctonia), 

"150. 
rufocuprea {Pseiulana- 

tona), 150. 
rufulus (Oreoderus), 225. 
rugipcnnis {Mthiessa), 

136. 
rusticola (Anthraco- 

phora), 109. 
rutilans (Cetouia), 133. 
rutilaiis (Glgcgphand), 

133. 



saccbari (Heteronychus), 

297. 
samson (Agesfrafa), 193. 
sanguinalis {Cetonia), 

168. 
sanguinolentus ( Cetonia) 

(Scarabmis), 164. 
sannio (Macronota), .57. 
xannio (TcBniodera), 57. 
saundersi (Cetonia), 162. 
saundersi (^Trigono- 

pborus), 103. 

SCARABiEID^, 24. 

Scarabseus, 18. 
scintillans (Trigono- 

phorus), 105. 
Scolia, 20. 
aculpticollis (Macronota), 

58. 
seneqalomis (Cremasto- 

chilus), 9.12. 



Serica, 13, 18. 
sericea (Macronota), 58. 
sex-maculata (Macro- 
nota), 47. 
sex ■ maculata (Pleuro- 

nota), 47. 
siamensis (Anthraco- 

phora), 110. 
silenus (Q-eotrupes), 306, 

307. 
simile (Alissonotuui), 

300. 
similliiiius (Taumas- 

topeus), 195. 
sinaica (Oryctes), 276. 
sinuatocollis (Hetero- 

rrbina), 96. 
smaragdina (Coryplw- 

cera), 96. 
smaragdulus ( Gyphono- 

cephalus), 69. 
nocrates (Xylotrupes), 

262. 
solidipes (Xi/lotrupes), 

311. 
solidus (Coenocliilus\ 

209. 
solidus (Pachyoryctes), 

272. 
speciosissima (Cetonia), 

136. 
spectabilis (Cetonia), 136. 
specidifera (Cetonia), 

143." 
Spilopboriis, 31, 201. 
spilota (Cetonia), 184. 
spilota (Clinteria), 184. 
.spuria (Clinteria), 184. 
squalida (Epiconietis), 

174. 
itqualidus ( ScarahcBm), 

174. 
squaniipennis (Prottetia), 

158. 
squamosa (Cetonia), 136. 
Stcdagmopygus, 170. 
Stalaginosoma, 170. 
sticticus (Scarabseus), 

175. 
stictopygus (Dasyvalgus), 

237. 
stictopygus ( Valgus), 

237. ■ 
stillata (.-inalona), 114. 
stillata (Cetonia), 114. 
striata (Lomaptera), 

197. 
striatipennis (Cetonia), 

136. 
striat ipenn is (Pscudan- 

thracophora), \b1. 



suhcincta ( Glycyphana ) , 

sublsBvis (Heteronychus), 

296. 
suhlcBi'is (Phileurus), 

296. 
suhopaca (Anomalocera), 

88. 
subopaca (Rhoiubn- 

rrhina), 88. 
superba (Macronia), 

221. 
swaiiisoni (Cetonia), 126. 
swainsoni (Glycyphana), 

126. 
sylhctica ( Hefcrarrhiaa), 

89. 
Syntelia, 23. 



Tceniodera, 41. 
taprobanicus (Coeno- 

chihis), 213. 
terrosa, (Cetonia), 136. 
terrosa (Cetonia), 1.57. 
terrosa (Eumimimetica), 

1.57. 
terrosa (Protaetia), 167. 
terrosus (Anoplochilus), 

157. 
Tctragonus, 192. 
tetraspilota (Cetonia), 

178. 
tetraspilota (Clinteria), 

178. 
Thamnasfopcos, 194. 
Tkaumastopceus, 194. 
Thaumastopeus, 194. 
thehanus (Scarabmis), 

164. 
tibialis (Heterorrhina), 

98. 
Tinclirea, 176. 
tonkinens ( Trichogoni- 

phus), 282. 
torquata (Cctonia), 124. 
torquata (Glycyphana), 

123, 124. ' 
Torynorrhina, 81. 
toyse (Gnorimidia), 40. 
trabecula (Ccenochilus), 

212. 
Triehiini, 249. 
Trichius, 249. 
Trichogomphus, 281. 
Triclirea, 176. 
tricolor (Cetonia), 129. 
tricolor (Glycosia), 29, 

129. 
tricolor ( Glycyphana), 

129. 



322 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



tricolorata (Clinteria), 

177. 
Trigonophorus, 27, 28, 

102. 
trisinuatus (Dasyvalgus), 

241. 
trisinuatus ( Valgus), 

241. 
tristis (Dasyvalgus), 

238. 
tristis ( Valgus), 238. 
Tropin ota, 173. 
Trox, 13. 
truncata (Clinteria). 

179. 
1 2-guttata ( Gymnetis). 

187. 
typhffius (Geotrupes), 

15. 



ultramarinea (Bhombo- 

rrhina), 82. 
undatus (Cymophorus), 

203. 
undulata ( Clinteria), 

177. 
ursus {Bombodes), 48. 
ursus (Macronota), 29, 

48. 



Valgini, 222. 

Valgus, 27. 

valida {Clinteria), 179. 

variegata {Cetoiiia), 164, 

175. 
Tariegatus (Parapili- 

nurgiis), 204. 
verloreni (Platysodes), 

199. 
versicolor (Cefonia), 164. 
versicolor (Oxycetonia), 

164. 
Ve)-tinnnus, .309. 
vethi (Valgus), 233. 
viduatus (Dasyvalgus), 

236. 
virgata 

62. 
virgata 

62. 
viridianea {Lmnaptera), 

195. 
viridiobscura {Cetmi ia) , 

168. 
viridipes ( Gymnetis), 

184. 
viridis ( Gnorimus), 254. 
vittigera (Olerota), 66. 
vittigera {Macronota). 

66. 



(Macronota), 
( Taniodera), 



voUenhovii (Oallinomes), 

215. 
vulgaris (Melolontha), 



wallichi (Dicranoce- 

phalus), 34. 
waterhousei ( Macronota), 

56. 
waterhousei (Oreoderus), 

226. 
wellech ( Goliathus), 34. 
westwoodi {Bomhodes), 

49. 
westwoodi (Macronota), 

29, 49. 
u'hitehousei {Cetonia), 

148, 
whitehousei (Protsetia), 

148. 
withilli {Agestrata), 193. 
withilli {Cetonia), 162. 

aa7i thorrhin a { Campsi- 

iira), 219. 
xanthorrhina(Macroma), 

219. 
xantiis {ScarabcBus), 311. 
Xenoreoderus, 232. 
Xylotrupes, 262. 



PRINTED nv TAVI.OR AND FRANCIS. RKO I.ION COURT. FLEET 9TRKET. 



PLATE 1. 

Fig. 1. Rhomborrhiiia heros, G. & P., $ , p. 85. 
2. Hderorrhina tiif/ritarsis, Hope, J , p. 99. 

4. Macronota quadrivittata, Schauta, J , p. 58. 

5. » ,. $. 

6. Jumnos ruckeri, Saund., J , p. 79. 

7. Protcetia aurichalcefi , F., p. 143. 

8. Clinteria coeruleo, Ilerbst, p. 190. 

9. Narycius opalus, Dup., Si P- 71. 

10. Diceros dives, Westw., 2 » P- '^-• 

11. „ „ cJ. 



ScARABy^iDyC, Part I. 



Plate I. 











^^ 







10 



11 



Horace Knight, del. 



Andre & Sleigh, Ltd. 



PLATE II. 

Fig. 1. Macroma xanthorrhina, Hope, p. 219. 

2. Ooliaihopsis despectxis, Westw., S -, P- 206. 

3. „ „ $. 

4. Chiloloba acuta, Wied., p. 172. 

5. Cymopliorus pulchelJus, sp. n , p. 203. 

6. Dasyvalgus dohrni, Kolbe, cf . P- 235. 

7. „ „ ?. 

8. Trichina discolor, Jordan, S , p. 251. 

10. C?^rtrt<ov«Z[/MSptc<M*, Hope, c? , p. 246. 

11. „ „ 2. 

12. Chalcosoma atlas, L., (^ , p. 266. 



ScARABy€iDy€, Part I. 



Plate II. 




Horace Knight, del. 



Andre & Sleigh, Ltd. 







'■>.^'i-Z:^: 



• '-.■■■■.: >-,*;:i- 














■?:-./ 


"C;-^^- .'.- 






"., ■■--"' 


■^i-V'"- 






:i^' 


^^.'■/". 






.-V >-'.v* '-^ 



:2W-:^ 








:,x.^4>,::